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Determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in water, sediment and soil using high performance liquid chromatography

Stella James
Estifanos Ele Yaya
Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi
Feleke Zewge


ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the extraction and determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from the soil, sediment, and water, and to investigate its stability in water using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The recoveries of the spiked compound from water and soil samples was found to be in the range of 80 to 100%. The yield of 2,4-D during acidification of the corresponding amine was 93.84-99.98%. A calibration curve for the method showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9996). The LOD was determined to be 0.45 µg/mL while the LOQ was 2 µg/mL. From the analysis of the samples, 2,4-D was not detected in sediment or soil samples from the Wafiko or Kontola sites (Ethiopia), respectively. The 2,4-D concentrations in soil samples from Bochessa, and water samples from Wafiko and Sher sites (Ethiopia) were high, ranging from 68.22 to 167.7 mg/L which exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulatory agency standards of 70 µg/L. A 45-day experiment on spiked water samples from Lake Koka (Ethiopia) demonstrated that the acidic form of 2,4-D is stable in water with 73.46 ± 2.00% recoveries. The developed method can be used to determine 2,4-D residues in soil, sediment, and water.

KEY WORDS: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, Lake Koka,  Sediment, Soil, Stability, Water


Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2023, 37(2), 251-263.