Bio-Research <p>The “Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research)” is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, international, scientific Open Access Journal that provides publication of articles on biological sciences and biotechnology. The journal established in 2003, is published by the faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. The Journal welcomes submission of manuscripts in the form of original and reviews articles, brief and case reports, special communications and editorials, that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published online approximately one-to-two weeks after acceptance.</p> <p>Publication of articles in the Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research) involves several parties, each of which performs an essential role in achieving the aims and objectives of the journal. Thus, all players (author, the journal editor, the peer-reviewer, and the publisher) are expected to meet and uphold standard norms of ethical behaviour from submission to the publication stage, depending on the area of involvement.</p> Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria en-US Bio-Research 1596-7409 <p><strong>Bio-Research journal&nbsp;</strong>is an open access journal, which means all its content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution.</p> <p>You are free to share (that is, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) as long as you follow these licence terms:</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<img class="image-inline img-responsive img-fluid" title="64px-Cc-by_new_white.svg.png" src="" alt="" data-linktype="image" data-val="a7c4119c7bc642fa8641176286a372b5" data-scale="large">&nbsp; Attribution&nbsp;(by)</p> <p>You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license.</p> <p><img class="image-inline img-responsive img-fluid" title="Cc-nc_white.svg.png" src="" alt="" data-linktype="image" data-val="fb0ef2a1afbc458ca1a48b7520237a9c" data-scale="large">&nbsp;&nbsp; Non Commercial&nbsp;(nc)</p> <p>You can copy, distribute, display, perform, and use this material for any purpose other than commercially (unless you get permission first). Non Commercial means not primarily intended for or directed towards commercial advantage or monetary compensation.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img class="image-inline img-responsive img-fluid" title="nd.png" src="" alt="" data-linktype="image" data-val="1e6a0b1732324df4a95416595c6c6e4c" data-scale="large">&nbsp; No Derivatives&nbsp;(nd)</p> <p>If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may&nbsp;not&nbsp;distribute the modified material. But note that simply changing the format does not create a derivative.</p> <p>No additional restrictions&nbsp;— You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the licence permits.<br><br>Notices<br>You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.</p> Evaluation of sub-acute oral toxicity effects of Phaulopsis falcisepala C.B. Clarke (Acanthaceae) in rats <p><em>Phaulopsis falcisepala</em> is a herb or undershrub found in forest zone of West Africa and used for a wide range of ethnomedicinal purposes. Despite the ethnomedicinal importance of <em>P. falcisepala</em>, detailed data about its safety and toxicity is lacking. This study was done to evaluate sub-acute toxicity of <em>P. falcisepala </em>in rats. Whole plant of <em>P. falcisepala </em>was extracted with methanol. Wistar rats (n = 6/group) were administered orally with <em>P. falcisepala</em> extract at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Control group received distilled water. Physical observations were recorded daily and weights of animals were recorded weekly. After 28 days, samples of blood, serum and vital organs were obtained for haematological, biochemical and histological evaluations. Results showed that daily oral doses of <em>P. falcisepala</em> extract up to 1000 mg/kg for 28-days did not cause any behavioral changes or mortality. The plant extract did not induce significant alterations in body-weights, haematological, hepatic and renal parameters and serum levels of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. No significant differences (p &gt; 0.05) were recorded in relative weights of ovaries, testes, heart and kidneys of experimental groups compared to control group. Changes were observed in lipid profile (p &lt; 0.05) and histology of kidneys and liver of rats treated with plant extract, particularly at highest dose, 1000 mg/kg. These findings suggest that extract of <em>P. falcisepala</em> could be safely applied for its medicinal properties at low to medium doses. However, sub-acute administration of doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day could pose deleterious risk to liver and kidneys.</p> Idris Olatunji Sanusi Akolade Ridwan Oladipupo Stephenie Chinwe Ama Alaribe Copyright (c) 2023-01-12 2023-01-12 21 1 1763 1777 10.4314/br.v21i1.1 Growth, mortality and exploitation rates of Lethrinus atlanticus in the marine waters of Ghana, West Africa <p>Some aspects of population parameters of <em>L. atlanticus</em> in the marine waters of Ghana were studied from July 2018 to June 2019. Length based data were obtained from 473 samples and analyzed using the TropFishR package in R software. The growth parameters including asymptotic length (L∞), growth (K) and growth performance index (phi) were 27.0 cm TL, was 27 cm TL, 1.73 yr-1, and 3.239 respectively, with Rn value of 0.29. The total, natural and fishing mortality rate (Z) were 5.03 yr-1, 2.08 yr-1 and 2.96 yr-1 respectively Exploitation rate (E) was slightly higher than the optimum level of 0.5, suggesting that the species is sustainably exploited.</p> Samuel Kweku Konney Amponsah Nii Commeyn Selasi Awornyom Samuel Henneh Copyright (c) 2023-01-12 2023-01-12 21 1 1778 1788 10.4314/br.v21i1. Why the World Health Organization should reconsider long lasting insecticide nets (LLIN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in primary mosquito/malaria control in favour of house screening <p>Mosquitoes spread malaria parasites in closed/open environment when they feed endophagously/ exophagously. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLIN) are control measures adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) that have not led to malaria elimination. Delay in defeating mosquito/malaria is attributed to WHO’s espousal of the last line of intervention that at-risk persons often ignore. Mosquito control methods will have to change if we must make progress in this direction. This paper shows that mosquitoes must survive four barriers before successfully attacking a host in a bed net. Correspondingly, indoor hosts have four levels of defenses where mosquitoes could be challenged albeit with increasing impediments. The first line of defense consists of net-screened windows, doors and eaves which circumscribe houses-outdoor environment. At-risk persons do not resist/refuse net-screening the openings in their houses. The last defensive intervention which most at-risk persons often resist most is sleeping in bed nets. The Achilles heel of IRS and LLIN include but not limited to vector resistance to insecticides, discomfort to beneficiaries, harm to non-target organisms, inequity in supply and distribution of control materials. List of advantages attributable to LLIN use has only 7 items whereas disadvantages have 37 items. House screening has better appeal to control mosquito/malaria indoors. The WHO should replace LLIN and IRS with house screening as the primary control method. Governments in endemic regions must use legislation to drive house screening especially with the s/o channel/grip devices that is accessible, cheap, effective and sustainable</p> Francis Stephen Ogbonna Ugwu Copyright (c) 2023-02-04 2023-02-04 21 1 1789 1804 10.4314/br.v21i1.3 Mediators of arrested development as attractive malaria vector control tools: The Azadirachta indica and azadirachtin routes <p>Insecticides are utilized as key components in agriculture and public health tool-kits. Mosquitoes are targeted using out/indoor insecticide sprays and treated bed nets to reduce malaria. These practices are associated with increasing resistance in various species of mosquitoes, multiple insecticide use, environmental pollution, high cost and spread of malaria into regions where they did not exist before. This paper explores the possibility of developing a safer route to mosquito control through the use of plant secondary metabolites. Peer-reviewed literature on safe substances from biological sources with attractive potentials to mediate arrested development on water-based stages of mosquitoes were appraised. Google Scholar search engine was used to locate published works from reputable journals and institutions by feeding its dialogue search box with relevant key words. Insecticide use is bedeviled with lots of impediments which embolden malaria vectors to acquire resistance, destabilize the ecosystem besides causing public health problems. Plants such as <em>Citrullus colocynthi, Azadirachta indica, </em>etc. contain secondary metabolites that are effective in arresting eggs, larva and pupa in water. <em>Azadirachta indica</em> extract is reputed to have the highest activity against insect vectors. Its most active ingredient against vectors is azadirachtin.&nbsp; Its use in mosquito control will be sustainable as it is well endowed with both reduced cost, accessibility and effectiveness in small water bodies around human surroundings. Small- and large-scale production of azadirachtin can be done through plant tissue culture which is boosted with new editing tools in genetic engineering. Use of <em>A. Indica</em>’s azadirachtin is a safe malaria vector control that can be accomplished through imposition of arrested development on immature mosquitoes. Its role in deceiving egg laden mosquitoes deserve further investigations while funding agencies such as World Health Organization (WHO) and governments of Sub Sahara Africa should take advantage of this harmless route to eliminate malaria.</p> Francis Stephen Ogbonna Ugwu Uchenna Oyeagu Copyright (c) 2023-02-04 2023-02-04 21 1 1805 1817 10.4314/br.v21i1.4 Evaluation of the haemostatic potentials of aqueous extract of Hyptis suaveolens leaves in wistar rats <p><em>Hyptis suaveolens </em>is widely used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of bleeding and wounds amongst a number of other ailments. This study investigated the haemostatic activities as well as the effects of <em>Hyptis suaveolens</em> on some haematological parameters in Wistar rats. Preliminary phytochemical, mineral and trace metal analyses, as well as toxicity studies were carried out on the plant extract.&nbsp; Twenty (20) adult female Wistar rats having an average weight of 152.4 g were divided into four (4) groups comprising five (5) animals per group. Group 1 served as the control and received no treatment. Group 2 received 100 mg/kg bodyweight of extract; Group 3 received 200 mg/kg bodyweight of extract while Group 4 received 400 mg/kg bodyweight of extract. All treatments were administered orally for 21 days. The clotting time (sec), bleeding time (sec), prothrombin time (sec), partial thromboplastin time (sec) and haematological indices of the animals were all investigated and the results were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The extract significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) the clotting and bleeding times at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses of administration compared with control. The extract also significantly increased the red blood cell (RBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) levels at all doses of administration compared with the control. The prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times along with other haematological parameters investigated, showed no significant variations. The significant lowering (p ≤ 0.05) of the bleeding and clotting times of the animals that received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg dose respectively of the extract compared with control, suggests that the aqueous extract of <em>Hyptis suaveolens</em> possesses haemostatic potentials.</p> Ifeoma Mokwenye Catherin Chidinma Ikewuchi Ngozi Franca Okoye Copyright (c) 2023-02-04 2023-02-04 21 1 1818 1827 10.4314/br.v21i1.5 Production of gluconic acid from sweet potato peels using naturally occurring fungi by submerged fermentation <p>The oxidation of glucose produces gluconic acid, a significant organic acid. The aim of this study was to produce gluconic acid from sweet potato peels by submerged fermentation. Isolation and identification of fungi were done using standard microbiological methods. Proximate analysis of substrate and screening of fungal isolates for gluconic acid production was done using standard procedures. Gluconic acid yields were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A standard gluconic acid producer, <em>Aspergillus niger</em> ATCC 10577, was used as control. A sum of six different fungal species were isolated and identified. They included <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>, <em>Penicillum</em> sp., <em>Cladosporium</em> sp., <em>Rhizopus stolonifer</em> and <em>Aspergillus terreus</em>. Proximate composition of the sweet potato peels showed percentage carbohydrate of 20.81 ± 0.07, percentage moisture of 64.02 ± 0.27. Screening for gluconic acid production showed that <em>Aspergillus niger</em> had the highest zone of clearance and identified as <em>Aspergillus niger </em>UFMGCB 14248. Our data further showed that gluconic acid concentrations (mg/ml) was highest at substrate concentration 50 g/L, carbon source starch, incubation day 7 and pH 6 for both <em>Aspergillus niger</em> UFMGCB 14248 and <em>Aspergillus niger</em> ATCC 10577. The findings showed that the fungal isolates used in this study were good gluconic acid producers</p> Adeyinka Elizabeth Ajibo Rukayat Olaitan Said Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-04 2023-02-04 21 1 1828 1837 10.4314/br.v21i1.6 Nutritional evaluation of formulated Arachis hypogea L. and Anacardium occidentale L. supplemented feeds in weaning albino rats <p>Malnutrition is still a serious public health problem in developing countries including Nigeria. This may be attributed to the deficiency of vital nutrients, especially in weaning foods for infants. The current study evaluated the nutritional importance of two formulations: <em>Arachis hypogea </em>and <em>Anarcardium occidentale </em>supplemented feeds in weaning rats. The proximate composition analysis of the formulated <em>Arachis hypogea </em>and <em>Anarcardium </em>supplemented feeds contained significantly (P&lt;0.05) high amounts of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. There were also significantly (P&lt;0.05) high levels of amino acids; lysine, arginine, methionine, histidine, leucine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, compared to the control. A total of 15 weaned albino rats were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into three groups; A, B and C. Group A was fed with standard feed while Groups B and C were fed with <em>Arachis hypogea </em>and <em>Anarcardium occidentale</em> supplemented feeds respectively, for 21 days, after which the blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological assays using standard methods. The level of glucose, total proteins, albumin and globulin were significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) compared to the control. The results of hematological parameters indicated significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (HB) and platelets (PLT), when compared to the control. These results indicated the nutritional significance of the two formulated feeds for complementation in weaning foods and infants’ nutrition.</p> Shaaya Shehu Idris Auwal Hassan Ahmed Rabiu Saidu Umar Wasagu Chika Mohammed Sani Said Sani Copyright (c) 2023-03-05 2023-03-05 21 1 1838 1844 10.4314/br.v21i1.7 Melıssopalynologıcal study of Apıs Mellıfera L. honey sourced from dıfferent localıtıes in the mıddle belt of Nıgerıa <p>Melissopalynological studies are useful to determine the floral contents and geographical origin of honey samples. The great diversity of plants allows bees to produce honey that is highly valuable to the consumers. This study was aimed to determine pollen types in honey samples collected from the Middle Belt region to provide information on botanical origin of honeys. Six honey samples were collected from Benue and Kogi States in North Central, Nigeria. According to their pollen spectra, they were multiflora honeys. The honey samples collected from Benue State had a total pollen count of 8, 932, thirty nine pollen types in twenty five (25) families of plant and samples from Kogi State recorded 3,859 pollen, 29 pollen types in nineteen 19 plant families.&nbsp;&nbsp; A total of thirteen pollen types were identified to generic level, fifteen to species&nbsp; and nine to family level in honey samples collected from Benue State whereas in Kogi State samples, eleven pollen types were identified to generic level, eight&nbsp; to species and nine to family level. The major pollen types in Benue honey samples were <em>Sarcocephalus latifolius</em>&nbsp;,<em> Phyllanthus</em> sp., <em>Lannea</em> sp., <em>Hymenocardia acida,</em> <em>Syzygium guineense</em>, <em>Solanum</em> sp., <em>Parkia biglobosa</em>, members of Anacardiaceae, Combretaceae/Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae and Sapindaceae whereas <em>Hymenocardia acida,</em> <em>Elaeis guineensis,</em> <em>Solanum</em> sp., <em>Cassia</em> sp., <em>Sarcocephalus latifolius</em><em>, </em>members of Combretaeaeceae/Melastomataceae and Fabaceae were dominant in samples from Kogi State. The pollen analyses provided important information on the floral source preferences of bees and on honey contents, which can be used by traditional beekeepers and the public in general in promoting the production and consumption of high quality honey in the Middle Belt region of Nigeria.</p> Nchedochukwu Clara Ikegbunam John Okwong Walter Emeka Emmanuel Osayi Reginald Chukwuemeka Njokuocha Meshach Ikechukwu Ezeadim Nkechinyere Onyekwere Nweze Copyright (c) 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 21 1 1845 1858 10.4314/br.v21i1.8 Performance evaluation of secondary triploid Musa hybrids from in-vitro and ex-vitro derived propagules <p>This experiment was carried out at the High Rainfall Station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Onne, Rivers State, Nigeria, to investigate if secondary triploid plantains established using <em>in-vitro</em> excised zygotic embryo propagules and tissue culture will differ significantly from those established by using <em>ex-vitro</em> propagules such as seeds obtained from open or hand pollinated parents. Seeds of secondary triploid plantain hybrids were obtained by crossing tetraploid female hybrids TMP4x 2796-5 and TMP4x 4698-1 by hand pollination with pollen from known diploid males TMP2x 1297-3 and TMP2x 1448-1. Another set of these female hybrids were exposed to open pollination. At maturity, seeds from ripened mature fruits from both methods of pollination had their zygotic embryos extracted and cultured <em>in-vitro</em>. Another set of seeds were grown <em>ex-vitro</em> in the soil. Both <em>in-vitro</em> and <em>ex-vitro</em> derived propagules obtained from open and hand pollinated parents were raised in the tissue culture laboratory and the nursery respectively. Three replications of the 12 treatments of eight-week-old secondary triploids were planted in the field at 3m x 2m spacing using an RCB (randomized complete block) design. Data collected were: number of days to 50% flowering (DTF), time to fruit filling (TFF), plant height and number of leaves at 50% flowering, bunch weight, number of hands/bunches, fingers/ bunch and total yield. Collected data were analysed using ANOVA in RCB design at (P = 0.05) while means were compared with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at (<em>P</em> = 0.05). Inconsistent individual genotypically significant differences were found in some phenological and vegetative characters, yield constituents and total yield between <em>ex-vitro</em> and<em> in-vitro</em> derived secondary triploids indicating no definitive pattern in responses of the secondary triploids. However, only days to flowering (DTF) showed consistent significant notable differences out of all these traits. Generally, the <em>ex-vitro</em> derived secondary triploids flowered significantly later than <em>in-vitro</em> derived ones. The secondary triploids from open pollinated parental crosses flowered significantly earlier than those obtained from the hand pollinated parental crosses.</p> Wilson Victoria Tenkouano Abdou Copyright (c) 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 21 1 1859 1869 10.4314/br.v21i1.9