1. Manuscripts for publication must be in English language (UK). 
  2. Manuscripts should be typed on one side of an A4 paper, Arial font type, font size  12, double spacing, and two inches margins. 
  3. Manuscripts should not exceed 20 pages and they should be numbered  consecutively inclusive of references. 
  4. Manuscripts from authors should be in soft copy Word format sent in triplicate to the  Editor-in-Chief via email address jeditor@cbe.ac.tz
  5. Manuscripts should have a separate title page with the author’s names starting with  the first then the surname, followed by the latest academic/professional qualification  and any other significant credentials. In addition, provide information for author(s)  designation, institutional affiliation and the address and contact of corresponding  author. 

Title page shall contain the following: 

  1. i) Title of the article 
  2. ii) Name of the Author(s) 

iii) Position held e.g. Lecturer 

  1. iv) Affiliation (Department and Institution) 
  2. v) Postal Address and E-mail  
  3. vi) An abstract of a maximum not exceeding 300 words 

vii) Key Word (at most 5) 


Determinants of Demand and Supply 

Anthony K. Mwambenja, 

Senior Lecturer, 

Department of Business Administration, 

College of Business Education, 

  1. O. Box 1968, email amwambenja@gmail.com

Dar es Salaam.

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  1. Table, Maps and Diagrams 

-Italicize the titles for tables and figures  

-Numbered serially and consistently in roman numbers. 

-Titles of tables should be on top and those of figures should be below. ???? 

  1. Heading, and Subheadings within the Paper 

Headings should be in title case and bold, while subheadings should be in sentence  case.  

Numbers should be used to distinguish different parts of a manuscript at not more  than three levels. 

  1. Writing Numbers 

8.1 Numbers expressed in words 

Use figures to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10  provided they do not represent measurements and that are grouped for comparison with  numbers below 10. 


repeated the task three times;  

two words that mean …;  

Seven lists; nine etc. 

Numbers that begin a sentence, title, or text heading (whenever possible re-word the  sentence to avoid beginning with a number. 


Ten participants answered the questionnaire 

Four patients improved and other 20 did not improve. 

Six percent of the group failed NOT 6% of the group failed.

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Common fractions 

Examples: one fifth of class, reduced by two thirds. 

8.2 Numbers Expressed in figures 

All numbers 10 and above except Numbers preceding a measurement  Examples: 12 cm wide, the remaining 10%, 4.78 liters, 105 stimulus words 

8.3 All numbers below 10 that are grouped for comparison with numbers 10 and above 


of 21 analyses 

of the forty stimulus words 

The 6th group… 12 groups 

8.4 Numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement 


a 5-mg dose,  

with 10.54 cm piece of clothe  

8.5 Numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, fractional or decimal  quantities, percentages, ratios, percentiles and quartiles 


Multiplied by 5 

times as many 

0.33 of the  

more than 5% of the sample 

a ratio of 16:1 

the 1st quartile 

the 5th quartile

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8.6 Numbers that represent time, dates, ages, samples, subsample, or populations  sample, specific number of subjects or participants in an experiment; scores and points  on a scale; exact sums of money; numerals as numerals  

8.6.1 Time of a Day 

8:00 A.M. (or) a.m. (or) eight o'clock in the morning 

4:30 P.M. (or) p.m. (or) half-past four in the afternoon 

1 hr. 34 min 

weeks ago 

8.6.2 Dates 

December 12, 1965 or 12 December 1965 

A.D. 1066 

in 1900 

in 1971-72 or in 1971-1972 

the eighties, the twentieth century 

the 1980's or the 1980s 

8.7 Numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered series, parts of books and  tables, and each number in a list of four or more numbers addresses 

8.7.1 Places 

16 Tenth Street; 

350 West 114 Street 

8.7.2 Identification Numbers 

Room 8 

Channel 18 

Interstate 65 

Henry VIII

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8.7.3 Page and Division of Books and Plays 

page 30 

chapter 6 

in act 3, scene 2 (or) in Act III, Scene ii 

8.7.4 Decimals and Percentages 

a 2.7 average 

13.25 percent (in nonscientific contexts) 

25% (in scientific contexts) 

.037 metric ton 

8.7.5 Use a combination of figures and words to express  a) Large Round Numbers (starting with millions) 


Almost 3 million people 

four billion dollars (or) $4 billion 

16,500,000 (or) 16.5 million 

A budget of $2.5 billion 

  1. b) back -to -back modifiers 


two-way interactions 

Ten 7-point scales 

The first 10 items 

8.8 Decimal Fractions 

Use a zero before the decimal point when numbers are less than 1. Example:  

0.23 cm 


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Do not use a zero before a decimal fraction when the number cannot be greater  than 1.That is correlations, proportions, and levels of statistical significance. 


r (24) =-.43, p<.05 

Round off numbers preferably to two decimal places. 

Report correlations, proportions, and inferential statistics such as t, F, and chi square to two decimal places (i. e. the lowest reported significance probability  being p<.01 under normal circumstances). 

8.9 Repeat numbers in commercial writing 

The bill will not exceed one hundred (100) dollars. 

8.9.1 Numerals in legal writing 

The cost of damage is $1,365.42. 

8.10 Using footnotes in a sentence 

Example 1 – Content Footnote: “Under the DSHEA, dietary supplements no  longer receive approval from the FDA before being marketed unless the  supplement contains a new dietary ingredient (DSHEA, 1994).1” 

1A new dietary ingredient is defined as dietary ingredients that were not marketed  in the United States in a dietary supplement prior to October 15, 1994. 

Example 2 – Content Footnote: “The questionnaire (see Supplementary  material3) was comprised of 4 parts: student perception regarding content of  nutrition education; duration of time spent on nutrition education; preferred  education approach to nutrition; and demographics.” 

3Supplementary data are available on the journal Web site (http://apnm.nrc.ca) or  may be purchased from the Depository of Unpublished Data, Document Delivery,

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CISTI, National Research Council Canada, Building M-55, 1200 Montreal Road,  Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada. DUD 5396. For more information on obtaining  material refer to http://cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ibp/cisti/collection/unpublished data.html. 

Example 3 – Copyright Permission Footnote: “Trust in authority was  measured using four items drawn from models of motive-based trust (Tyler &  Huo, 2002).2” 

2From the chapters “Motive-Based Trust and Decision Acceptance” and “Societal  Orientations: Legitimacy and Connections With Society” in Trust in the Law:  Encouraging Public Cooperation With the Police and Courts, by Tom R. Tyler and  Yuen J. Huo, 2002, New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Copyright 2002 by the  Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Reprinted  with permission. 

8.10.1 Compiling footnotes at the end of your paper 

If several footnotes are used, place footnotes on a separate page after the references  section. “Footnotes” is at the top center of the page. The first line of each footnote (in  Arabic numeral) is indented five spaces, and the superscript number precedes the  information or reference. This material is formatted the same as if it were located at the  bottom of a page. All footnotes are double-spaced. 

1 Copies of the complete 56-item attitude scale and checksheet may be obtained  from Douglas Degelman.  

2In order to be able to evaluate possible differences in response to the six-item  BDIS when presented apart from the LOC, PP, and Ij scales, an additional 54  participants completed only the six-item BDIS and the checksheet. BDIS scores did not  differ significantly as a function of whether the items were presented by themselves (= 32.76) or embedded in the unified scale (M = 32.92), t(111) = 0.822, p > .10.

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3Mr Mapigano had explained to the customers that the satisfaction derived from  the service depends solely on the willingness of the customer participation in service  delivery, Chapter 2 Dispelling Myth in Customer Satisfaction: The customer experience  through the customer’s eyes by Hill, N., Roche, G., and Allen, R. (2007), 26 York Street:  Cogent Publishing. 

8.10.2 Copyright Permission Footnotes 

To cite adapted or reprinted materials in the paper, especially data sets, tables, and  quotations that exceed 400 words. Consult the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) for  more information about copyright permissions

8.11 Citing an Author or Authors 

Use author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for  citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers. 

A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the  parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors'  names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. 

Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...(Wegener & Petty, 1994) 

A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in  parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word “and” between the authors’  names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. (Kernis, Cornell, Sun,  Berry, & Harlow, 1993) 

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the  signal phrase or in parentheses. 

(Kernis et al., 1993) 

In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

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Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase  or in parentheses.  

Harris et al. (2001) argued... 

Harris et al., 2001) otherwise be follow the APA style 

8.12 Article From an Online Periodical 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical,  volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from  ttp://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ 

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make  Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving 

8.13 Citing an Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume  number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000 Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography.  European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161 Wooldridge, M.B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction  scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental  Psychology, 33(5), 211-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2012.05.005 

8.13.1 From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume  number. Retrieved from http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/ 

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of  Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html 

8.13.2 Article from a Database 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume  number, page range. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

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Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of  Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from  http://www.articlehomepage.com/full/url/ 

8.14 Citing an Abstract only 

Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in  custody?: Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning Disabilities,  36(1), 54-58. 

Hendricks, J., Applebaum, R., & Kunkel, S. (2010). A world apart? Bridging the gap  between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50(3), 284-293. Abstract  retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database. (Accession No. 50360869) 

8.15 Newspaper Article 

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from  http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ 

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York  Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2665-0681
print ISSN: 2546-2180