Bio-Research <p>The “Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research)” is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, international, scientific Open Access Journal that provides publication of articles on biological sciences and biotechnology. The journal established in 2003, is published by the faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. The Journal welcomes submission of manuscripts in the form of original and reviews articles, brief and case reports, special communications and editorials, that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published online approximately one-to-two weeks after acceptance.</p> <p>Publication of articles in the Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research) involves several parties, each of which performs an essential role in achieving the aims and objectives of the journal. Thus, all players (author, the journal editor, the peer-reviewer, and the publisher) are expected to meet and uphold standard norms of ethical behaviour from submission to the publication stage, depending on the area of involvement.</p> en-US <p>Copyright: Creative Commons Attribution CC.</p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials. View License Deed | View Legal Code Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository. This is the final corrected version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications.</p> (Prof Emeka I. Nweze) (Dr Parker Joshua (Managing Editor)) Thu, 01 Apr 2021 18:19:09 +0000 OJS 60 Sublethal Effects of Organophosphate Chlorpyrifos on Hemato-Immunological Parameters of the Gercacinid Crab, Cardiosoma armatum (Herklots, 1851) <p>Low insecticide exposure has been shown to cause profound effects on non-target organisms, including crabs. Therefore, the changes in hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and antioxidant enzymes in the Gercacinid crab,<em> Cardiosoma armatum </em>were assessed during 28-day exposure to four concentrations of organophosphate chlorpyrifos (0.003, 0.006, 0.03 and 0.06 mg/l). The results showed a significant (P= 0.0) decrease in packed cell volume and total haemocyte count of the exposure crabs (except in 0.003 mg/l concentration) compared to control group. There were no significant changes in hemocyte sedimentation rate, granulocyte and agranulocyte, although all exposure groups increased in hemocyte sedimentation rate and agranulocyte with respective ranges of 3.00-3.02 mm/hr and 64.00-67.00 %. Except for alkaline phosphatase, there were no significant variation in the biochemical profile of both the control crabs and exposure crabs, although organophosphate chlorpyrifos exposure induced increase in all the measured biochemical parameters. The serum protein level and the activities of the enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde) were inhibited in exposure groups. The changes in these hemato-immunological parameters of the crabs were suitable biomarkers of a sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos at the concentrations tested, and this will be useful in biomonitoring of aquatic environment.</p> Christian Chinonso Ugwu, Rasheed Olatunji Moruf, Aderonke Omolara Lawal-Are Copyright (c) Thu, 18 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Partial Purification and Characterization of Endoxylanase from a fungus, Leohumicola incrustata <p>Xylanases are glycoside hydrolases (GH) that degrade β-1,4-xylan, a linear polysaccharide found as hemicellulose in cell wall of plants. Endoxylanase (Endo-1,4-β-xylanase, EC randomly catalyses xylan to produce varying short xylooligosaccharides (XOS). This study aimed to determine the characteristics of a partially purified endoxylanase from <em>Leohumicola incrustata</em>. Enzyme production was carried out using beechwood (BW) xylan, after which the cell-free crude filtrate was concentrated using the ammonium sulphate precipitation method. The hydrolysed products were analysed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and zymography. The result showed that the enzyme produced varying smaller-sized linear xylooligosaccharides with R<sub>f</sub> values corresponding to those of xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, xylohexaose and other higher oligomers. The endoxylanase had a molecular mass of 72 kDa. The enzyme is stable in the presence of K<sup>+</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Fe<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup>, Co<sup>2+</sup>, pH of 5.0 and temperature of 37<sup>o</sup>C. However, the activity gradually decreased after 60 min at 50<sup>o</sup>C and retained over 69% activity after 120 min, while at 60 and 70<sup>o</sup>C, the enzyme activity sharply decreased (pre-incubation periods). Endoxylanase from <em>L. incrustata</em> is comparable to those of other microorganisms and should be considered an attractive candidate for future industrial applications.</p> Olusegun Richard Adeoyo , Brett Ivan Pletschke , Joanna Felicity Dames Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Water Quality and Heavy Metal Concentration across Two Connecting Tropical Lagoons in Lagos, Nigeria <p>Ologe and Badagry Lagoons are important tropical lagoons in Lagos, Nigeria. The water quality and heavy metal concentration were studied for a period of 2 years (Aug. 2016 to Jul. 2018) using standard methods. The least temperature obtained was 28.70±0.05 °C in Ologe Lagoon during the wet season and the maximum recorded was 29.41±0.08 in in Badagry Lagoon during the dry season. During the wet season (May- October) the temperature was steady and similar between the two connecting tropical lagoons. The salinity values vary at different stations in both Lagoon, 0.06 to 0.44 % in Ologe Lagoon and 0.08 to 0.28 % in Badagry Lagoon. Badagry Lagoon showed significant higher values in conductivity, total dissolved solid, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total suspended solid and total hardness across seasons. Heavy metal results showed that except for lead (0.25±0.10 mg/L), Ologe Lagoon had higher concentrations of all examined heavy metals (Zinc, copper, iron, chromium, lead, cadmium, manganese and cobalt) than Badagry Lagoon across season. Furthermore, cadmium, manganese and cobalt were not detected in Badagry Lagoon across season. The two studied connecting Lagoons especially Ologe Lagoon is exposed to dramatic deterioration in its water quality due to different wastes that discharge into the water body. These lagoons are clearly polluted by metals for various utilizations. As a result, the study suggests enforcing the controls on waste discharged into lagoons.</p> Gabriel Femi Okunade, Muyideen Owonire Lawal, Roland Efe Uwadiae Copyright (c) Sun, 09 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Physiochemical properties of biodiesel produced from ogbono (Irvingia gabonesis) seed oil <p>Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel and has gained significant attention due to the predicted depletion of conventional fossil fuels and environmental concerns. This study aims to produce biodiesel from ogbono seed oil (using 98 ml methanol and 2g potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst) via transesterification process and to determine the physiochemical properties of the biodiesel produced. The physiochemical properties of the feedstock (extracted ogbono seed oil) were also determined before the transesterification process. The physiochemical properties of the produced biodiesel showed that it has a density of 0.5±0.00 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, pour point of 2.0±0, saponification value of 58.90±0.06 mg KOH/g, ester value of 98.0±0.5% (m/m), iodine value of 26.64±0.15gI<sub>2</sub>/100g, acid value of 0.28±0.05 mgKOH/g, moisture value of 0.0006 ±0.0% and trace amounts of ash content. The results of the physiochemical properties of the produced biodiesel agree with ASTM-D6751 and EN 14214 standard. Thus, it was concluded that ogbono seed oil is an excellent feedstock for biodiesel production via base catalyzed transesterification process</p> Iklima Ibrahim Bandi, Shamsuddeen Yahaya, Hafsatu Buhari Bature, Musa Usman Dabai, Samira Shehu Adamu, Ibrahim Shehu, Faruk Abubakar Atiku, Zainab Ibrahim Sarkin Gobir Adiya Copyright (c) Sun, 06 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Some Haematological Parameters in Domestic Birds: A Study in Camp2 Village, Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of heavy metals in the blood of birds reared for food in Camp2 Community of Akamkpa, Cross River State, Nigeria. Twelve (12) male indigenous jungle fowls (<em>Gallus domestica</em>), six each from the control site (Ugep) and from Camp2 were sampled for the studies. Venous blood samples from the wings of the blood were collected and used for hematological and metal analysis. After digestion of the blood, heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As), and Nickel (Ni)] were detected using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results indicated that Cd, Pb, As and Hg) levels in birds from camp2 village was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05; p = 0.0070) than those of the Ugep control site. The average value of nickel in the blood of Camp2 birds (4.72<u>+</u>1.32mg/L) was significantly higher (p&gt;0.05; p= 0.003) than that of the Ugep control site (4.22<u>+</u>1.07mg/L). The result shows that nickel, lead and Cadmium in blood samples were significantly (p&lt;0.05; p = 0.023) higher in Camp2 compared to the control site. Hence, these values were above WHO standard (0.1mg/l) and FAO/WHO standards of (0.2mg/kg) while others were within joint FAO/WHO standard limit. The studies show that domestic birds can bioaccumulate heavy metals in their blood, which in turn, presents serious health risks to humans who consume these birds within the communities.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ofem Effiom Eteng, Grace Ekpo Imo, Enobong Esiet Joe, Ceaser Antiya Moses, Kenyoh Eteng Abam, Samson Ekam Victor, Ubana Eyong Eyong Copyright (c) Tue, 29 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Improvement of Provitamin A in Maize Varieties Using Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus, Glomus clarum <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF, <em>Glomus clarum</em>) has been used widely as a bio-amendment and bio-control agent in several biotechnological studies. In this study, biofortification of maize with provitamin A using AMF was investigated. Five maize varieties (V1 = white drought-resistant maize, V2= yellow provitamin A maize, V3= white drought-tolerant maize, V4= yellow striga-resistant maize and V5= white striga-resistant maize) were evaluated in a screen house experiment laid out in a completely randomized design with three treatments: T1 = maize + AMF before planting, T2 = maize + AMF, inoculated two weeks after planting and T3 (control) = maize only, and four replications. The result showed that AMF significantly (p&lt;0.05, p = 0.0029) increased the provitamin A level of the maize varieties. White drought-tolerant maize (V3) had the highest provitamin A content (581.57 µg) after harvest, while the least (288.33 µg) was found in white drought-resistant maize (V1). Also, the effect of the treatments on the growth traits (plant height, leaf length, number of leaves per plant) of the maize varieties was highly significant.&nbsp; Therefore, AMF could be considered in breeding maize with high provitamin A content and improved morphological characters.</p> Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi, Aishat Omotayo Azeez, Abeeb Abiodun Azeez Copyright (c) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Anthropometric indices as novel markers of risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Nigerian adults in Zamfara State <p>Body mass index (BMI) has traditionally been used as an indicator of body size measure and composition. Although, other measures of adiposity of the abdomen such as waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), neck circumference (NC) have been suggested as being superior to BMI in predicting disease outcome. This study was designed to compare different anthropometric variables in term of their ability to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This was a case-control study in 240 participants involving 120 verified T2DM cases and 120 non-diabetics as control. Age, gender and anthropometric data were collected from each participant. Logistic regression models were used with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) curve to compare the variables predictive statistics. The AROC of WHR to identify T2DM patients was 0.678 (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05), with sensitivity 62.5% of and specificity of 60.8%. The AROC for average arm circumference (AAC) model is 0.649 with sensitivity of 55.8% followed by BMI model (AROC 0.635) and WC model (AROC 0.600) (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). Hip circumference (HC) (AROC 0.508) and NC (AROC 0.492) models were not significant predictors of T2DM. Subjects of ≥60 years, AAC value ≥32.6 cm, BMI value ≥ 30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, and WHR value ≥ 0.93 were at significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) higher odds of developing T2DM than lower subjects with lower values. There were no significant differences (<em>P</em>&gt;0.05) in the mean HC and NC values between the diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. The non-diabetic subjects have significantly (<em>P</em>&gt;0.05) higher mean height value than the diabetic subjects. Measures of generalized and central obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of developing T2DM. This study revealed that WHR can predict type 2 diabetes mellitus risk more accurately than other anthropometric measures and can thus be helpful in predicting patients with future occurrence of diabetes and providing necessary interventions</p> Ikenna Bruno Aguh, Zurmi Rabiu Sani, Lynda Chinanu Ohaleme, Andover Alfred Agba Copyright (c) Mon, 02 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000