Prevalence of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women presenting with vaginitis in Jama'a Hospital, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria
Background: Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is a fungal infection of the female lower genital tract and it is commonly caused by Candida albicans. Complications of untreated VVC include abortion, preterm delivery, menstrual disorders and infertility. Trichomoniasis is caused by parasitic protozoa called Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomoniasis is associated with vulvovaginal erythema and frothy yellow-gray or green vaginal discharge. The research aimed to determine the prevalence of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis infections among women presenting with vaginitis in Jama'a Hospital, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria.
Methods: A Total of 100 samples were collected from female patients using sterile swab sticks. The samples were screened for Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis using cultural and microscopic tests. Structured questionnaires were used to collect relevant data on socio-demographic factors, risk factors, signs and symptoms of the infection from the women.
Results: It was observed that (38%) of the women were positive for Candida albicans and(2%) positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. It was also noted that women within age group 36-40 years had highest prevalence of Candida albicans (57.1%). Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among age group 26-30 years was 4.3% and 11.1%among age group 31-35 years. Candida albicans was found to be more prevalent among single women (39.6%), non-pregnant women (39.1%), and students (47.8%) compared to married women (36.5%), pregnant women (25.0%), and non-students 30.0% respectively. Non-pregnant women had the higher prevalence of C. albicans(39.1%), compared to pregnant women with prevalence of 25.0%. Prevalence of T. vaginalis among non-pregnant women was 2.2% and no prevalence was recorded among the pregnant women. Those with multiple sex partners had C. albicans prevalence of 46.7% and T. vaginalis was 2.2%. Patients with vaginal discharges had C.albicans prevalence of 40.0%, and 3.1% for T. vaginalis. Patients with dyspareunia had C. albicans prevalence of 6.4% and 18.2% for T. vaginalis.
Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that 38 out of 100 women attending Jama'a hospital had vulvovaginal candidiasis and 2 out of 100 had trichomoniasis at detectable level. Control measures including health education, treatment of infected individuals, personal hygiene are highly recommended. Further research should also be carried out in the study area todetermine prevalence of bacterial vaginitis.
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