Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology <p>The <strong>Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology</strong> is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, environmental biology, microbiology, parasitology, phytochemistry, food science and agronomy. It aims to serve all bioscientists, and is published twice a year.</p><p>This journal has a 6 month embargo period.</p> en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. (Dr Télesphore Benoit Nguelefack) (Dr Hilair Macaire WOMENI) Thu, 26 Jan 2023 16:06:57 +0000 OJS 60 Effet combiné du Triton X-100 et du chlorure de calcium sur le processus de murissement de la banane et quelques composants physiologiques impliqués <p>Fruits are products of high economic value with a very important nutritional contribution due to their richness in vitamins, minerals, fibers and bioactive compounds. However, their consumption remains insufficient because of high post-harvest losses. This is why this study was conducted with the aim of reducing post-harvest losses of bananas. Fruit treatment consisted of soaking in Triton X-100 for 10 min, then in calcium chloride solutions at different concentrations for 30 min. The effects of treatments on shelf life and ripening parameters (ripening rate and index, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, pigment and ascorbic acid contents, and activity of chlorophyllase and pectin-methylesterase) were determined. The results show that the longest storage times (25 to 27 days) were recorded in bananas treated with Triton X-100 at 2 or 4% CaCl<sub>2</sub>. The 6 % and 8% CaCl<sub>2</sub> treatments as well as the control bananas showed the lowest storage time. The low index and slow ripening kinetics were found in bananas treated with 2 and 4% calcium chloride. The chlorophyll content gradually decreased during the storage and this in a similar way for all the treatments. No significant variation in carotenoid content was observed over time. Firmness and pH decreased significantly, while titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content increased over time. The activity of chlorophyllase and that of pectin-methylesterase increased over time. From all the above, it appears that the combined treatments with Triton X-100 and 2 or 4% calcium chloride solution significantly extended the green life duration of the bananas and slowed the physiological processes associated to ripening.</p> Eugène Phounzong-Tafre, Gabriel Kanmegne, Roger Doumdi-Braogue, Jarvin Ovaric Kouete, Alain Ngotio Tchinda, Jean Nguemezi-Aghofack Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Tue, 24 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fruit maturity, storage time and pre-sowing water treatment effect on emergence and seedling vigour parameters of bitter wild mango (<i>Irvingia</i> <i>wombolu</i> Vermoesen) seeds in the nursery <p>Poor germination and seedling establishment as well as unavailability of seeds are major problems in sustainable production of <em>Irvingia</em> <em>wombolu</em>. Hence the need to find the right colour fruit maturity, storage time and pre-sowing water treatment on emergence and seedling vigour parameters of bitter wild mango seeds with the aim of improving this multipurpose fruit tree species. Five maturity colour which include green, yellow, yellowish green, greenish brown and dark brown were subjected to 4 water soaking regimes (0, 12, 24 and 36 h) and 4 room temperature storage duration (0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks). Completely randomized design factorial with three replications was used. Data on seed emergence capacity, seedling length, seed vigour index (SVI), stem diameter and number of leaves were subjected to analysis of variance. Results shows that significant differences (P&lt;0.05-P&lt;0.01) were observed in the five quality traits observed due to differences in fruit colour, soaking time and storage time. The three- way interaction between fruit colour, soaking time and storage time were significant ((P&lt;0.05-P&lt;0.01) for all the characters. Dark brown fruit recorded the best in terms of emergence, seedling vigour index, stem diameter and leaf while yellow colour fruit had the best in terms of plant height. Zero-hour soaking had the highest in seedling emergence, seedling vigour index and leaf number while 12 h soaking gave the best effect in terms of plant height and stem diameter. Dark brown and yellow colour fruit of <em>I.</em> <em>wombolu</em> are recommended and short duration of soaking for 0-12 h will enhance the plant height and stem diameter.</p> Ifeoma Veronica Alaje, Ayodele Moruf Adebisi , Okama Joyce Amadi, Adewal Musibau Alaje , Funmi Folshade Adegoke , Jubril Olawale Olalekan Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Tue, 24 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical and Nutritional Analysis of Oil and Plantain Chips from Palm Olein Enriched with Extracts of Green Tea Leaves (<i>Camellia</i> <i>sinensis</i>) <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of methanolic extract from green tea leaves (TLE) on the oxidative stability of palm olein during deep-fat-frying and on the nutrient composition of plantain chips produced from it. Palm olein samples were respectively enriched with 1000, 1400 and 1800 ppm of extract; and 200 ppm of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) which served as positive control; while oil without additives served as negative control. A total of 15 frying cycles was done at 180°C for 3 min. Oil samples were collected fresh, at 1, 5, 8, 10 and 15 frying cycles for quality analysis. The evaluated parameters were the peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid, and iodine and total oxidation values (TOTOX). The plantain chips obtained after 5, 10 and 15 frying cycles were assessed for their proximate composition and mineral content using standards methods. Results showed that after 15 frying cycles, TLE at 1800 ppm protected palm olein from oxidation better than BHT as TOTOX of these oil samples were 25.54 and 28.24 respectively. A proximate and mineral composition analyses of chips revealed that in contrast to the samples made from oil without additives, those made from oil enriched with TLE showed low oil content and high carbohydrate, protein and mineral (phosphorus, calcium and magnesium) content. It can be concluded that green tea leaves extract is efficient in delaying palm olein alteration and increases the nutrient composition of plantain chips.</p> Valerie Loungaing Demgne, Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng, Gires Boungo Teboukeu, Fabrice Hervé Njike Ngamga , Hilaire Macaire Womeni Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Wed, 25 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Structure et régénération des peuplements ligneux dans l’Unité Forestière d’Aménagement (UFA) 00-004 dans le Littoral-Cameroun <p>La perte de la biodiversité végétale dans les Unités Forestières d’Aménagements (UFA) est liée aux activités forestières pratiquées dans ce milieu. Ces activités affectent la structure et la capacité de régénération de la forêt. La présente étude vise à analyser la structure et la régénération naturelle de la végétation de l’UFA 00-004 situé dans le Littoral-Cameroun. Les inventaires se sont déroulés dans trois Assiettes Annuelles de Coupes (AAC), dont deux exploitées (AAC 1-1 et AAC 1-2) et une non exploitée (AAC 1-4). Le comptage des ligneux à diamètre à hauteur de poitrine (DHP) ≥ 10 cm s’est effectué dans les quadrats de 200 m x 200 m. Pour la régénération naturelle, les inventaires des jeunes tiges dont le DHP est &lt; 10 cm ont été effectués dans les sous-quadrats de 2 m de côté. Globalement, 203 espèces appartenant à 158 genres et 58 familles botaniques ont été recensées. Les peuplements exploités ont présenté des densités faibles (711,5 tiges/ha pour AAC 1-1 et 810 tiges/ha pour AAC 1-2) par rapport au peuplement non exploité (1114,75 tiges/ha). Les familles les plus importantes sont les Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae et Olacaceae pour les trois peuplements. La structure diamétrique des ligneux à DHP ≥ 10 cm présente une forme en « J » inversé pour les trois peuplements. Les espèces exploitables ont présenté quatre types de structure : la structure en forme de cloche, de « J », erratique et en « J » inversé. Le taux de régénération des espèces est plus élevé dans les peuplements exploités (43,21 % pour l’AAC 1-1 et 39,10 % pour l’AAC 1-2) comparé à celui du peuplement non exploité. Il serait nécessaire que l’administration en charge de la gestion des forêts encourage après exploitation une régénération naturelle assistée en collaboration avec les populations riveraines pour garantir une réelle reconstitution des ressources végétales après exploitation. En effet, ces populations locales, s’appuyant sur leur connaissance de la terre et sur les traditions ancestrales ou locales aident les arbres et la végétation indigène à se rétablir naturellement en éliminant les menaces à leur croissance et à leur survie</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>The loss of plant biodiversity in Forest Management Units (FMUs) is due to the forestry activities carried out in this environment. These activities affect the structure and regeneration capacity of the forest. This study aims to analyse the structure and natural regeneration of the vegetation of FMU 00-004 in the Littoral region of Cameroon. The surveys were conducted in three Annual Allowable Cuts (AAC) of FMU 00-004, two of which are logged (AAC 1-1 and AAC 1-2) and one of which is unlogged (AAC 1-4). The woody species with a diameter ≥ 10 cm were counted in 200 m x 200 m quadrats. For natural regeneration, inventories of young stems with a diameter &lt; 10 cm were carried out in sub-quadrats of 2 m sides. In total, 203 species belonging to 158 genera and 58 families were recorded. The logged stands had low densities (711.5 stems/ha for AAC 1-1 and 810 stems/ha for AAC 1-2) compared to the unlogged stand (1114.75 stems/ha). The most important families are Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae and Olacaceae for the three stands. The diametric structure shows an inverted "J" shape for all three stands. The harvestable species showed four types of structure: bell-shaped, J-shaped, erratic and inverted J-shaped. The regeneration rate of the species was higher in the logged stands (43.21% for AAC 1-1 and 39.10% for AAC 1-2). It would be necessary for the administration in charge of forest management to encourage assisted natural regeneration after logging in collaboration with local populations to guarantee a real reconstitution of plant resources after logging. Indeed, these local populations, relying on their knowledge of the land and on ancestral or local traditions, help trees and native vegetation to recover naturally by eliminating threats to their growth and survival.</p> Lacatuce Tene Kenne, Marie Caroline Solefack Momo, Bertine Tiokeng Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Wed, 25 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Diversité floristique et structure de la végétation dans la mosaïque forêt savane à Ntui (Région du Centre-Cameroun) <p>Les forêts tropicales en général et particulièrement celles du bassin du Congo subissent d’importants changements physionomiques sous l’effet des pressions anthropiques. L’objectif de ce travail était de contribuer à l’étude de la phytodiversité et la structure des peuplements des zones de contact forêt-savane dans l’arrondissement de Ntui. Les inventaires floristiques ont été réalisés sur 30 relevés de 40m x 40m. Au total 1264 individus à diamètre à hauteur de poitrine ≥ 10 cm ont été inventoriés, soit 135 espèces réparties dans 102 genres et 38 familles. Ces espèces recensées sont réparties dans trois différents biotopes à la raison de 103 espèces en forêt semi-caducifoliée, 60 en zone de contact forêt-savane ou lisière et 25 en savane. Les espèces les plus importantes en forêt avec des indices d’importance supérieurs à 75 sont par ordre décroissant : <em>Ceiba pentandra</em>, <em>Albizia zygia</em>,<em> Trilepisium madagascariensis</em>. Dans la zone de contact forêt-savane, <em>Albizia zygia</em> est l’espèce ayant la plus grande valeur d’importance, suivie de <em>Mangifera indica</em>,<em> Caloncoba welwitschii </em>et <em>Terminalia glaucescens</em> entre autres. En savane, les trois espèces les plus importantes sont: <em>Terminalia glaucescens</em>, suivie de <em>Annona senegalensis</em> et <em>Bridelia micrantha</em>. Le quotient spécifique au sein des différents peuplements est relativement faible (variant de 1,1 à 1,2) ainsi que les valeurs de l’indice de Shannon (1,44 à 3,11 bits). L’indice de Simpson varie de 0,70 à 0,94 et l’équitabilité de Piélou varie de 0,80 à 0,95. Les différents indices ont montré que ces sites possèdent une diversité floristique relativement faible. La distribution des individus en classes de diamètre dans le site d’étude présente une allure décroissante, caractéristique des espèces des forêts tropicales. Cette faible représentation des individus de classes supérieures pourrait s’expliquer par une pression anthropique sur les peuplements à travers la coupe artisanale non réglementée du bois d’œuvre.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Tropical forests in general and particularly those of the Congo basin are undergoing significant physionomic changes under the effect of anthropogenic pressures. The objective of this work was to contribute to the study of the phytodiversity and the structure of the stands of the forest-savanna contact zones of the Ntui subdivision. The floristic inventories were carried out on 30 plots of 40m x 40m. A total of 1264 individuals of diameter at breast height ≥ 10 cm were counted, with 135 species distributed in 102 genera and 38 families. These species are distributed in three different biotopes due to 103 species in semi-caducifolious forest, 60 in the contact zone and 25 in savanna zone. The most important species in the forest with importance indices greater than 75 are in descending order:<em> Ceiba pentandra</em>, <em>Albizia zygia</em>,<em> Trilepisium madagascariensis</em>. In the contact zone <em>Albizia zygia </em>is the species with the highest importance, followed by <em>Mangifera indica</em>,<em> Caloncoba welwitschii </em>and <em>Terminalia glaucescens</em> among others. In the savanna, the most important species are <em>Terminalia glaucescens</em> followed by <em>Annona senegalensis</em> and <em>Bridelia micrantha</em>. The specific quotient remained relatively low (ranging from 1.1 to 1.2), and also the Shannon index values (1.44 to 3.11 bits). The Simpson index varies from 0.70 to 0.94 and the Pielou evenness varies from 0.80 to 0.95. The various indices showed that these sites have a relatively low floristic diversity. The distribution of individuals in diameter classes showed a decreasing trend, characteristic of tropical forest species. This low representation of upper-class individuals could be explained by anthropogenic pressure on the stands through the illegal artisanal cutting of timber.</p> Vanessa Tchaleu, Marie Caroline Solefack Momo, Yanick Borel Kamga, Aimé Mateso Kambalea, Victor François Nguetsop Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Wed, 25 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Husbandry and breeding features of Fulani sheep in the Chari-Baguirmi and Mandoul provinces of Chad <table width="659"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="495"> <p>A cross-sectional and retrospective survey was conducted from September 2021 to January 2022 in the provinces of Chari-Baguirmi and Mandoul (Chad) aiming at analyzing the husbandry and breeding features of <em>Fulani </em>sheep. A total of 144 sheep keepers owning the <em>Fulani</em> sheep breed were surveyed on the basis of their willingness to freely participate. Results show that the respondents belong in majority to Arab and Fulani ethnic groups. Youths and adults were the major groups of keepers (74.98%) followed by the group of above 50 years old (25%). The majority of respondents were married (98.1%). Monogamous families were more represented (63.19%) followed by polygamous families (34.72%). Large majority did not attend formal instruction level (61.80%), followed by 38.20% (either in Arabic or in French). Small family to medium family sizes were more represented (73.91%) compared to larger family size (27.07%). The main activity was livestock husbandry (91.66%), followed by crop production (69.44%) as a secondary activity. Inheritance and purchase constituted the mode of acquisition of <em>Fulani</em> sheep. Mobility was largely based on transhumance (95.48%) for pastoral lands (61.80%) and water sources (40.97%). About 93.75% of sampled herders were homeless and about 6.24% of them stock their flocks in paddocks made up of thorns. Natural carbonate soda source known as “Lime” was used as a mineral supplement in the rainy season by 45.76% of respondents (August-September). Groundnut cake (23.3%), cereal bran (18.21%) and cottonseed cake (11.86%) were used during the lean season (March-May) as supplementary feeds. Combined prophylaxis (vaccination and deworming) and deworming was practiced respectively by 55.54% and 15.6% as opposed to 26.48% who were reported to be without prophylaxis. Keeping the <em>Fulani</em> sheep was provided by family labor 54.5% followed by permanent employees who were mostly <em>Fulani </em>shepherds (29.72%). In terms of exploitation, reproduction (85.02%) was the main source to maintain flocks, where sales (40%), mortalities (29.4%) and slaughtering (19.5%) were the main factors affecting decrease in flock size. This study provides a better perception on the farming and breeding practices of the <em>Fulani</em> sheep of Chad. Thus, the sustainable use and enhancement of this sheep genetic resource require a better understanding of both phenotypic and molecular characteristics.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Herbert Bamare Djomtchaigue , Mian-Oudanang Koussou , Vounparet Zeuh , Julius Awah-Ndukum , Felix Meutchieye Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Thu, 26 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Contraintes de production du riz pluvial dans la Région de l’Est – Cameroun <p>Le riz est une céréale cultivée et consommée partout en Afrique. Au Cameroun, il est cultivé en système irrigué, pluvial et bas fond. Sa production par an estimée à 360&nbsp;000 t, est très inférieure à la demande estimée à environ 800&nbsp;000 t de paddy. L’Est – Cameroun présente des riches potentialités favorables à la riziculture pluviale, qui reste cependant faiblement pratiquée. Pour cette étude, l’objectif est d’identifier les causes qui freinent la pratique de la riziculture dans cette région potentiellement favorable. Des bassins de productions du riz ont été identifiés par la Délégation Régionale de l’Agriculture et de Développement Rural de l’Est (DRADERE) et la Station Polyvalente de Recherche Agricole de Bertoua (SPRAB) dans les départements de la Kadey, de Lom et Djerem et du Haut Nyong. Ainsi 200 producteurs ont été enquêtés dans 25 villages afin d’identifier les facteurs qui limitent la pratique de la riziculture dans cette région. Il ressort que le rendement moyen régional est de 1,7 t/ha, alors qu’ils sont de 2,2 t/ha dans la Kadey, 1,6 t/ha dans le Lom et Djerem et de 1,2 t/ha dans le Haut Nyong. Les contraintes telles que la baisse de fertilité des sols, les oiseaux ravageurs, la qualité de semence, le traitement post - récolte (TPR), la non maitrise de l’itinéraire technique (ITK), les maladies, les insectes ravageurs, le stress hydrique et la destruction par les hérissons ont été révélées dans tous les trois départements. Cependant, la baisse de fertilité des sols, les oiseaux ravageurs et le traitement post - récolte sont identifiées comme contraintes principales alors que la destruction des hérissons et le déficit hydrique sont des contraintes mineures. Pour réussir la riziculture à l’Est-Cameroun, il faudrait tenir compte de toutes ces contraintes de production qui peuvent compromettre le rendement.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Rice is a cereal grown and consumed everywhere in Africa. In Cameroon, it is grown in irrigated, rainy and lowland system. Its production per year estimated at 360 000 t is much inferior to the estimated demand for about 800,000t of paddy. East - Cameroon has rich potential favorable to upland rice cultivation, which is however weakly practiced. For this study, the objective is to identify the causes that hinder the practice of rice growing in this potentially favorable region. Rice production pools have been identified by the Regional Delegation of Agriculture and Rural Development of Bertoua (RDARDB) and Bertoua Polyvalent Agricultural Research Station (BPARS) in the Kadey division, Lom and Djerem division and Haut Nyong division. Thus 200 producers have been administered questionnaire in 25 villages to identify the factors that limit the practice of rice growing in this region. This study shows that the regional means is 1,7 t/ha, meanwhile in the Kadey Division we have 2,2 t/ha, in the LOM and Djerem Division we have 1,6 t/ha and 1,2 t/ha in Haut Nyong Division. Several constraints have been revealed in the tree divisions, such as: low soil fertility, bird’s damages, seed quality, post-harvest treatment, no mastery of farming technique, diseases, pests, water stress, and hedgehog destruction. However, low soil fertility, bird’s damages and the post - harvest treatment (PHT) are primarily identified, whereas hedgehog destruction and water stress are minor. To succeed rice cultivation in East - Cameroon, it is better to be aware of constraints which could lower the yield.</p> Augustin Mewounko, Roger Darman Djoulde, Alain Christian Misse , Oumarou Yakouba, Simon Djakba Basga, Philémon Kaouvon , Charles Amele Njoumoui Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Thu, 26 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Peasants' perceptions on the socioeconomic importance and cultivation practice of <i>Canarium</i> <i>schweinfurthii</i> Engl. (Black olive tree) in the Western Highlands of Cameroon <p><em>Canarium schweinfurthii</em> is one of the agro-forestry tree species with multiple uses in the subtropical countries which is still exploited wild. The purpose of this study was to get insights related to peasants' perceptions on the socio-economic importance and cultivation practice of the species in the Western Highlands of Cameroon. The methodology consisted of surveys among people spread over 7 villages. Two hundred (200) people who were involved in <em>C. schweinfurthii</em> exploitation were selected in the study area following a random approach and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. In addition to the identification of respondents, the information collected from interviewees focused on: 1) knowledge, uses, harvesting methods and the impact of the exploitation of the species on the well-being of people; 2) the trend of the population’s dynamics of the species and, 3) the know-how and practices in the cultivation of the plant. The results showed that almost all the interviewees (99%) knew the species that they exploit in six categories of use (food, medicine, handicraft, construction, timber industry and firewood supply), with a broad consensus (Cs = 0.98) for the use in food. The degree of consensus remained low for its use in medicine (Cs= -0.18), firewood supply (Cs= -0.21), timber industry (Cs= -0.65), construction (Cs= -0.77) and handicrafts (Cs= -0.84). According to 80% of respondents, income from the sale of the fruits significantly contributes to household welfare. The most cited harvesting method was fruits picking, which does not endanger the species. Only 37% of the interviewees perceived a regressive trend in the dynamics of the species' population over the last decade. For 71% of the respondents, the cultivation practice by farmers is rare or even non-existent. The main reasons for non-cultivation of the species are the uncertainty that the planted trees will bear fruits (80% of respondents) and the long duration of the vegetative growth phase (55% of respondents). 90% of respondents expressed their willingness to adopt the cultivation of the species if these constraints are circumvented. These findings showed that <em>C. schweinfurthii </em>would be an interesting candidate for participatory domestication in the Western Highland of Cameroon, for the intensification of agro-forestry systems. For this purpose, the establishment of an efficient protocol for asexual propagation of fruit-producing individuals is needed.&nbsp;</p> Raïssa S. Atchioutchoua , Gabriel Kanmegne, Gaston R. Noumbo Tsopmbeng Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Thu, 26 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Contribution des agroforêts cacaoyers et caféiers à la conservation de la biodiversité végétale des savanes humides de l’Ouest-Cameroun <table width="678"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="520"> <p>Grâce à de nombreux projets qui revalorisent le cacaoyer (<em>Theobroma cacao</em>) et le caféier (<em>Coffea robusta </em>et <em>arabica</em>) dans les savanes humides de l’Ouest-Cameroun, les systèmes agroforestiers (SAFs) à base de caféiers et de cacaoyers recolonisent les espaces et renforcent les capacités de ces savanes dans la conservation de la biodiversité. Cependant, cette contribution demeure peu valorisée dans ces régions et il est nécessaire de l’évaluer afin que ces systèmes soient désormais pris en compte par les Mécanismes de Développement Propres. Dans 7 villages (Bamengui, Ngwatta, Machoutpou, Medima, Maheutchou, Bandounga et Fomopea) répartis sur trois altitudes (400-800m, 800-1200m et 1200-1600m), 82 SAFs dont 43 SAFs cacaoyers, 23 SAFs caféiers et 16 SAFs mixtes ont été caractérisés. Les placettes de 60*40m et de 40*20 m étaient installées pour mesurer les arbres au DHP≥30 cm et pour les arbres au DHP&lt;30 cm respectivement. Globalement, 84 espèces associées au <em>Theobroma cacao </em>et au <em>Coffea</em> spp. ont été identifiées, au rang desquelles <em>Khaya senegalensis</em>, <em>Vittelaria paradoxa</em> et <em>Podocarpus mannii</em>, inscrites sur la liste rouge de l’UICN. Les espèces les plus abondantes étaient <em>Elaeis guineensis </em>(35,2%), <em>Dacryodes edulis </em>(13,9%) et <em>Persea americana </em>(3,9%). Les familles les plus abondantes étaient les Arecaceae (35,2%) et les Burseraceae (14,6%). Les indices moyens de diversité étaient de 1,64±0,35bits pour Shannon, 0,49±0,15 pour Simpson et 0,42±0,10 pour Piélou traduisant la faible diversité de l’ensemble des SAFs. Ces systèmes avaient des densités moyennes de 1838,43±573,89 individus/ha. Les surfaces terrières moyennes étaient de 18±15,7 m²/ha et la surface moyenne du houppier était de 5697,36±2981,81 m²/ha, pour un taux d’ombrage moyen de 56,97%. Ces valeurs variaient en fonction des types de SAFs et d’altitude. Les SAFs cacaoyers, peu considérés par la recherche dans ces régions étaient plus diversifiés, même si cela n’enlève rien à la contribution des autres types de SAFs.</p> <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Many projects that revalorize cocoa (<em>Theobroma cacao</em>) and coffee (<em>Coffea robusta</em> and <em>arabica</em>) in the humid savannahs of West Cameroon, the coffee and cocoa agroforestry systems (AFS) are recolonizing the spaces and strengthening the capacities of these savannahs in the conservation of biodiversity. However, this contribution remains undervalued in these regions and it was necessary to assess it so that these AFS are now taken into account by the Clean Development Mechanisms. In 7 villages (Bamengui, Ngwatta, Machoutpou, Medima, Maheutchou, Bandounga and Fomopea) spread over three altitudes (400-800m, 800-1200m and 1200-1600m), 82 AFS including 43 cocoa AFS, 23 coffee AFS and 16 mixed AFS have been characterized. The 60*40 m and 40*20 m plots were respectively installed to measure trees with DBH≥30 cm and for trees with DBH&lt;30 cm. A total of 84 species associated with <em>Theobroma</em> <em>cacao</em> and<em> Coffea </em>spp. have been identified, including <em>Khaya</em> <em>senegalensis</em>, <em>Vittelaria paradoxa </em>and <em>Podocarpus manii</em>, listed on the IUCN red list. The most abundant species were <em>Elaeis guineensis </em>(35.2%), <em>Dacryodes edulis </em>(13.9%) and <em>Persea americana </em>(3.9%). The most abundant families were Arecaceae (35.2%) and Burseraceae (14.6%). The average diversity indices were 1.64±0,35 bits for Shannon, 0.49±0,15 for Simpson and 0.42±0,10 for Piélou showing the low diversity of all AFS. The average density of these AFS were 1838,43±573,89 individuals/ha with average basal areas of 18±15,7 m²/ha. The average crown area was 5697,36±2981,81 m²/ha, for a shade rate of about 56.97%. However, these values varied according to the AFS types and altitude. Cocoa AFS, little considered by research in these regions have proven to be the best AFS in biodiversity conservation, although, this does not detract from the contribution of others types of AFS.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Eric Cantona Ndonmou, Junior Baudoin Taffo Wouokoue , Mubeteneh Christopher Tankou , Christian Hervé Siohdjie Sime, Marie Louise Tientcheu Avana Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Thu, 26 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A comprehensive cardiometabolic risk score estimation method in rodents <p>Cardiometabolic diseases are among the main leading causes of morbidity and mortality over the world. The coexistence of a bundle of metabolic risk factors in an individual has prompted Reaven to consider it as a syndrome, called “X syndrome”. The term has later evolved and the health condition is today called “cardiometabolics syndrome” (CMS). Significant progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of the CMS has been made during the past years. Being able to adequately assess cardiometabolic risk (CMR) is crucial for proper diagnosis, prevention, and better management of CMS, as this could be helpful to slow down its progression and complications. This could also be useful in the preclinical and clinical evaluation of potential treatment strategies. Several methods have been developed to assess the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases in chronic and clinical setting. However, these methods show limitations when applying to short and experimental settings involving rodents. Therefore, this commentary aims at redefining and highlighting the main risk factors to be reconsidered in cardiometabolic syndrome definition; and proposing a comprehensive estimation method for the evaluation of the CMR in rodents. This is relevant for an appropriate utilization of the term CMS and a deep evaluation of therapeutic targets in experimental settings.</p> Adeline K. Wuyt, Pamela A. Nono Nankam, Elvine P. Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Télesphore B. Nguelefack Copyright (c) 2022 Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology Thu, 26 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000