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Comparative Hypolipidaemic Effects of Allium cepa, Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale Aqueous Extracts on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rattus novergicus

JC Ozougwu, UE Nwachi, JE Eyo


This study compares the hypolipidaemic effects of the increasing dosages of A. cepa, A. sativum and Z. officinale aqueous extract on alloxan-diabetic Rattus novergicus for possible use in the management of hyperlipidaemia characteristic of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 108 out of a total of 117 adult Rattus novergicus using 150mg/kg b wt of alloxan monohydrate. Increasing dosages (200, 250 and 300mg/kg bw ip) of A. cepa, A. sativum and Z. officinale aqueous extracts were given to the diabetic rats for six weeks while the control rats got either normal saline (1ml) or increasing dosage of glibenclamide ( 2.5, 3.8 and 5.0mg/kg b wt ip) during the same period. Total serum lipids and total serum cholesterol were assessed using routine methods. Increasing dosages of plants aqueous extracts produced a dose-dependent significant (P < 0.05) reductions in the total serum lipid and total serum cholesterol of diabetic rats. The most effective percentage reduction in total serum lipids and total serum cholesterol were observed at 300mg/kg bw ip and this was the same for the three extracts studied. A. cepa and A. sativum at 300mg/kg bw ip caused significant reductions in total serum lipids more effective than the diabetic control drug glibenclamide at 5.0 mg/kg bw ip. A. cepa at 300mg/kg bw ip was the most effective in reducing total serum lipids, reducing it by 44.4% (184.3 ± 8.4 to 129.7 ± 5.7). A. sativum at 300mg/kg bw ip was the most effective in reducing total serum cholesterol, 39.8%, that was from ( 128.7 ± 2.7 to 77.2 ± 4.9), A. cepa followed 27.2% (130.1 ± 3.7 to 94.7 ± 4.2) and Z. Officinale was next , 16.1% from (130.7 ± 4.4 to 109.7 ± 7.5). From our experimental findings, it can be concluded that the three plant extracts studied exhibited promising hypolipidaemic activity in alloxan-diabetic rats. The hypolipidaemic effect presents a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidaemia common in diabetes mellitus. Further studies on the extracts, their composition, mode of action and active ingredients are suggested. A research on the combined effects of the three plant extracts on hyperlipidaemia was recommended for future investigations.

Keywords: Hypolipidaemic effects, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale Alloxan-Induced diabetic Rattus novergicus

Bio-Research Vol. 6 (2) 2008: pp. 384-391
AJOL African Journals Online