Bio-Research <p>The “Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research)” is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary, international, scientific Open Access Journal that provides publication of articles on biological sciences and biotechnology. The journal established in 2003, is published by the faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. The Journal welcomes submission of manuscripts in the form of original and reviews articles, brief and case reports, special communications and editorials, that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published online approximately one-to-two weeks after acceptance.</p> <p>Publication of articles in the Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology (Bio-Research) involves several parties, each of which performs an essential role in achieving the aims and objectives of the journal. Thus, all players (author, the journal editor, the peer-reviewer, and the publisher) are expected to meet and uphold standard norms of ethical behaviour from submission to the publication stage, depending on the area of involvement.</p> en-US <p>Copyright: Creative Commons Attribution CC.</p> <p>This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials. View License Deed | View Legal Code Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository. This is the final corrected version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications.</p> (Prof Emeka I. Nweze) (Dr Parker Joshua (Managing Editor)) Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Assessment of phytoplankton composition and physicochemical parameters of Omasi rice field, Anambra State, Nigeria <p>The microalgae and physicochemical parameters of floodwater of Omasi rice field in Anambra State, Nigeria were studied. Samples for the studies were collected at monthly intervals. The microalgae were studied using light microscopy and identified with taxonomic keys, text books and photograph materials from the internet. The physicochemical parameters and coliform content of the floodwater were analysed using the methods described by the American Public Health Association. Simple means of the parameters and percentages of the algal populations were calculated, while Pearson correlation (p ≤ 0.05) was used to check for significance of the relationships between the investigated parameters. A total of 12 algal taxa belonging to Chlorophyta (48.99%), Cyanophyta (32.89%), Euglenophyta (10.07%), and Bacillariophyceae (8.05%) were recorded in decreasing order of abundance. Water temperature ranged from 26-38 °C with mean of 33.3 ± 2.56 °C; colour ranged from 15-175 Hazen units with mean of 86.25 ± 33.19 Hazen units; depth of water ranged from 7-10.5 cm with mean of 9.38 ± 0.8 cm. Ranges of nitrates and phosphates with their respective means were 0.5-1.8 mg/l (0.86±0.31 mg/l) and 0.79-1.96 mg/l (1.18±0.28 mg/l). Omasi rice field supported the growth of diverse algal groups and species; this may be as a result of available nutrients and good climate as can be deduced from the correlation analyses. Omasi rice field is typical of tropical freshwaters and some tropical rice fields that have been studied in terms of microalgal diversities and some physicochemistry</p> Bartholomew Okwudilichukwu Udeh, Nkechinyere Onyekwere Nweze Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Severity of Phytophthora leaf blight disease and susceptibility of two local varieties of Colocasia to Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski in Nsukka zone of South Eastern Nigeria <p>Leaf-blight disease of <em>Colocasia</em> caused by <em>Phytophthora colocasiae</em> Raciborski has been a serious impediment to cocoyam production in Nigeria. Disease severity and susceptibility of the two most cultivated local varieties “Ugwuta” (<em>Colocasia esculenta</em> var. <em>antiquorum</em>) and “Nkashi <em>Colocasia esculenta </em>var<em>. esculenta</em>) were investigated. Disease severity was visually estimated as the percentage leaf surface affected by blight, lesion or lesion-related chlorosis for each leaf of a plant using a seven-point scale of 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in three locations: Ede-Oballa, Nsukka Urban and Obukpa. Susceptibility was assessed on 2 months old potted plants of each variety inoculated with a 7-day old culture of <em>P. colocasiae.</em> Diameters of lesions on inoculated leaves were recorded from the 3<sup>rd </sup>- 8<sup>th</sup> day after inoculation.&nbsp; Data on severity were subjected to ANOVA and susceptibility of the varieties was compared with t-test. Results revealed significant LSD=4.96 (0.05) and varying degrees of leaf blight severity among varieties and locations. Variety<em> antiquorum</em> had significantly higher severities of 42.08, 46.40 and 47.42% at Ede-Oballa, Nsukka Urban and Obukpa respectively, compared to 34.85, 36.55 and 28.19% recorded by var<em>. esculenta</em> at these locations, respectively. Similarly, var. <em>antiquorum</em> had greater lesion diameter ranging from 0.65±0.07 cm - 3.70±0.14 cm and average diameter of 2.4±0.16cm compared to var. <em>esculenta</em> which had 0.41±0.14cm - 3.12±0.19 cm and average diameter of 1.80±0.16. This research has shown that varieties and locations affect the severity and susceptibility of <em>Phytophthora </em>leaf blight disease. This could be a guide to farmers having known that var.<em> esculenta</em> is less severe to <em>Phytophthora </em>leaf blight disease.</p> Faustina Njideka Ugwuja, Chiemeka Nwakaego Onaebi, Nneka Virginia Chiejina, Kelvin Ikechukwu Ugwuoke Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The use of microstructures in the authentication of powdered drug plants <p>Adulteration and substitution of herbal drugs are trending issues in the herbal industry, posing a serious threat to commercial natural product research. The anatomy of powdered and non-powdered samples of plant species were compared to ascertain their similarities. Air dried powdered leaf samples and unground or intact leaves, flowers and barks of eight medicinal plant species, namely, <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em>, <em>Ocimum gratisimum</em>, <em>Trichilia monadelpha</em>, <em>Bridelia ferruginea, Lophira alata</em>.<em>, Alstonia boonei, Dialium guineense</em> and <em>Enantia chlorantha </em>were studied anatomically with the aim of identifying the original plant parts used in the preparation of the drugs. The microscopic studies of leaves of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and<em> O. gratisimum </em>revealed the presence of similar stomatal complex types and trichomes in both ground and unground samples. The anatomy and palynology of <em>T. monadelpha</em> flower revealed that bipolar, inaperturate, monopolar, monoporate, tetracolporate and triporate pollens are present in both the ground and unground samples. The microscopic study of the barks of <em>L. alata, B. ferruginea, A. boonei, D. guineense </em>and <em>E. chlorantha</em> also showed similar cells in ground and unground samples. The anatomical features are, therefore, elucidated for authentication of the originality of the medicinal plants studied.</p> Alanamu Abdullahi Abdulrahaman, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Sahli, Abimbola Aluko Tinuola, Sunday Adebunmi Adeniran, Abdulquadri Sagaya Copyright (c) Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of salinity stress on the antioxidant defence systems of two varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) <p>Osmotic stress, oxidative stress and oxidation of essential macromolecules are common consequences of salinity stress that limit plant growth and productivity. Plants are known to evolve several strategies such as upsurge of antioxidant defence systems (ADS) and accumulation of osmolytes, so as to thrive under such conditions. In the present study, the effect of salinity stress (using irrigation method) on ADS of two cultivars (IT-99 and IT-288) of cowpea was examined. Plant samples (roots, young leaves and matured leaves) were harvested on day 21 of treatment with saline solution (100 – 400 mM NaCl). Antioxidant markers and osmolytes levels were quantified and compared with the controls (0.0 mM NaCl). The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase significantly increased (p&lt;0.05) in the leaves, except for IT-288 where catalase activity significantly decreased (p&lt;0.05) when compared to the control. On the contrary, catalase and peroxidase activities significantly decreased (p&lt;0.05) in the roots of both cultivars. Largely, ascorbate, glutathione (GSH) and tocopherols levels increased as salinity increases, except for GSH in roots of IT-99, and leaves of IT-288. The amount of flavonoids detected in the same tissue were not significantly (p&gt;0.05) different in all the salinity levels investigated. The level of proline increased at moderate salinity levels in all samples and at high salinity in roots of IT-99 and mature leaves of IT-288. For IT-99, levels of glycinebetaine significantly increased (p&lt;0.05) at high salinity, but significantly decreased at similar levels in IT-288. H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>levels significantly increased in the roots but decreased (p&lt;0.05) in leaves samples. Malondialdehyde concentration generally increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) when compared with control. The findings of these study suggest that both cultivars were induced to express higher antioxidant activity and to a certain extent synthesis of more osmolytes.</p> Lailaba Abubakar Aminu, Mukhtar Musa, Micheal Anyekema, Umar Faruk Magaji, Hassan Wara Sanusi Copyright (c) Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Microbial production of histamine and the imperatives of processed food consumption <p>Food processing and storage increase the value chain of food items, both for commercial purposes and for future use by peasant producers. The roles of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in the processing of dairy, brewed, bakery and traditionally fermented foods cannot be over-emphasized. These organisms improve the nutritional contents and organoleptic properties of these foods. However, certain undesired products, especially from protein-rich foods, notably, biogenic amines often characterize the process. This is usually a physiologic response by the organisms to the food environments such as pH, and is often influenced by temperature, time and salt concentration.&nbsp; Histamine production during such a process often results in the accumulation of exogenous histamine in the foods, thereby constituting health hazards to the consumers. Histamine food poisoning affects virtually every system of the body due to the widespread physiological roles of histamine in the body, presenting a wide range of symptoms that make diagnosis difficult. More regulated scientific approaches should be adopted by food processors and handlers especially in the developing countries where technologies may not be available.</p> James Nnabuike Ezema, Esther Chinedu Agbo, Emmanuel Aniebolam Eze Copyright (c) Thu, 11 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Hepatoprotective and immune-reconstitution potentials of carrot-ginger blend among HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy in Kaduna, Nigeria <p>Hepatotoxicity, micronutrients insufficiency and cost of micronutrient supplements are challenges faced by HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study investigated the effect of natural plant micronutrients (vitamins A, C, and E, selenium and Zinc supplements from carrot-ginger (75:25) blend on liver enzymes: Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate transaminase (AST), CD4 +&nbsp; T lymphocytes and body mass index (BMI) of HIV-infected-patients taking ART. Ninety HIV-infected-patients attending Special Treatment Clinic, Kafanchan General Hospital, Kaduna State, Nigeria, were randomized into three groups of thirty patients each: Group 1 is control group and received ART alone, Group 2 is standard group and received ART with ready to use commercial micronutrient supplement (SelACE<sup>R</sup> supplement) while Group 3 is supplement group and received ART + Carrot-Ginger blend for 90 days. Serum Alanine, Aspartate transaminase, CD4 + T lymphocytes and BMI were assessed using standard methods at baseline (day 0), 30 days, 60 days and 90 days. The results indicated that patients on CarrotGinger blend and SelACE<sup>R </sup>micronutrients supplements show significant (p&lt;0.05) reduction in ALT and AST level. However, there was no significant (p&gt;0.05) difference in patients treated with ART alone when compared to their baseline values. The results indicated that patients on carrot-ginger blend and SelACE® supplements had significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in BMI, CD4+ T-cell counts, serum vitamins A, C, E, selenium and zinc from day zero. There was no significant (p&gt;0.05) difference in patients treated with ART alone compared to their baseline values. In addition, patients on SelACE® supplement revealed significant (p&lt;0.05) difference in their mean BMI, CD4+ T-cell counts, serum vitamins A, C, E, Selenium and Zinc compared to patients on carrot-ginger blend after 90 days. The results also indicated a strong positive association <strong>(r=0.97)</strong> between serum ALT and AST activity and between CD4+ T cell counts and body mass index <strong>(r=0.77)</strong> after 90 days. Therefore, micronutrients supplementation of HIV patients during ART treatment with Carrot-Ginger blend could also be a beneficial adjunct to ART due to its potentials to reconstitute the immune system and protect the liver in HIV individuals on ART.</p> Zamani Pius Joshua, Muawiyam Musa Abarshi, Ibrahim Sani, Owolabi Adeyemi Olumuyiwa, Sanusi Bello Mada, Rhoda Yakubu Dallhatu Copyright (c) Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000