Immunoglobulin levels cannot replace CD4+ cell count as markers in HIV care
Background: HIV infection predisposes to AIDS by depleting the immunity of the host. The cellular and humoral immune response markers that can be used to monitor the progress of the disease and treatment are the CD4+ cells and immunoglobulins respectively.
Aim: This work was carried out to determine immunoglobulin levels and CD4+ cell count in HIV negative individuals, HIV positive subjects on HAART and treatment naïve HIV positive subjects to provide useful information for effective management of HIV infection.
Methods: Thirty participants (Female-11; Male-19; aged 18- 60 years ) were recruited for each of the groups: HIV infected individuals on HAART, HIV- infected individuals not yet on treatment and HIV- negative adults; to give cumulative number of participants of 90. Cyflometry method was used for CD4 count using Partec CD4 machine, plasma IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by ELISA while HIV tests were carried out using immunochromatographic and ELISA assays.
Results: The participants were adults in the age range of 18 to 60 years and majority in terms of gender were male (63.3%) in all the groups. Data collected through questionnaire revealed that majority of the participants (>50%) in each group had education above secondary school level with 83.3% taking balance diet regularly. In every group as well, some participants (>40%) take both multivitamin supplements and herbal concoction. There was no significant difference in the plasma value of IgA, IgG and IgM in HIV negative, HIV positive participants on HAART and treatment naive participants using ANOVA (p>0.05). However, there was a significantly higher CD4+ Cell Count in HIV Negative participants compared with HIV Positive participants on HAART and treatment naïve participants(p<0.05).
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in plasma immunoglobulins A, G and M in HIV positive patients on HAART, HIV treatment naïve and HIV negative control while CD4+ T-cells count was significantly higher in HIV negative participants compared with HIV positive individuals.
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