Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root
This study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for the use of Acacia nilotica root extract for treatment of fever and pain in traditional medical practice. Anti-Pyretic study was carried out using Brewerʼs yeast suspension to induce pyrexia. The hot plate, tail immersion and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were the nociceptive models used for analgesic study. Anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of the extract was compared with acetaminophen that was used as control drug. Five groups comprising five animals per group were used for each study. Group 1 was administered 10 ml/kg body weight of distilled water, Group 2 was administered 150 mg/kg body weight of acetaminophen while groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract respectively as single oral dose. The extract produced significant dose-dependent reduction in rectal temperature of rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant analgesic activities were also observed in the hot plate, tail immersion and acetic acid induced writhing, after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w of extract which is comparable to the control drug, acetaminophen. The results from this study showed that aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight possess significant antipyretic and analgesic activities. This provides scientific support for its traditional medical use in the treatment of fever and pain.
Keywords: Antipyrexia, Analgesia, Acacia nilotica, Brewerʼs yeast.