Bio-Research <p>The “Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research)” is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, international, scientific Open Access Journal that provides publication of articles on biological sciences and biotechnology. The journal established in 2003, is published by the faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. The Journal welcomes submission of manuscripts in the form of original and reviews articles, brief and case reports, special communications and editorials, that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published online approximately one-to-two weeks after acceptance.</p> <p>Publication of articles in the Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research) involves several parties, each of which performs an essential role in achieving the aims and objectives of the journal. Thus, all players (author, the journal editor, the peer-reviewer, and the publisher) are expected to meet and uphold standard norms of ethical behaviour from submission to the publication stage, depending on the area of involvement.</p> Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria en-US Bio-Research 1596-7409 <p><strong>Bio-Research journal&nbsp;</strong>is an open access journal, which means all its content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution.</p> <p>You are free to share (that is, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) as long as you follow these licence terms:</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<img class="image-inline img-responsive img-fluid" title="64px-Cc-by_new_white.svg.png" src="" alt="" data-linktype="image" data-val="a7c4119c7bc642fa8641176286a372b5" data-scale="large">&nbsp; Attribution&nbsp;(by)</p> <p>You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license.</p> <p><img class="image-inline img-responsive img-fluid" title="Cc-nc_white.svg.png" src="" alt="" data-linktype="image" data-val="fb0ef2a1afbc458ca1a48b7520237a9c" data-scale="large">&nbsp;&nbsp; Non Commercial&nbsp;(nc)</p> <p>You can copy, distribute, display, perform, and use this material for any purpose other than commercially (unless you get permission first). Non Commercial means not primarily intended for or directed towards commercial advantage or monetary compensation.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img class="image-inline img-responsive img-fluid" title="nd.png" src="" alt="" data-linktype="image" data-val="1e6a0b1732324df4a95416595c6c6e4c" data-scale="large">&nbsp; No Derivatives&nbsp;(nd)</p> <p>If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may&nbsp;not&nbsp;distribute the modified material. But note that simply changing the format does not create a derivative.</p> <p>No additional restrictions&nbsp;— You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the licence permits.<br><br>Notices<br>You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.</p> Characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of biomimetically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Morinda lucida Benth. (Rubiaceae) <p>Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are silver atom masses that are attracting widespread interest due to their diverse applications, particularly their activity as antimicrobial agents. Physico-chemical methods of AgNP synthesis are associated with high costs, high temperatures and toxic byproducts. Thus, the plant mediated pathway represents a better option. The indigenous medicinal plant <em>Morinda lucida</em> was employed in the fabrication of AgNPs. The nanoparticles were characterized using different analytical techniques and also evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. Phytochemical screening of the plant was also carried out. For the synthesis, 10 ml of aqueous <em>M. lucida</em> leaf extract was added to 90 ml of freshly prepared 3 mM silver nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) solution in a flask. The mixture was allowed to stand at ambient temperature, in a dark cupboard for 48 hours. Positive AgNP synthesis, indicated by a colour change from red to brown was further validated by UV-vis spectroscopy wherein an absorption peak at 460.51 nm was recorded. The utilitarian aspects of the particles were further characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The SEM images showed that particles were round to irregular in shape. Amide, amine, alkene and alkynes were the most occurring functional groups from the FTIR spectra. Quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, reducing sugars and alkaloids in varying amounts, which play a significant role in the synthesis and stabilization of the AgNPs. The XRD diffractogram of AgNPs showed two peaks at 45.53° and 77.17° that correspond to miller indices of (200) and (311) respectively and an average crystalline size of 62.60 nm obtained using the Debye-Scherrer’s formula. The DLS result indicated a Z–average size of 235.1 nm and a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.4. EDX analysis showed that elemental silver (Ag) had the highest atomic concentration of 64.50 %. Using the agar well diffusion assay, the nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity against <em>P. aeruginosa</em> (bacteria) and <em>A. flavus</em> (fungi). It can be concluded that <em>M. lucida</em> is capable of synthesizing stable, small-sized AgNPs with antimicrobial potential.</p> Sheily Nneka Egonu Chukwuma Kenechukwu Chukwuemeka Obi Sergius Udengwu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-09 2023-09-09 21 3 2065 2078 10.4314/br.v21i3.1 Antioxidant potential of ethanol extract of Annona muricata leaves and its inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis <p><em>Annona muricata</em>, as it is scientifically called but known in most parts of Nigeria as soursop. A fruit tree with various therapeutic uses, the plant belongs to the family of <em>Annonaceae</em> and has several medicinal properties. The medicinal properties of <em>Annona muricata</em> are well known, and they can be used to treat a variety of illnesses and conditions. Effects of ethanol extract of <em>Annona muricata</em> leaves (EEAML) on the enzymatic antioxidants of the kidney and colon in Wistar rats induced with 1, 2 Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at 25 mg/kg bodyweight s.c. were investigated in this study. Thirty-six male Wistar rats weighing 110–170g were acclimated for two weeks and randomized into six groups (six per group). Group A (control), Group B (extract; 120 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic extract of <em>A. muricata</em>), Group C (DMH only), Group D (DMH + EXTRACT), Group E (pretreatment), and Group F (posttreatment). The extract was administered daily via oral gavage, while the DMH was given subcutaneously at a dosage of 25 mg/kg bodyweight. This study reveals the carcinogenic effect of DMH induced oxidative stress were ameliorated by the administration of this leaf extract of EEAML at a dose of 120mg/kg b.w. The colon and kidney homogenates of rats administered EEAML (co-treated, pretreatment and post- treatment) showed increased enzymatic antioxidant; glutathione peroxidase, catalase activities and SOD activities.&nbsp; But a reduction in malondialdehyde levels was observed. These findings validate the use of <em>Annona muricata </em>in traditional medicine by showing that the ethanolic extract of the leaves can reduce DMH-induced oxidative stress and alter the enzymatic antioxidant profile in colon carcinogenesis.</p> Olayemi Mujidat Olude Frank Osarumwense Omoregie Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-09 2023-09-09 21 3 2079 2090 10.4314/br.v21i3.2 Palm wines as potential Aedes mosquito repellant <p>Globally, <em>Aedes</em> mosquitoes cause morbidity and mortality of dengue, yellow fever and other arboviral infections. There is no effective vaccine for <em>Aedes</em> transmitted diseases so mosquito control remains the mainstay for their control. Semiochemicals play significant role in modulating insect behavior so are utilized to lure mosquitoes to their destruction or to repel them to halt infection transmission. Palm wines are potent source of semiochemicals but their effect on <em>Aedes</em> mosquitoes in our locality is not well understood. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether palm wine could impact on mosquito inflections. <em>Aedes</em> larvae were collected and bred in the laboratory to adulthood. Female mosquitoes were selected and tested for their reactions to two categories of palm wine – the up-palm and down-palm wines. An olfactometer was fabricated and applied to find how <em>Aedes</em> mosquitoes reacted in it when subjected to odours from the palm wines within 5 minutes. Data obtained were prepared and one way analysis of variance was used to compare means. Only 3% of mosquitoes reached the up-wine arm on day 2. However, when both wines were tested, 2.78 ± 2.78% of mosquitoes reached the down-palm wine terminal. Both wines repelled mosquitoes consistently, confirmed by their refusal to seek any of the palm wine odours. Repellence increased as days passed: initially upstream mosquitoes ranged 36.36 – 60% at the beginning, declining to 3.3 – 6.36% on the 8<sup>th</sup> day; whereas downstream ranged from 40 – 63.63% at the beginning to reach 93.63 – 100% on the 8<sup>th</sup> day.&nbsp; Palm wines semiochemicals repelled <em>Aedes</em> mosquitoes. Further testing may be required before utilization in formulated repellents for public use.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Francis Stephen Ogbonna Ugwu Patrick Chibueze Onyemeziri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 21 3 2091 2098 10.4314/br.v21i3.3 Repellence of Aedes aegypti with oils from Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi fruit peelsi from Nsukka <p><em>Aedes aegypti </em>spread yellow fever, dengue fever, Zika virus and Chikungunya that can be prevented through vector control. Chemical insecticides are resisted by vectors, harm humans and the ecosystem thereby making their use opprobrious. Plants essential oils are safer alternatives. Oils of <em>Citrus sinensis </em>and <em>Citrus paradisi</em> fruit peels are readily available in Nsukka but their effect on <em>Aedes aegypti</em> remain uncertain so it became imperative to verify the effect of these oil extracts on them. The cold maceration method was used to extract essential oils from their peels. They were used singly and in various formulations to evaluate the behaviour of starved <em>Ae. aegypti</em> adults. WHO protocols were applied in obtaining the effective doses and complete protection time. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Various formulations repelled mosquitoes in the magnitude of 100 % &gt; 75 % &gt; 50% &gt; 25% and significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) noted between formulations. Formulations B and H showed highest repellence effects with 0 – 3 number of mosquito landings during the three minutes of test period. Probit analysis showed that 1.14 ml of formulation G was required to achieve 99% repellence. Formulation B demonstrated synergism of the oils attaining the highest complete protection time of 150 minutes. This study showed that oil extracts of <em>C. sinensis </em>and <em>C. paradisi </em>would prevent female <em>Aedes aegypti</em> adults from landing on or feeding from skins smeared with each of the oil or their combinations. The oils exhibited synergism when combined hence could be used to control this mosquito.</p> Francis Stephen Ogbonna Ugwu Chidiebere Divine Chime Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-18 2023-09-18 21 3 2099 2112 10.4314/br.v21i3.4 Histological and morphometric analysis of skeletal muscle in some vertebrates <p>The skeletal system is primarily driven by the skeletal muscles to produce kinematic movements. The study evaluates the histological and morphometric properties of skeletal muscle in <em>Clarias gariepenus</em> (<em>Cl.</em><em> gariepinus</em>), <em>Bufo bufo</em> (<em>B. bufo</em>), <em>Agama agama</em> (<em>A. agama</em>), <em>Columba livia domestica</em> (<em>C. domestica</em>) and <em>Rattus rattus</em> (<em>R. rattus</em>). The study was carried in order to relate the similarities and differences of skeletal muscles in these species with evolutionary trend. The epaxial muscle of <em>Cl. </em><em>Gariepinus</em>, the biceps femoris muscle of <em>B. bufo</em>, <em>R. rattus,</em> puboischiotibialis of <em>A. agama,</em> and pectoral muscle from <em>C. domestica</em> were removed and assessed grossly for physical appearance then processed for histological analysis. The diameters of the muscle fibers were measured and one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the differences. The muscles of <em>Cl. </em><em>gariepinus</em>, <em>B. bufo</em> and <em>A. agama</em> appeared whitish with scanty fusiform nucleus and large intermuscular space.&nbsp; However, the muscles of <em>C. domestica</em> and <em>R. rattus</em> appeared red with distinct round nucleus and small intermuscular space. No significant difference (P&gt;0.05) was observed in the muscle diameter of <em>Cl. </em><em>gariepinus </em>(8.86±0.13µm) compared to <em>B. bufo</em> (8.25±0.27µm). The muscle diameter of <em>A. agama</em> (10.18±0.25µm) was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) relative to <em>Cl. </em><em>gariepinus </em>(8.86±0.13µm), <em>B. bufo</em> (8.25±0.27µm),<em> C. domestica </em>(3.38±0.13µm) and <em>R. rattus</em> (4.66±0.15µm). Conclusively, non-tetrapod vertebrates (<em>Cl. </em><em>gariepinus</em>, <em>B. bufo,</em> and <em>A. agama</em>) have simple, white-colored skeletal muscle with few flat-shaped nuclei and large fiber diameters while higher vertebrates (<em>C. domestica</em> and <em>R. rattus</em>) have complex, red-colored skeletal muscle with numerous oval-shaped nucleus and small fiber diameter.</p> Sunday Joseph Manye Nathan Isaac Dibal Martha Orendu Oche Attah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 21 3 2113 2120 10.4314/br.v21i3.5 Effect of flamboyant flower (Delonix regia) powder on root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) infestation on tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) in Yola, Adamawa State <p>Plant Parasitic Nematodes (PPN) are regarded as one of the major challenges of sustainable tomato production in the world. Their control which involves the use of synthetic chemicals is being restricted because of their toxicity coupled with the environmental risk associated with their use. To this effect this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of flamboyant flower powder on <em>M. incognita</em> inoculated on tomato plants as an alternative control strategy of PPN. Screen house experiment (potted experiment) was conducted at the landscape garden of Modibbo Adama University Yola to evaluate the efficacy of plant powder for the control of root- knot nematode in tomato plant. The experimental design used was the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments replicated three times. <em>D. regia</em> powders were incorporated at different levels into the bucket each containing 4kg of sterilized soil. The plant powder was incorporated at the rate of 40g, 30g, 20g and 10g (T<sub>1</sub>, T<sub>2</sub>, and T<sub>3</sub>) respectively and T<sub>4</sub> with no level of powder 0g. <em>D. regia</em> powder and 40g gave the best effect on <em>M. incognita </em>in the potted experiments as higher plant height, number of leaves; fresh shoot weight, galling index and least final nematode of both soil and roots were recorded. Therefore, from these findings, <em>D. regia</em> at 40g exhibited nematicidal effect on <em>M. incognita </em>in tomato plant followed by 30g, 20g, and 10g respectively. The nematicidal characteristics exhibited by this plant material (flamboyant flower) might be due to some phytochemical constituents present in the plant material. The control plant has least plant height, number of leaves, fresh shoot weight, plant fruit and higher fresh root weight as well as galling index and highest final root and soil nematode population.</p> Maryam Yahaya Adamu Philip Peter Mustapha Imrana Yusuf Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 21 3 2121 2130 10.4314/br.v21i3.6 Sodium sesquicarbonate elicits oxidative stress in erythrocytes, liver and kidney tissues <p>Sodium sesquicarbonate also known as Sodium sesquicarbonate dihydrate (SSD) has been used globally for centuries in food and traditional medical practices. There is paucity of scientific information on the safety of this common food additive. This study was designed to find out if the oral administration of SSD is capable of generating oxidative stress in erythrocytes, liver and kidney using albino rats as experimental models.&nbsp; The total number of animals used for this study was fifteen. The experimental animals were grouped into three. There were five animals in each group. The rats in the first group which was the control group, were dosed with 1 ml distilled water, while groups 2 and 3 were treated with 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight (bw) of SSD, respectively, once daily <em>per os</em> for 28 days. After the duration of treatment, the erythrocytes, hepatic and kidney tissues were processed for the analysis. The biomarkers of oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances/ malondialdehyde (TBARS/MDA) were assayed. The result indicated that catalase enzyme activity was overexpressed in the red blood cells, liver and kidneys of the group that consumed the lower dose of SSD. The dose-dependent increase in the lipid peroxidation of the tissues as indicated by increased levels of MDA in the erythrocytes and TBARS in the tissues of the treated groups was significant (P &lt; 0.05). The SOD enzyme activity in all the tissues assayed showed a dose-dependent decrease, which was significant at the probability level of 0.05. The consumption of SSD therefore caused lipid peroxidation and reduction in activity of the antioxidants present in the tissues studied.</p> Chioma Uchenna Nwaigwe Samuel Chukwuneke Udem Chukwuemeka Onyekachi Nwaigwe Ifeanyi Innocent Madubunyi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-02 2023-11-02 21 3 2131 2140 10.4314/br.v21i3.7 Concentrations and health risks of particulate matter (PM2.5) and associated elements in the ambient air of Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria <p><span class="fontstyle0">Particulate matter (PM) exposure from ambient air has been implicated in several diseases, which necessitates periodic air monitoring in every dwelling place, particularly urban centers, to detect overexposure early. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of PM2.5 and associated elements, namely carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O</span><span class="fontstyle0">3</span><span class="fontstyle0">), and nitrogen dioxide (NO</span><span class="fontstyle0">2</span><span class="fontstyle0">) in Lagos, Nigeria. An<br>Aerosol Mass Monitor was employed to quantify the concentrations of PM2.5, NO</span><span class="fontstyle0">2</span><span class="fontstyle0">, CO</span><span class="fontstyle0">, </span><span class="fontstyle0">and O</span><span class="fontstyle0">3 </span><span class="fontstyle0">at ten selected locations in the city, namely, Allen Avenue, Kolington, Isheri, Badagry, Opebi, Eti-Osa, Ajeniya, Awolowo, Orile, and Ajegunle. The values obtained were thereafter used to estimate the hazard quotient (</span><span class="fontstyle2">HQ</span><span class="fontstyle0">) of the average hourly dose (</span><span class="fontstyle2">AHD</span><span class="fontstyle0">) and average daily dose (</span><span class="fontstyle2">ADD</span><span class="fontstyle0">) exposures to the particles. The results revealed that PM2.5 levels in all the locations were above the 15µg/m</span><span class="fontstyle0">3 </span><span class="fontstyle0">permissible level recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), except in Badagry (5.36µg/m</span><span class="fontstyle0">3</span><span class="fontstyle0">). NO</span><span class="fontstyle0">2 </span><span class="fontstyle0">was above the 25µg/m</span><span class="fontstyle0">3 </span><span class="fontstyle0">permissible level in all locations except in Badagry (6.11µg/m</span><span class="fontstyle0">3</span><span class="fontstyle0">) and Ajeniya (0.00µg/m</span><span class="fontstyle0">3</span><span class="fontstyle0">). Meanwhile, in all the locations, CO was above the tolerable level (i.e., &gt;7µg/m</span><span class="fontstyle0">3</span><span class="fontstyle0">) while O</span><span class="fontstyle0">3 </span><span class="fontstyle0">was within permissible levels (i.e., &lt;100µg/m</span><span class="fontstyle0">3</span><span class="fontstyle0">). The </span><span class="fontstyle2">HQ </span><span class="fontstyle0">of the </span><span class="fontstyle2">AHD </span><span class="fontstyle0">of the pollutants was less than the threshold of 1, but the </span><span class="fontstyle2">HQ </span><span class="fontstyle0">of the </span><span class="fontstyle2">ADD </span><span class="fontstyle0">was greater than 1 in many locations. It can be inferred from the results that daily exposure to PM2.5, NO</span><span class="fontstyle0">2</span><span class="fontstyle0">, and CO in the city can cause serious health consequences for residents. Agencies in charge of health and the environment in the city are advised to formulate policies towards pollution reduction.</span> </p> Tajudeen Yahaya Faruk Mohammed Umar Ali Mohammed Zanna Abdulazeez Abdulmalik Bala Abdulgafar Ibrahim Musa Bilyaminu Adedayo Joseph Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 21 3 2141 2149 10.4314/br.v21i3.9 Prophylactic activities of Olax viridis in the liver of rats challenged with carbon tetrachloride <p><em>Olax viridis </em>is a plant used for its ethnomedical properties. This experiment was focused at assessing the prophylactic activities of <em>O. viridis </em>against carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) - induced hepatotoxicity. Twenty-five male albino rats were randomly divided into five categories. Categories 1 and 2 received distilled water, category 3 received the extract at 100 mg/kg body weight (bw), 4 received the extract at 200 mg/kg while 5 received Silymarin at 100 mg/kg. The route of administration was <em>per os</em>, 12 hourly for five days. One hour after the last treatment, groups 2-5 were challenged orally with 0.15 ml/kg of CCl<sub>4</sub> in olive oil. Eighteen hours later, blood samples were collected for serum assay of aspartate amino-transferase, alanine amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein. The effect of the extract on CCl<sub>4 </sub>alteration of pentobarbitone sleeping time was assessed using another 5 groups of five rats each. The animals were treated as described for the first experiment. There was no significant difference (P &lt; 0.05) between the serum biochemical markers of the animals given 100mg/kg bw of the extract, those given 100mg/kg bw of silymarin and those of the control group but they were significantly different (P &gt; 0.05) from those of the category treated with 200mg/kg of the extract and the category given only CCl<sub>4</sub>. Similar trend was observed in the pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time experiment. This study reveals that the methanolic root extract of <em>O. viridis </em>can protect the liver against CCl<sub>4</sub> induced hepatotoxicity.</p> Uchechukwu Chukwudi Obiekwe Chioma Uchenna Nwaigwe Chukwuemeka Onyekachi Nwaigwe Innocent Ifeanyi Madubunyi Edmund Chidiebere Mgbaegbu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 21 3 2150 2157 10.4314/br.v21i3.8 The effect of dietary supplementation with aqueous extract of freshly harvested Talinum triangulare (waterleaf) plant on the haematology, serum biochemistry and carcass quality of broilers <p>A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with <em>Talinum triangulare</em> (waterleaf) plant extract on broiler production and meat quality. A total of 75-day-old broiler chicks were used for a 35-day study which commenced after four weeks of brooding. Feed and water were provided<em> ad libitum</em>. Aqueous extract from freshly harvested waterleaf plant were administered in drinking water of broilers at doses of 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/L of drinking water, for treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) respectively. The effect of <em>T. triangulare</em> supplementation on the haematology, serum biochemistry and carcass quality were investigated. Blood for haematology and serum biochemistry was collected following standard protocols at day 0, 18, and 36 of the study. Carcass quality was evaluated at the end of the study. Results showed that treatment with aqueous extract of freshly harvested <em>T. triangulare</em> administered in drinking water of broilers had no significant effect on haematology parameters. 2158 significantly (p&lt;0.5) reduced after treatment. However, high density lipoprotein values generally increased, though not significant at (p&gt;0.5), and fat deposits around organs and abdomen was markedly depleted with treatment. Dietary supplementation with <em>T. triangulare</em> extracts in broilers resulted in healthier broiler lipid profile and meat, evidence is based on reduction in serum level of cholesterol and fat deposits in carcass.</p> Chinwe Justina Aronu Aruh Ottah Anaga John Ihedioha Ihedioha Benjamin Nwabueze Marire Sylvanus Maduka Anika Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-12 2023-11-12 21 3 2158 2166 10.4314/br.v21i3.10 Challenges and opportunities existing in the floriculture industry in Africa: knowledge and future research prospects <p>Floriculture is a growing sector and represents an asset to the economy of most developing countries in Africa. This paper aims to access the existing knowledge gaps and how such gaps might be filled to develop the floriculture industry sustainably in Africa. Scientific information on the floriculture industry was searched on three online databases (ScienceDirect, Google Scholar African Journals Online and PubMed) to gather much reliable data on the last 30 years in Africa. Thus, 23 scientific publications distributed in eight African countries were considered and examined. East African countries are the most interested in the floriculture industry, with Kenya and Ethiopia as the leaders. There are about a hundred ornamental plant in Africa and they are dominated by exotic species that sold (50%) in northern countries. The cut flowers and foliage are mainly used to brighten up party days, insightful human well-being and the perfumery industry, as well as landscape plants, for hedging, game cover, slope stabilization, food, and aromatherapy. The most important challenges to tackle in floricultural production are related to climate change, pests, and pathogens attacks. Irrigated floricultural production, development and culture of resistant and adaptative varieties, and creation of home markets are recommended to ensure sustainable improvement of environmental quality, food security, and socio-economic aggregate for communities.</p> Pierrette Pauline Deguenon Mèmonsso Houéhanou François Gbesso Gbodja Idohou Rodrigue Hounsou-Dindin Guillaume Bruno Djossa Agossou Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-21 2023-11-21 21 3 2167 2177 10.4314/br.v21i3.11 Assessment of the liver biochemical status of carpenters occupationally exposed to wood dust in Enugu metropolis South-East Nigeria. <p>Liver disease has a global distribution and ranks as the twelfth leading cause of mortality. This cross-sectional study carried out between June and November 2021 aimed to assess the liver biochemical status of carpenters occupationally exposed to wood dust in Enugu metropolis South-east Nigeria. The Ethical Committee of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital in Enugu gave its approval. A total of one hundred and twenty-four (124) participants; sixty-two (62) carpenters (exposed) and sixty-two (62) age and sex-matched (males) control (unexposed) were recruited for this study. Study participants were chosen by simple random sampling. Spectrophotometric method was used to test participants’ blood samples for liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). A statistically significant increase (p&lt;0.05) was observed in the liver biochemical enzymes of the carpenters (exposed) in comparison to the controls (unexposed). The carpenters do not use any form of personal protective equipment (90.32%) or have a good knowledge of any occupational risk (83.87%) they are exposed to.&nbsp; A statistically significant positive correlation (p&lt;0.05) was observed between ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity and the duration of exposure to wood dust (in years) of the exposed. This study suggests that occupational exposure to wood dust may cause metabolic changes in the Liver. Constant use of personal protective equipment when at work, personal hygiene and regular health check is recommended.</p> Ozioma Ebere Obianyido Hector Okechukwu Obianyido Chukwugozie Nwachukwu Okwuosa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 21 3 2177 2186 10.4314/br.v21i3.12 Anti-anaemic effects of leaf protein concentrate of Eremomastax speciosa (Hochst) Cufod. on some blood parameters of male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia <p>This study investigated the effects of leaf protein concentrate (LPC) of <em>Eremomastax speciosa</em> (Hochst.) Cufod on some haematological and serum profile of 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into nine groups of five rats per group. The rats received fresh drinking water daily, with feed at 85% of ad-lib. The standard haematinic used was Ranferon-12<sup>®</sup>, at the dose of 0.3ml/kg body weight. The resultant groups were; Group1 (Positive control, received commercial feed) Group 2 (phenylhydrazine only or negative control), Group 3 (anaemia +haematinic), 4, 5 and 6 (anaemia +100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of LPC respectively), Groups 7, 8, 9 (Untreated (or UT) +100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of LPC respectively). The LPC was administered orally to the designated groups, while the controls received distilled water in place of the LPC. Anaemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of phenylhydrazine at 40 mg/kg for 2 days. Samples for haematological and biochemical analysis were collected on days 9, 21 and 28 of the experiment. Results showed that the groups supplemented with LPC were better in terms of the haematology and serum biochemical values compared to the negative control, and this strongly supported the traditional use of <em>E. speciosa</em> leaf in the treatment of anaemia.</p> Chukwuemeka Onyekachi Nwaigwe Chioma Uchenna Nwaigwe Uchechukwu Chukwudi Obiekwe Lukman Oladimeji Raji Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 21 3 2187 2197 10.4314/br.v21i3.13 Process parameters optimization for biosynthesis of gibberellic acid using orange waste as an alternative substrate <p>Gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) is the most important gibberellin that affects various plant developmental processes. As such, it has an international market value of $106 million dollars. However, it is costly in the market because of high downstream processing cost that is linked to its current mode of production via submerged fermentation. Solid-state fermentation, in contrast, minimizes this limitation of cost when optimal process parameters are used. Hence, this study utilized orange waste as a cheap substrate in the bio-production of gibberellic acid through the optimization of three process parameters (incubation temperature, pH and substrate concentration). The study also investigated the interactive effects of these parameters on the yield of gibberellic acid. Using Design Expert<sup>®</sup> software, a 19-run experiment, varied at five levels, was generated. Accordingly, each fermentation reaction that had been supplemented with 0.03% FeSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O and 0.01% (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>was inoculated with a constant fungal inoculum. The highest yield of gibberellic acid was with a combination of 19.5 g of substrate set at 30 °C incubation temperature with a pH of 5.5. The interaction between the three factors was a linear relationship. The bio-production of gibberellic acid using orange waste as an alternative substrate suggests the possibility of a further reduction in cost of production of high-end value metabolites when proper optimization is carried out.</p> Nuhu Ja’afar Ja’afar Muazu Muhyideen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 21 3 2198 2206