Sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome among Hausa ethnic group in Kano, Nigeria
Visceral adipose tissue is considered the most important anatomic site of adipose tissue aggregation and is considered the hall mark of metabolic syndrome (MetS) phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome among Hausa ethnic group in Kano, Nigeria. The study was a cross sectional study including 465 participants of Kano, with a mean age of 34.4 years and 32.0 years for males and females respectively. Systematic random sampling technique was employed for subject recruitment. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index BMI were obtained using standard protocol. Overnight fasting blood sample was obtained for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), uric acid and adiponectin estimation using standard laboratory protocols. Visceral adipose tissue was estimated using visceral adiposity index (VAI) and WC. It was observed that VAI, FBG, HDL and TC were significantly higher in females. There was no significant sex difference in WC, TG, and LDL, Serum adiponectin, uric acid, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, the serum uric acid and adiponectin levels did not show sexual dimorphism. Only some of the MetS parameters are sexually dimorphic. While VAI was higher in females, WC did not show sexual dimorphism.
Keywords: Biomarkers, metabolic syndrome indices, sexual dimorphism, visceral adiposity