Assessment of essential and non-essential metals in Ethiopian traditional fermented alcoholic beverages
Evaluation of the levels of essential and non-essential metal concentrations in Ethiopian traditional fermented alcoholic beverages (Tella, Tej, Birz, Korefe, Keribo and Borde) was conducted using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) after HNO3/H2O2 digestion process. A total of 10 bulk samples were collected randomly from vending houses at five different sub-cities of Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia (Lideta-Kolfe, Bole-Kirkose, Yeka-Gullele, Arada-Addis Ketema and Akaki-Kaliti-Lafto) and from five nearby towns (Sebeta, Dukem, Sululta, Sendafa, and Burayu) of Oromia Regional State. The considered metals include: Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn to ascertain their levels. With 88–96% recovery Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Mn were detected at varying concentrations in the beverages, while Co, Ni and Cr were below detection limits. All the beverages were rich in Ca, Mg and Zn. Among the trace metals found Zn was the first. The levels of the trace metals were generally low, and within statutory safe limits set by World Health Organization (WHO). Mineral concentrations were found to be significantly different among the beverages studied (p < 0.05). The levels of metals in the Ethiopian fermented beverages were found comparable with the reported ones.
KEY WORDS: Ethiopian beverages, Traditional beverages, Fermented beverages, Essential elements, Non-essential elements
Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2017, 31(1), 17-30.