Pharmacognostic, antioxidant and acute toxicity studies of Vitellaria paradoxa stem bark and root extracts
Most of biochemical reactions in the body generates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
which are involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related disorders like diabetes,
nephrotoxicity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, inflammation and neurological isorders. Antioxidants are used to protect the cells or tissues against potential attack by ROS. Most medicinal plants possess a rich source of antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids among others. These phytochemicals are currently pursued as an alternative and complimentary drug. The study was carried out to ROS. Most medicinal plants possess a rich source of antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids among others. These phytochemicals are currently pursued as an alternative and complimentary drug. The study was carried out to determine Pharmacognostic, antioxidant and acute toxicity of Vitellaria paradoxa root and stem bark. The Vitellaria paradoxa was extracted with water and methanol, screened for their phytochemical properties and antioxidant effects. Chemo-microscopical studies revealed the presence of cellulose cell wall, lignin, calcium oxalate crystals, tannins, starch and mucilage while calcium carbonate was absent in the stem bark but present in the root. The average moisture contents were 7.30% and 6.80% in stem bark and root respectively. The water and ethanol/alcohol extractives were 24.0% and 20.0% for stem while 25.50% and 19.0% for the root respectively. Alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenes, carbohydrate and phenols were detected in both aqueous and methanol extracts while anthraquinones was absent in all the extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the extract showed the following trend Ascorbic acid ˃ Stem bark extract˃ Root extract. Toxicity of the samples was expressed as LD50, it was found above 5000 mg/kg and did not cause mortality in all the tested rats. These results suggested that Vitellaria paradoxa root and stem bark have moderate antioxidant potentials. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of active antioxidant agents which can be used to treat various oxidative stress related diseases.