Anti-ulcer activity of the leaf extracts of Borreria ocymoides in rats

  • CN Okwuosa
  • DC Nwachukwu
  • PUO Achukwu
  • CG Ezeorah
  • AA Eze
Keywords: Borreria ocymoides, Anti-ulcer, Indomethacin, Histamine, Ulcer index, Gastric motility

Abstract

The anti-ulcer properties of the leaf extracts of Borreria ocymoides Burm. F. (Rubiaceae) was investigated. Sixty (60) albino rats of either sex weighing 160-216g and fifteen (15) albino mice weighing 25-36 g were used for the study. Standard pharmacological methods were used to carry out acute toxicity (LD50) and phytochemical screening of the plant extract. Gastrointestinal and anti-ulcer studies were performed using standard methods. The extract had an oral LD50 of > 8000mg/kg in mice. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of abundant amounts of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids, tannins, proteins, and moderate amounts of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and glycosides. There were also trace amounts of resins and steroids. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of Borreria ocymoides (AEBO and MEBO) at dose level of 800mg/kg orally, increased gastro-intestinal motility by 6.1% and 22.5% respectively. This increase was not significant when compared with the negative control (p > 0.05). The laxative drug, bisacodyl (5mg/kg), increased motility by 17.4%. However, when bisacodyl (5mg/kg) was administered concomitantly either with AEBO (800mg/kg) or MEBO (800mg/kg), gastrointestinal motility was increased significantly by 67.8% or 70.1% respectively (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the AEBO and MEBO (800mg/kg b.w, p.o) produced significant ulcer protective potency against indomethacin and histamine induced gastric ulceration when compared with the negative control (p < 0.001). The MEBO had comparable ulcer protective potency with cimetidine. Both extracts possess gastric ulcer protective potency and justifies the use of this plant for ulcer treatment.
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