Antitrypanosomal and haematological effects of selected Nigerian medicinal plants in Wistar rats
AbstractStudies to determine the effect of some Nigerian Medicinal plants on some haematological parameters of rats infected with T. b. brucei was carried out. The plants investigated and the dose levels per kilogram body weights used are fresh Momordica balsamina pulp (150mg); fresh Aloe vera pulp (1ml); aqueous extracts of Securidaca longipenduculata root and root bark (100mg) and Annona senegalensis leaves (200mg). All the animals were treated orally for seven consecutive days after establishment of parasitaemia. Parasitaemia and some haematological parameters were determined before and after treatment as well as pathochemical composition of each plant. The result showed a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) values of rats treated with M. balsamina; A. vera and S. longipenduculata (root bark) when compared with the positive control. Total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts did not change significantly (P > 0.05) in groups treated with M. balsamina and S. longipenduculata (root bark) but increased in other treated and positive control groups. Similarly, no significant changes (P > 0.05) in neutrophils was observed in M. balsamina and S. longipenduculata (root) treated animals but an increase was seen in S. longipenduculata (root bark), A. vera and infected on treated groups. Treatment with M. balsamina, A. vera and S. longipenduculata (root and root bark) prolonged the lives of animals by 4, 1, 3 and 4 days respectively when compared with the positive control. Differences in the composition of various phytochemical of these plants could be responsible for the varied antitrypanosomal activities. Consequently, these plants have great potential which need to be exploited fully in the management of African trypanosomiasis.
Keywords: medicinal plants, haematological parameters, T.b. brucei
Biokemistri Vol. 17(2) 2005: 95-99