Bioactivities of holmium(III) and gadolinium(III) complexes of thymoquinone

  • N. S. Awwad
  • H. A. Ibrahium
  • A. A. Shati
  • M. A. Alshehri
  • K. M. Al-Syaad
  • M. Y. Alfaifi
  • M. I. Mujallid
  • M. Z. Bani-Fwaz
  • H. S. M. Abd-Rabboh
  • Y. H. Ju
  • A. E. Fazary
Keywords: Thymoquinone, Holmium, Gadolinium, Bioactivities


Chemotherapeutic agents which are the main stay in cancer treatment are toxic with numerous contrary side effects. A number of chemical, physical, and computational techniques were applied to synthesize and elucidate the structural and functional characterization of the new designed bioligands and their metal complexes. Besides, several biological techniques for developing therapeutics and diagnostics agents of these new designed materials were used. The trivalent holmium(III) and gadolinium(III) metal complexes of thymoquinone (TQ) were synthesized. Toxicities and other bioactivites were undertaken with existing drug combinations and more effective tumor models will be established. The molecular structures of TQ-metal complexes were elucidated based on particular spectral approaches. The NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B Cells) luciferase, elastase release, superoxide anion (O2•−) generation, and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free-radical scavenging activities of TQ and its synthesized complexes were elucidated and discussed. The core research is to use coordination and organometallic chemistry to design new bioligands and binary, ternary, mixed ligand, multi metal multi ligand complexes pursing a bio target continuously with structure-activity relationships (SARS).


KEY WORDS: Thymoquinone, Holmium, Gadolinium, Bioactivities


Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2021, 35(1), 87-96.



Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1726-801X
print ISSN: 1011-3924