Bio-Research <p>The “Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research)” is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, international, scientific Open Access Journal that provides publication of articles on biological sciences and biotechnology. The journal established in 2003, is published by the faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. The Journal welcomes submission of manuscripts in the form of original and reviews articles, brief and case reports, special communications and editorials, that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published online approximately one-to-two weeks after acceptance.</p> <p>Publication of articles in the Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research) involves several parties, each of which performs an essential role in achieving the aims and objectives of the journal. Thus, all players (author, the journal editor, the peer-reviewer, and the publisher) are expected to meet and uphold standard norms of ethical behaviour from submission to the publication stage, depending on the area of involvement.</p> Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria en-US Bio-Research 1596-7409 <p>Copyright: Creative Commons Attribution CC.</p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials. View License Deed | View Legal Code Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository. This is the final corrected version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications.</p> Sublethal Effects of Organophosphate Chlorpyrifos on Hemato-Immunological Parameters of the Gercacinid Crab, Cardiosoma armatum (Herklots, 1851) <p>Low insecticide exposure has been shown to cause profound effects on non-target organisms, including crabs. Therefore, the changes in hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and antioxidant enzymes in the Gercacinid crab,<em> Cardiosoma armatum </em>were assessed during 28-day exposure to four concentrations of organophosphate chlorpyrifos (0.003, 0.006, 0.03 and 0.06 mg/l). The results showed a significant (P= 0.0) decrease in packed cell volume and total haemocyte count of the exposure crabs (except in 0.003 mg/l concentration) compared to control group. There were no significant changes in hemocyte sedimentation rate, granulocyte and agranulocyte, although all exposure groups increased in hemocyte sedimentation rate and agranulocyte with respective ranges of 3.00-3.02 mm/hr and 64.00-67.00 %. Except for alkaline phosphatase, there were no significant variation in the biochemical profile of both the control crabs and exposure crabs, although organophosphate chlorpyrifos exposure induced increase in all the measured biochemical parameters. The serum protein level and the activities of the enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde) were inhibited in exposure groups. The changes in these hemato-immunological parameters of the crabs were suitable biomarkers of a sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos at the concentrations tested, and this will be useful in biomonitoring of aquatic environment.</p> Christian Chinonso Ugwu Rasheed Olatunji Moruf Aderonke Omolara Lawal-Are Copyright (c) 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 19 1 1185 1191 10.4314/br.v19i1.1 Partial Purification and Characterization of Endoxylanase from a fungus, Leohumicola incrustata <p>Xylanases are glycoside hydrolases (GH) that degrade β-1,4-xylan, a linear polysaccharide found as hemicellulose in cell wall of plants. Endoxylanase (Endo-1,4-β-xylanase, EC randomly catalyses xylan to produce varying short xylooligosaccharides (XOS). This study aimed to determine the characteristics of a partially purified endoxylanase from <em>Leohumicola incrustata</em>. Enzyme production was carried out using beechwood (BW) xylan, after which the cell-free crude filtrate was concentrated using the ammonium sulphate precipitation method. The hydrolysed products were analysed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and zymography. The result showed that the enzyme produced varying smaller-sized linear xylooligosaccharides with R<sub>f</sub> values corresponding to those of xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, xylohexaose and other higher oligomers. The endoxylanase had a molecular mass of 72 kDa. The enzyme is stable in the presence of K<sup>+</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Fe<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup>, Co<sup>2+</sup>, pH of 5.0 and temperature of 37<sup>o</sup>C. However, the activity gradually decreased after 60 min at 50<sup>o</sup>C and retained over 69% activity after 120 min, while at 60 and 70<sup>o</sup>C, the enzyme activity sharply decreased (pre-incubation periods). Endoxylanase from <em>L. incrustata</em> is comparable to those of other microorganisms and should be considered an attractive candidate for future industrial applications.</p> Olusegun Richard Adeoyo Brett Ivan Pletschke Joanna Felicity Dames Copyright (c) 2021-04-01 2021-04-01 19 1 1192 1201 10.4314/br.v19i1.2