Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Cybopogon citrates Extracts against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates
Dried leaf powder of Cybopogon citratus was extracted with distilled water, acetone and hexane using percolation method. The extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, reducing sugars, tannins and saponins using standard procedures. Inhibitory activities of the extracts were tested against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. using disc diffusion method and broth dilution techniques. The results of phytochemical screening have demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, reducing sugars, tannins and saponins in some or all of the extracts. Similarly, the results of antibacterial activity testing of the extracts at equal disc concentration of 30@g/disc showed that E. coli was sensitive to all extracts with inhibition zone diameters of 7mm, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. were sensitive to acetone extract of the plant with inhibition zone diameters of 7mm each while Salmonella spp. was sensitive to acetone and hexane extracts of the plant with inhibition zone diameters of 7mm and 8mm respectively. Salmonella spp. demonstrated MIC and MBC values of 1000@g/ml and 2000@g/ml respectively. These results suggest that C. citratus used in this study has the potential for the production of drugs against bacterial infections.
Keywords: Phytochemical properties, Antibacterial activity, Cybopogon citratus, Extracts, Bacterial isolates