Rifampicin resistance mycobacteria tuberculosis and associated risk factors among patients attending federal medical centre Birnin Kud Jigawa State.
Background of study: The emergence and spreading of multidrug (MDR) and extensively (XDR) drug-resistant M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains poses significant challenges to TB control and drug resistance M. tuberculosis is found in all countries of the world.
Aim: This study is set out to determine the pattern of Rifampicin- resistance mycobacteria tuberculosis among patients attending Federal Medical Centre Birnin Kudu, Jigawa state, Nigeria.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April to December, 2019 at the Federal Medical Centre Birnin – Kudu (FMC, BKD), Jigawa state. Subjects presenting with any of the following symptoms were recruited: the presence of symptoms suggestive of TB like chronic cough for a period of ≥ 2 weeks, night sweats, fatigue, unexpected loss of weight, and fever. Each eligible patient (272) who signed written consent provided clinical specimens. From each patients presumptive of pulmonary TB, 4 ml of sputum sample was collected. In the case of presumptive extra-pulmonary TB, four ml of either pus, CSF samples was collected. Samples were immediately processed for Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Testing for HIV were done according to the current national algorithm recommended by the Federal Ministry of Health of Nigeria. Two rapid HIV tests, HIV Determine rapid test strip and Stat- Pak were run simultaneously.
Results: A total of 272 presumptive TB or DR-TB patients participated in the study. Most 157 (57.7%) were males. The age range of participants was 9 to 80 years with mean age of 32.5 years. Majority 194 (71.3%) of participants were rural dwellers. Prevalence of HIV was 50 (18.4%) among study participants. Of the 52 M. tuberculosis cases, 3 (5.8%) were resistant to rifampicin, of, which all were previously treated, rural dwellers, pulmonary and presumptive DR-TB patients. Two rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis was noticed from all patients with MTB/HIV co-infection (16.7%).
Conclusion: This study showed low prevalence of rifampicin resistance tuberculosis in this environment. Previous treatment with anti-TB drugs was significantly associated with rifampicin resistance.
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