Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/cajeb <p>The <strong>Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology</strong> is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, environmental biology, microbiology, parasitology, phytochemistry, food science and agronomy. It aims to serve all bioscientists, and is published twice a year.</p><p>This journal has a 6 month embargo period.</p> Dschang University Press en-US Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology 1816-0573 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Impact de l’activité de butinage de Dactylurina staudingeri Gribodo (Hymenoptera: Apidae) sur la pollinisation et les rendements de Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh (Fabaceae) à Dang (Ngaoundéré, Cameroun) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/cajeb/article/view/204611 <p>Les investigations ont été faites sur les fleurs de <em>Cajanus cajan</em> en vue d’estimer l’impact de l’activité de <em>Dactylurina staudingeri</em> sur la pollinisation, la production en gousses et en graines à Dang, en 2016 et 2017. Pour &nbsp;chacune de ces années, 540 boutons floraux ont été étiquetés sur 120 plantes réparties en quatre traitements: 120 fleurs laissées en libre pollinisation, 120 fleurs protégées des insectes, 200 fleurs protégées, puis découvertes, visitées exclusivement par <em>D. staudingeri</em> et de nouveau protégées et 100 fleurs protégées, découvertes et à nouveau protégées, sans visite d’insectes ou de tout autre organisme. Le taux de fructification, le nombre moyen de graines par gousse et le pourcentage de graines normales ont été comparés entre ces traitements. Sur 33 espèces d’insectes recensées,<em> D. staudingeri</em> était majoritaire avec 12,19% de 6037 visites. Cette abeille prélevait fortement le nectar et récoltait faiblement le pollen au niveau des fleurs de <em>C. cajan</em>. La vitesse moyenne de butinage était de 7,14 fleurs/min. Via l’efficacité pollinisatrice d’une visite florale, <em>D. staudingeri</em> a augmenté le taux de fructification de 14,71%, le nombre moyen de graines par gousse de 35,29% et le pourcentage de graines normales de 17,31%. La conservation des colonies de <em>D. staudingeri</em> à proximité des exploitations de <em>C. cajan</em> est recommandée pour assurer la hausse des rendements de cette culture et favoriser une bonne pratique de la méliponiculture dans la région.<br><br><strong>Abstract</strong> <br>Investigations were made on the flowers of <em>Cajanus cajan</em> in order to estimate the impact of the activity of <em>Dactylurina staudingeri</em> on pollination and yields at Dang, in 2016 and 2017. For each of these years, 540 flowers buds labeled on 120 plants were divided into four treatments: 120 open-pollinated flowers, 120 bagged flowers, 200 flowers protected, then unbagged, exclusively visited once by <em>D. staudingeri</em> and rebagged, and 100 flowers bagged, unbagged and rebagged without insect or any other organism visit. The fruiting rate, the mean number of seeds per pod and the percentage of normal seeds were compared between these treatments. Among 33 insect species recorded, <em>D. staudingeri</em> was prominent with 12.19% of 6037 visits. This bee harvested intensely nectar and collected slightly pollen from <em>C. cajan</em> flowers. The mean foraging speed was 7.14 flowers/min. Through the pollinating efficiency of a single flower visit, <em>D. staudingeri</em> increased the fruiting rate by 14.71%, the mean number of seeds per pod by 35.29% and the percentage of normal seeds by 17.31%. The conservation of <em>D. staudingeri</em> colonies close to <em>C. cajan</em> farms is recommended to improve yields of the crop and to promote the good meliponiculture in the region.</p> Venceslas Zra Ganava Sanda Mazi Michelson Azo'o Ela Sidonie Fameni Tope Fernand-Nestor Tchuenguem Fohouo Copyright (c) 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 14 1 1 9 10.4314/cajeb.v14i1.1 Caractéristiques biométriques du céphalophe bleu (Cephalophus monticola, Thunberg 1789) du Cameroun https://www.ajol.info/index.php/cajeb/article/view/204612 <p>Dans le but de contribuer à la caractérisation phénotypique du <em>Cephalophus monticola</em> (céphalophe bleu) dans la partie méridionale du Cameroun (trois zones agroécologiques), 22 caractéristiques biométriques ont été considérés sur 180 céphalophes bleus adultes sélectionnés selon la méthode opportuniste. L’analyse des données s’est faite en utilisant la statistique descriptive à travers le logiciel d’analyse SPSS version 21.0 et XLSAT-Pro version 7.5.2. Il en résulte que les caractéristiques biométriques de la tête ne subissent aucune n’influence des zones agroécologiques. Cependant, l’envergure des cornes (EC) présente une très grande variation dans la zone V (CV=113,27%) dont la femelle avec un CV=96,55%. Pour ce qui est du tronc, la longueur du corps (LCprs) présente une grande dispersion autour de la moyenne avec des valeurs suivantes (en cm) : (71,78 ± 12,46) ; (69,13 ± 13,66) et (66,53 ± 15,54) respectivement aux zones III, IV et V. De tous les caractéristiques biométriques, la longueur de la queue (LQ), le tour du canon antérieur (TCA) présentent une différence significative (P&lt;0,05). L’analyse en composante principale (ACP) permet de voir le niveau de variabilité génétique du céphalophe bleu à travers les caractéristiques biométriques. Ainsi deux niveaux de variabilité génétiques sont observés selon les axes F1 (46,94%) et F2 (10,81%). Les caractéristiques biométriques étudiées permettraient de différencier les céphalophes bleus dans les trois zones agroécologiques. L’utilisation des outils moléculaires ouvriraient des perspectives de mieux cerner la génétique des populations du céphalophe bleu au Cameroun<br><br><strong>Abstract</strong> <br>This study aimed at contributing to the phenotypic characterization of <em>Cephalophus monticola</em> (blue duiker) in 3 agroecological zones of the Southern Cameroon region. A total of 22 morphological data were collected on 180 adult blue duikers and 15 cranial measurements on 60 skulls using the opportunistic approach. Data analyses were performed using the descriptive statistics through the software SPSS version 21.0 and XLSTAT-Pro version 7.5.2. From the findings, it appears that the biometric characteristics of the head were not influenced by the agro ecological factor. However, horn width (HW) presents a large variation in zone V (CV=113.27%) which the female having an CV=96.55%. Concerning the trunk, the Body length (BL) expresses a large dispersion with the respective values (in cm): (71.78 ± 12.46); (69.13 ± 13.66) and (66.53 ± 15.54) respectively to agroecological zones III, IV and V. Three traits, tail length (TL) and fore leg girth (FLG) showed significant differences (P&lt;0.05). The principal component analysis (PCA) displays the level of genetic variability of blue duiker through biometric characters. Then, it was observed two levels of genetic of variability according to the axes F1 (46,94%) and F2 (10,81%). The biometric traits tended to discriminate blue duikers in the three agroecological zones. This could be interesting for further investigations involving molecular tools for population genetics.</p> Olivier Miantsia Fokam Félix Meutchieye Evaristus Tsi Angwafo Copyright (c) 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 14 1 10 18 10.4314/cajeb.v14i1.2 Integrated Soil Fertility Management Options for Maize Production and Sustainability in the Western Highlands of Cameroon https://www.ajol.info/index.php/cajeb/article/view/204613 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Continuous cultivation without fertilizer application and soil erosion are responsible for plant nutrient depletion and yield decline of major food crops in Sub-Saharan Africa.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Nutrient status of <em>Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia angustissima</em> and <em>Cassia spectabilis</em> were characterized. Field experiments were conducted over two years in the Western Highlands of Cameroon to evaluate the effects of the application of leaf biomass of agroforestry tree species and mineral fertilizers on maize yield performance. The residual effects on soil physicochemical properties were also investigated for umbric Cambisols of Babungo and ustic Oxisols of Bansoa. Ten treatments encompassing; sole leaf biomass of<em> Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia angustissima</em> and <em>Cassia spectabilis</em>, leaf biomasses combined with NPK fertilizer, sole NPK fertilizer and absolute control were laid in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the Duncan Test (p &lt; 0.05) used for mean separation.<br><strong>Results:</strong> All the species characterized had nitrogen, polyphenol and lignin contents greater than 2.5 %, 5 % and 15 % respectively. Significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) were observed among treatments on maize growth, productivity parameters and soil chemical properties for both soil types. The highest maize grain yields were recorded in plots amended with 1 t/ha of biomass of <em>Calliandra calothyrsus</em> or <em>Leucaena leucocephala</em> as well as<br>1.5 t/ha of biomass of <em>Acacia angustissima</em> and <em>Cassia spectabilis</em> plus mineral fertilizer (50 N+ 37.5 P2O5 + 45 K2O) on both soils compared to other treatments.on umbric Cambisols and ustic Oxisols respectively. The residual effects of treatments on soil chemical properties showed severe nutrient depletion in control plots and those amended with sole inorganic fertilizer.<br><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Combined application of agroforestry tree biomass and inorganic fertilizers remains an appropriate technology to enhance maize yield and sustain production of resource-limited farmers of acid tropical soils..</p> Eveline Ngoran Banye Victor François Nguetsop Fritz Tabi Oben Copyright (c) 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 14 1 19 32 10.4314/cajeb.v14i1.3 Effects of Cola anomala (K. Schum.) water/ethanol pods extract on the inflammation and intestinal secretion in lipopolysaccharide-induced diarrhea https://www.ajol.info/index.php/cajeb/article/view/204614 <p>Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death among children in low and low-middle income countries and the management of this pathology is still a problem in these regions. The water/ethanol extract of the pods of<em> Cola </em><em>anomala</em> (KEO) has been shown to possess antimicrobial and antidiarrheal effects in <em>Shigella flexneri</em>-induced diarrhea, but whether KEO is active on the toxemic part of this diarrhea is unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of KEO on the intestinal secretion and inflammation induced by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). KEO obtained by maceration in water/ethanol (1:1) was administered orally (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of body weight) against LPS-induced diarrhea in mice. The mass of feces, the intestinal nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PGE2) contents as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assessed. KEO was also tested on LPS-induced enteropooling in rats. In this experiment, the intestinal fluid and its electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-) contents were determined as well as NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the small intestine homogenate. Indomethacin (5 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. KEO significantly (p &lt; 0.001) reduced stools excretion, NO content and MPO activity in intestine but did not affect PGE2 in LPS-induced diarrhea. On the enteropooling model, KEO showed no effect on the intestinal fluid and electrolyte excretion, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-1β contents, but significantly (p &lt; 0.05) reduced the NO production. This study suggests that KEO does not have antisecretory effect, but has anti inflammatory activities. It can be concluded that the anti-toxemic effect of KEO contributes less to its antidiarrheal activity in infectious diarrhea.</p> Henri Wambe Paul Aimé Noubissi Elvine Nguelefack-Mbuyo Pami Sorelle Mbankou Ngassam Judith Manialeu Pouadjeu Ariane Falone Goumtsa Cédric Wamba Koho Roger Hermann Sadie Foguieng René Kamgang Télesphore Benoit Nguelefack Copyright (c) 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 14 1 33 39 10.4314/cajeb.v14i1.4 Efficacité in-vitro des extraits aqueux, éthanoliques et des huiles essentielles de Chromoloena odorata et d’Ageratum conyzoïdes sur le développement des champignons responsables des pourritures de cabosses de cacaoyers (Theobroma cacao L.) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/cajeb/article/view/204615 <p>La présente étude se propose d’étudier l’efficacité des extraits aqueux, éthanoliques et des huiles essentielles de <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> et d’<em>Ageratum conyzoïdes</em> sur le développement des champignons responsables des pourritures des cabosses de cacaoyers dans les plantations villageoises d’Akonolinga, Dizangué et Tonga. Les extraits ont été obtenus par macération de 100 g de poudre de chaque plante. Les huiles essentielles obtenues par centrifugation ont été fixées par le sulfate de sodium anhydre. Trois milieux de cultures V6, V8 et le milieu Pomme de terre – Dextrose - Agar (PDA) ont été fabriqués pour la culture des champignons associés aux cabosses. Les extraits et huiles essentielles de plantes ont été préparés aux concentrations de 5 ; 10 ; 15 et 20 mg/ml. L’essai a été conduit suivant un dispositif en blocs complets aléatoires avec 3 répétitions. La fréquence d’isolement de chaque champignon par localité, la surface des lésions développées sur les cabosses infectées et le pourcentage d'inhibition PI (%) des champignons pathogènes ont été mesurés et soumises à l’analyse de la variance (ANOVA). Les moyennes obtenues ont été séparées par le test de Duncan au seuil de probabilité 5%. Les résultats suivants ont été obtenus : sur 8 espèces isolées, seulement <em>Phytophtora megakarya, Botryodiplodia </em><em>theobromae</em> et <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em>. ont été pathogènes sur les cabosses saines. L’analyse statistique a montré des différences significatives (à P ≤ 0,05) entre les surfaces des lésions causées par ces champignons sur les cabosses entre le 4ième, 7ème et 10ème jour après inoculation (JAI) en fonction des espèces fongiques testées. Les extraits aqueux de <em>C. odorata</em> et d’<em>A. conyzoides</em> à la concentration de 20 mg/ml ont présenté des pourcentages d’inhibition à 100 % sur <em>P. megakarya, B. theobromae</em> et <em>C. gloeosporioides</em>. Les extraits éthanoliques et les huiles essentielles ont inhibé le développement de <em>B. theobromae</em>, de <em>C. </em><em>gloeosporioides</em> et de<em> P. megakarya</em> à 100 % aux concentrations de 15 et 20 mg/ml. Les extraits et huiles essentielles de <em>C. odorata</em> et d’<em>A. conyzoïdes</em> pourraient donc être utilisés pour lutter contre les champignons responsables des pourritures de cabosses de cacaoyers.<br><br><strong>Abstract <br></strong>This work is to evaluate the antifungal activity of <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> and<em> Ageratum conyzoides</em> on the development of mycoflora associated with cocoa pods diseases in villager plantations in Akonolinga, Dizangue and Tonga. Extracts were obtained by steeping of 100 g of powder of each plant. Essential oil extractions were done through centrifugation. Essential oil were fixed by sulfate of sodium anhydre. Three culture media V6, V8 and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) were made to cultivate mycoflora associated with cocoa pods Data were randomized into completely blocs with three replications. Frequency of each fungus per locality, lesion area developed on cocoa pod by fungi and percentage of inhibition PI (%) of each fungus were being submitted in variance analysis. Means were separated by Duncan test with (P ≤ 0, 05). The results showed that: over 8 varieties of fungal species isolated from cocoa pods, unly <em>Phytophthora megakarya, Botryodiplodia theobromae</em> and <em>Colletotrichum </em><em>gloeosporioides</em> were pathogens on cocoa pod inoculated. The analysis of the variance showed significatives differences (P ≤ 0, 05) of area lesions on cocoa pods between the 4th, 7th and the 10th days after inoculation. <em>Mycelia</em> growth was stopped at the concentrations of 20 mg/ml for aqueous extracts, of 15 and 20 mg/ml ethanolic extracts and essential oil. .The extracts and essential oil of <em>C. odorata</em> and <em>A. conyzoides</em> can be used to fight against micoflora associated with cocoa pods disease.</p> Abel Second Ze Medjap René Bikomo Mbonomo Aoudou Yaouba Copyright (c) 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 14 1 40 49 10.4314/cajeb.v14i1.5 Study on the local know-how of the use of beef hides in western Cameroon meals https://www.ajol.info/index.php/cajeb/article/view/204617 <p>The current study was conducted in four localities in the West region of Cameroon from May to September 2019, to know the pre-treatments made on given to beef hides before their use in different dishes, as well as the ingredients used in the preparation of pepper soup beef hides through household surveys. A total of 307 housewives were surveyed interviewed. The data was collected using a questionnaire and further analyzed using Sphinx Plus2 V5 software. Results showed that 54.6 to 71% participants consumed beef hides monthly. More than 50% participants purchased their beef hides at the butchery at a price varying between XAF 1,000 for 1Kg of uncleaned smoked beef hides and XAF 3,000 for 2Kg of clean smoked beef hides. The results also showed that there were five main stages in the preparation of beef hides and housewives had a greater preference of beef hides from the head and buttocks. The pre-cooking of beef hides was done between 180 and 240 minutes, with a quantity of water varying between 4 and 5 liters for 1 to 2Kg of beef hides, on the wood fire. “Eru” and “Yellow achu sauce” were cited as the main sauces in which beef hides were used at 95.40% and 85% respectively. Besides, more than 70% of housewives used a maximum of five ingredients for the preparation of pepper soup beef hides. Our findings revealed, interesting insights on the steps and ingredients used when preparing pepper soup beef hides that will be of great importance in the development of better formulation for pepper soup beef hides preparation</p> Christelle Laure Maguipa Tandzong Pierre Désiré Mbougueng Alphonse Sokamte Tegang Hilaire Macaire Womeni Copyright (c) 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 14 1 50 60 10.4314/cajeb.v14i1.6 Description of Freshwater Fish Traditional Smoking in the Western Region, Cameroon https://www.ajol.info/index.php/cajeb/article/view/204618 <p>Western Cameroon is one of the regions most in needs of innovative and healthy solutions for freshwater fish conservation. This study aimed at evaluating the socio-economical characteristics of fish smokers and technical factors on the species smoked in the Noun Division. A total of 91 fish smokers were chosen. The socio-economic data were on age, gender, religion, number of dependents, marital status, ethnic group, education level, economic activities, smoking goals and workforce. The results of this study showed that fish smoking is practiced mainly by women (70%) which is common in Sub Sahara Africa small scale fish sector. The smokers are aged from 20 to 50 years (80%), married (92.2%) and taking care of a family of 1 to 10 persons (80%). These smokers are Muslim (74%), belonging to the Bamoun ethnic group (81%). They were also involved in other activities: agriculture (29%) and trade (1%). About 67% of the sampled smokers’ population had an experience of more than 10 years in the domain. The Purpose of smoking was largely sales (97%) and subsistence (3%). Nile tilapia (<em>Oreochromis </em><em>niloticus</em>) was the most smoked species (36%), followed by African catfish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>) with a proportion of 32%. The average quantity of fresh fish smoked was 110 kg/day/smoker, with <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> being more produced (60±4.74 kg/day/smoker). With regard to the smoking techniques used, hygiene measures were poorly respected. The major constraints revealed by the survey were that freshwater’s traditional fish smoking activities in Noun Division are influenced by gender, economic and cultural background. There is a lack of technical support material and financial means. Any implications for future investigations on health and food safety will be suitable for fresh fish smokers and the entire consumers.</p> Felix Meutchieye Henri Grisseur Djoukeng Youssouf Jamilou Ngouyamsa Yacouba Manjeli Copyright (c) 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 14 1 61 64 10.4314/cajeb.v14i1.7