Biokemistri <p><em>Biokemistri</em> is a journal devoted to the dissemination of knowledge relating to all aspects of biochemistry. These include theoretical biochemistry, Biophysical chemistry, animal and plant biochemistry, microbial biochemistry, clinical and forensic biochemistry, enzymology, Protein chemistry, Analytical biochemistry, nutritional biochemistry, toxicology and xenobiochemistry, molecular biology, genomics and bioinformatics. Manuscripts will be rejected if the contents do not sufficiently conform to modern day biochemistry. <em></em></p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> en-US ©Nigerian Society for Experimental Biology (Dr Justine Timothy Ekanem) (Dr Justine Timothy Ekanem) Mon, 24 Oct 2022 08:42:12 +0000 OJS 60 Evaluation of toxic effect of oral co-administration of crude oil and vitamin C on antioxidant system of albino rats <p>The present study investigated the effect of co-administration of crude oil and vitamin C on some antioxidant biomarkers of rats’ cellular system. Rats were grouped into four ( A, B, C, D) and treated orally with normal saline, 400 mg/kg bw vitamin C, 0.1 ml crude oil + 400 mg/kg bw vitamin C and 0.1ml crude oil respectively. Enzymic antioxidant assayed for in the kidney, liver, stomach and serum of rats are catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), along with concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Kidney GSH of rats treated with normal saline is about 2 folds that of rats treated with 0.1 ml crude oil, kidney GSH of rats treated with 400mg/kg bw vitamin C is about 3 folds that of rats treated with 0.1 ml crude oil whereas the GSH of kidney of rats treated with both 400mg/kg bw vitamin C and 0.1 ml crude oil is about 2 folds that of rats treated with only 0.1 ml crude oil. Activities of SOD of tissues of rats treated with normal saline and those treated with 400mg/kg bw. Vitamin C are about 2 folds that of rats treated with 0.1 ml crude oil. CAT activities of tissues of rats treated with 0.1 ml crude oil are significantly lower relative to the rats treated with normal saline (P&lt;0.05). MDA concentration of tissues of rats treated with 0.1 ml crude oil is significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) relative to the rats treated with normal saline, 400 mg/kg bw. Vitamin C and 400 mg/kg bw. Vitamin C +0.1 ml crude oil (A, B and C). MDA concentrations of kidney, liver and stomach of rats treated with 0.1 mlcrude oil is significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than those of rats treated with both 400 gm/kg bw. Vitamin C and 0.1ml crude oil. Particularly, serum MDA of rats treated with 0.1 ml crude oil about 2 folds that of rats treated with400 mg/kg bw vitamin C + 0.1 ml crude oil. The present study generated data that suggest crude oil as the causeof oxidative stress in tissues of rats through a mechanism that depletes both enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidantswhile increasing the level of malondialdehyde.</p> Oyeyemi Adeyemi, Olalekan Adeyemi Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of hepatotoxicity effects of long term administration of Synriam<sup>TM</sup> in rats <p>SynriamTM antimalarial drug (SAD), a combination of arterolane malate (150 mg) (a short-acting drug that is effective against all parasite blood stages) and piperaquine phosphate (750 mg) (a slow, long-acting drug that kills residual parasites), has been proven to be safe and effective for malaria treatment in human. However, dearth data is available on its safety in animals. This study investigated the toxicity of SAD on selected liver indices in rats. Thirty-five adult Wistar rats were randomized into five groups (n=7). Group A-Control, Group B-E SAD-treated with 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 mg/kg body weight (bwt.) SAD, respectively, for 28 days. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last administration. Liver and blood (for serum extraction) were collected using standard methods. SAD-treated groups compared favorably (p&gt;0.05) with control for organ-body weight ratio, liver and serum activities of aminotransferases, gamma-glutamate transferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium-potassium-adenosine triphosphatase, calcium-magnesium-adenosine triphosphatase, and serum globulin levels of subjects. However, SAD treatment showed significant effects (p&lt;0.05) on liver and serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, serum protein, albumin and bilirubin levels. SAD treatment also showed mild effects on the hepatocytes but with no fatty degeneration. This study therefore provides evidence that long term therapeutic dose administration of SAD does not predispose to liver dysfunction in rats.</p> David C. Nwikwe, Elizabeth A. Balogun Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative study of proximate composition, antioxidant vitamins and mineral profile of six local wild fruits consumed in South-eastern, Nigeria <p>Comparative study of proximate composition, antioxidant vitamin and mineral profile were carried out in six local wild fruits consumed in South East, Nigeria. The wild fruits samples were obtained from Eke Awka market in Awka, Anambra State and were processed for analysis. Proximate compositions, antioxidant vitamins and mineral profile of the samples were determined using standard methods. The result of the study indicated that moisture content of wild mango (31.88 ± 0.02%) was significantly higher (p˂0.05) compared to other fruits. The protein content of African elemi (14.52 ± 0.02%) was highest followed by African velvet tamarind (8.61 ± 0.12%).Crude fibre (3.50 ± 0.01%) and carbohydrate (51.56 ± 0.02%) were significantly higher in African velvet tamarind compared to other fruits but least in hog plum (0.50 ± 0.01%) and African elemi (25.44 ± 0.02%) respectively. Antioxidant vitamins were present at different concentrations. However, the fruits were generally rich in vitamin C. The mineral profile of the studied fruits showed the presence of macro minerals (Na, Ca, Mg and K) and antioxidant related minerals (Se, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn). The results obtained from micro minerals indicated that there was a significant difference among the wild fruits while the macro minerals composition of the selected wild fruits did not differ significantly (p&gt;0.05) in Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup> and Na<sup>+</sup> concentrations among the wild fruits. This study generally showed that wild fruits have appreciable amount of vitamins and minerals therefore should be included in our daily diet.</p> Maryann Chinenye Maduako, Jonathan Chinenye Ifemeje, Kizito Ifeanyi Amaefule, Anthony Uzoeto Okechukwu, Chinenye Nnenna Enemchukwu Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Hepatoprotective effect of methanol extract of Senna occidentalis seeds in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxic rats <p>Effect of methanol seed extract of Senna occidentalis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats was investigated. Biochemical parameters such as serum AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase), ALT (Alanine Amino Transferase), ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) and Total proteins were determined. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and the liver antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Catalase were also determined. Phytochemical screening and subsequent quantification reveal the presence of bioactive compounds such as Flavonoids (0.27±0.01mg/g), Phenols (0.79±0.021 mg/g), Tannins (0.87±0.03mg/g) and Alkaloids (62.57±2.35mg/g). The level of AST, ALT, and ALP significantly increased in CCL4 induced groups. However, the administration of methanol extract of S. occidentalis at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kgbw decreased (p&lt;0.05) the activity of ALT, AST and ALP in the treated groups. The activity of SOD and CAT in the CCl4 induced group was decreased. Also, increase in the level of MDA in CCl4treated group was observed when compared with the normal group and this was decreased (p&lt;0.05) on administration with methanol seed extract of Senna occidentalis at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg (B/W). It can be concluded that methanol seeds extract of Senna occidentalis possess important phytoconstituents and hepatoprotective effect. Thus, the extract can be used as a potent therapeutic agent for the management of liver damage.</p> R.U. Hamzah, M.B. Busari, E. Ankewo, H.A. Mohammed, H.A. Mohammed, A.M. Yahaya, A.P. Akomolafe Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant and malondialdehyde levels in the tissues of <i>Heterobranchus longifilis</i> following lethal and sublethal exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles <p>Increased industrial and domestic usage of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) informed their great demand, though scanty information exists on their environmental fate. Therefore, the impacts of ZnO-NPs on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the blood, gill and liver of Heterobranchus longifilis (Mean length ± SD, 10.28 ± 1.34) exposed to lethal concentrations (0.00, 60.00, 80.00, 100.00 and 120.00 mg/l) and sublethal concentrations (0.00, 6.00, 8.00, 10.00 and 12.00 mg/l) of ZnO-NPs were examined for 96-h and 45 days, respectively. The results showed that during lethal exposure, SOD and GPx activities in the tissues of ZnO-NPs-exposed fish changed insignificantly (p &gt; 0.05) compared to the control, except in liver where GPx changed significantly (p &lt; 0.05). MDA levels in the blood and liver significantly increased, while no such change was observed in the gill. During sublethal exposure, SOD activities significantly increased at 10 and 12 mg/l after 15 days exposure, while after 30 days there was no significant change. However, after 45 days of exposure, significantly higher activities were recorded at the groups treated with 10 and 12 mg/l. GPx activity in the blood did not show a significant increase after 15 days exposure, but after 30 and 45 days the activity increased significantly than the control. Compared with the control, GPx activity in the gill neither show significant concentration- nor time-dependent difference between the first period of 15 days and the subsequent 15 days (i.e., 30 days) of exposure, until after 45 days at 12 mg/l of ZnO-NPs. In the liver, GPx activity increased significantly as ZnO-NPs concentration and exposure period increased compared with the control. In all the tissues, significantly higher MDA levels than the control was not observed until after 45 days exposure at 12 mg/l of ZnO-NPs. These results suggest that ZnO-NPs concentrations greater than those used in this study may produce deleterious effects on the antioxidant system during short- or long-term exposure and may thus, weakens the adaptive threshold of the fish.</p> Olufemi David Owolabi, Saratu Iyabode Abdulkareem Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of anti-depressant properties of ethanol extract of <i>ingiber officinale</i> rhizome in mice <p>Depression, a common psychiatric disease, is associated with moodiness, disinterest, and anhedonia. Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb used to treat various disorders. This study evaluated the effect of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (EEZO) rhizome on depression in mice. Forty-eight male mice (28±2 g) were used and divided into six groups of 8 mice each. Depression was induced using the chronic mild stress model and then treated for three days afterwards. Group 1: control (normal saline), group 2: depressed, group 3: standard drug (diazepam; 1 mg/kg), groups 4, 5 and 6: treatment (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) body weight of EEZO respectively. Behavioural tests (open field, tail suspension, sucrose preference, dark and light box, hole maze and object exploration) were carried out on the mice before and after treatment. Concentration of inflammatory cytokines such as prostaglandins E2, interleukin-1, tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon gamma, cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide was determined. The extract significantly (p &lt; 0.05) improved behavioural pattern of mice and reduced the level of the inflammatory biomarkers, relative to the depressed mice. The results implied that EEZO reduced stress-induced depression in mice and could be a potential alternative for anti-depressant drug formulation.</p> Asiat Na’allah, Jamiu Ahmad, Aishat A. Adebayo Copyright (c) 0 Fri, 21 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of phytochemical analysis and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of leaves and stem bark of <i>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</i> against selected pathogenic bacteria <p>Research into the phytotherapeutic potentials of plants in the treatment of ailments has significantly received attention in recent years. Here, using two solvent extracts, we aimed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of phytochemicals extracted from leaf and stem bark of <em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em> against selected pathogenic bacteria. Solvent extracts of the leaf and stem bark of <em>E. camaldulensis</em> were prepared with methanol and chloroform. Phytochemical screening of crude extract was performed using standard methods. The leaf and stem bark extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity against<em> Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis </em>and <em>Escherichia coli</em> using the agar well diffusion method. Aqueous extract of plant (50 mg/mL) was used to prepare 50 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL, 12.5 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL concentrations of extract. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that in the methanolic leaf extract; cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and terpenoids were present while alkaloids and steroids were found in the chloroform leaf extract. Tannins were present in both extracts. Also, methanolic and chloroform stem bark extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids and tannins. Furthermore, both methanolic and chloroform extracts showed inhibitory effects at varying concentrations. Methanolic extract was effective on <em>E. coli, B. substilis </em>and<em> P. aeruginosa</em> at 25 mg/mL while chloroform extract exhibited inhibitory effect on <em>E. coli</em> at concentrations of 12.5 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL. Phytochemical screening of leaf and stem bark extract of <em>E. camaldulensis</em> revealed the presence of some active secondary metabolites; with the methanolic extracts showing more considerable antimicrobial effects.</p> H.N. Usman, H. Majiya, Kolawole H. Aremu, M.I. Legbo, A.D. Musa Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 24 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical, Nutritional Composition and Heavy Metals Content of Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) from Wudil Central Market, Kano State, Nigeria <p>Allium plants are common spices used as food ingredients. Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativum (garlic) are cultivated in Wudil town. In this study the qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals in Allium cepa revealed the presence of alkaloids (6.45mg/kg), tannins (1.25mg/kg), flavonoids (1.51mg/kg), total phenolic (20.68mg/kg) while saponin was absent. On the other hand Allium sativum shows alkaloids (4.68mg/kg), tannin (0.25mg/kg) and saponin (0.44mg/kg). Proximate composition of garlic show (p&lt;0.05) increase in fat (2.82%), carbohydrate (24.55%), fibre (2.74%), and ash (4.22%) when compared with onion, while protein (2.96%) and moisture (87.36%) are (p&lt;0.005) higher in onion. Anti-nutritional factors present in onion show (p&lt;0.05) increase in oxalate (11.85mg/kg) and tannins (0.76mg/kg), while garlic shows (p&lt;0.05) increase in phytate (1.79mg/kg) and hydrogen cyanide (0.39mg/kg). Heavy metals in onion were (p&lt;0.05) higher in Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Mn, while garlic only show (p&lt;0.05) increase in Zn and Co. The Cr in onion shows (p&gt;0.05) difference when compared with garlic. Cd and Pb in onion and garlic were above WHO recommended safe limits in vegetables. From this study it is observed that the agro-climatic condition may have effect on the phytochemicals of both plants samples from Wudil, while sources of the heavy metals need to be investigated and controlled from level of cultivation to that of processing.</p> K. Salawu, T.A. Owolarafe, C.J. Ononamadu,, G.O. Ihegboro, T.A. Lawal, , M.A. Aminu , A.J. Oyekale Copyright (c) 0 Mon, 24 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Nephrotoxic potentials of <i>Oxytenanthera abyssinca</i> (Rhizomes) from crude oil polluted areas and non-polluted areas of South Eastern Nigeria <p><em>Oxytenanthera abyssinica</em> is a tropical drought resistant plant. Its rhizome had been wildly used in ethenomedicine for the treatment of dysentry, rheumatism, oedema and polyuria as well as for the management of diabetes. Rhizomes of <em>O. abyssinica</em> used for this study were sourced from Owerezukala Anambra State that has not experienced crude oil pollution and from Akirika community in Abia State that had experienced crude oil pollution. The aim of this study is to compare the nephrotoxic potentials of methanol extract of the rhizomes in order to ascertain the possible effects of crude oil spillage on bio lives of the two areas. After the extraction of the rhizomes of O. abyssinica with 80% methanol, the extracts from non- crude oil polluted area of Owerezukala (NCOPOAE) and crude oil polluted area of Akirika (COPOAE) were dried and stored in a freezer for further studies. Sub-chronic toxicity profile was evaluated using the effects of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w of the extracts on the albino rats for 28days. Kidney function tests were used for the evaluation of the integrity of the nephrocytes. Histopathology was done using standard method on kidney cells. Results showed LD50 of 5000 mg/kg and 3800mg/kg for NCOPOAE and COPOAE respectively. Exposure of rats to different doses of the extracts for 28days resulted to significant increases in kidney function test parameters with COPOAE showing more damage than NCOPOAE particularly at 200 and 400 mg/kg. This result could indicate kidney impairment. These results were confirmed by histoparthological assay, which revealed more damages in rats fed 200 and 400 mg/kg COPOAE than NCOPOAE. Histopathology of the kidney cells revealed different stages of necrotic and morphological damages at different concentrations of both extracts, changes being more in rats’ organs treated with COPOAE than NCOPAE. These results could indicate that NCOPOAE was less toxic than COPOAE from crude oil contaminated community and hence could be more beneficial in ethnomedicine.</p> Kizito Ifeanyi Amaefule, Chinenye Azuka Mere Copyright (c) 0 Mon, 24 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative studies of hepatotoxic potentials of <i>Oxythenantera abyssinca</i> (Rhizomes) sourced from crude oil polluted areas and non crude oil polluted areas in South Eastern Nigeria using male albino rats as model <p>Pollution has been one of the major problems faced by organisms and crude oil being one of the major pollutants especially to countries it serves as major component of their economy, living organisms could be directly or indirectly affected negatively by crude oil pollution. A comparative study of the effect of non-crude oil polluted<em> Oxythenantera abyssinca</em> rhizomes extract (NCOPOAE) and crude oil polluted <em>Oxythenantera abyssinca</em> rhizomes extract (COPOAE) in some biochemical parameters using albino rats. Serum liver enzyme activities and histopathology of the albino rats’ liver was assayed after a four- week treatment using standard methods. Findings showed that, mice fed with NCOPOAE had no death at 5000 mg/kg .bw making it safe while the once fed with COPOAE had a lethal toxicity dose calculated to be 3807.8 mg/kg. bw. At different doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg .bw., the extracts caused significant (p&lt;0.05) and non-significant (p&gt;0.05) changes on the liver enzyme activity which reflected in histopathological result compared to the control fed with feed and normal saline, indicating liver impairment with COPOAE having more of the negative effect compared to NCOPOAE and the control.</p> K.I. Amaefule, P.N. Uzoegwu Copyright (c) 0 Mon, 24 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mosquito-repellent activities of a north central Nigeria local <i>Hyptis suaveolens</i> Essential oil and its toxicity evaluation in mice <p><strong>Aim</strong>: Mosquito-repellent activities of Hyptis suaveolens essential oil (EO) obtained from Kwara State, north central Nigeria; and its toxicity in mice were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: Hyptis suaveolens plants were collected from University of Ilorin premises. Fresh leaves were weighed, pound, hydrodistilled and the EO characterised using GCMS. Mosquitoes (female anopheles and culex) 150 were bred from larva stage in the laboratory against which the repellency activities were determined. Fifteen (15) adult mice with the average weight of (25 ±2.21 g) were randomly assigned into three (3) groups (A-C), of five (5) mice each. Daily administration of distilled water, EO 100 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight were done oropharyngeally for seven days to groups A, B and C respectively. The mice were sacrificed, and the blood, liver and kidney of the animals were collected. Blood, tissues, and serum parameters were assayed for in the mice.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: <em>Caryophyllene oxide, caryophyllene, spathulenol, alloaromadendrene, benzaldehyde </em>and<em> bornanone</em> were some of the compounds confirmed present in the EO. The EO in water (1:99) is 100% efficacious, for up to 60 minutes. The EO induced significant increase (p&lt;0.05) the blood levels of WBC, RBC, HCT, HGB in all treated groups. Serum albumin, total and direct bilirubin, and the total protein in all the treated groups were significantly reduced while no significant difference in the activities of ALP, ALT and AST in the liver, kidney and serum of treated groups occurred when compared with the control. The levels of the serum urea and creatinine, increased significantly in all the treated groups (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The Hyptis suaveolens essential oil possesses mosquito-repellent activities but may cause adverse on the enzymatic and haematological, liver and kidney functions at 500 mg/kg body weight in mice.</p> Musa Oyewole Salawu, Abdulateef Kayode Ayuba, Aliyu Olalekan Amuzat, Lamidi Ajao Usman, Hussein Oyelola Bukoye Oloyede Copyright (c) 0 Mon, 24 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000