Acute lower respiratory tract infection is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in young children worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection during infancy and early childhood worldwide.
Respiratory syncytial virus belongs to the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae family of enveloped single stranded negative sense RNA viruses. The virus accounts for approximately 50% of all pneumonia and up to 90% of the reported cases of bronchiolitis in infancy. It is a common community–acquired respiratory pathogen without ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, age or geographic boundaries. Moreover, the epidemiological and ecological relationships between Human Respiratory syncytial virus, man and environment have aroused increasing interest in this viral, specie. The present review looks at the nature of this virus with the view to provide more information about its biology which may be useful to the present and future researchers.