The relationship between perceived self-efficacy and adherence to self-care activities in type 2 diabetic clients
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and adherence to self-care activities in type 2 diabetic clients. Low adherence to diabetic self-care activities result in increased risks of developing chronic serious and life-threatening complications with increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients.
Design: The study was conducted using a descriptive correlational design. The Health Belief Model was utilized as the conceptual framework.
Setting: The study was carried out at Parirenyatwa hospital, a central referral health facility located in Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe.
Subjects: The study had a sample of 74 subjects selected through systematic probability sampling with clients aged 40-65 years old suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus and attending an outpatient diabetic clinic at the study site during the period of study. There were no dropouts they had to be at least one year post diagnosis and being able to speak either English or Shona or both.
Interventions: Data was collected through a structured interview. The interviews were conducted between
08:00 hrs and 12:00hrs, which are the clinic hours. A questionnaire was used that was divided into three parts namely demographics, adherence and perceived self efficacy.
Main Outcome Measures: levels of adherence to self care and perceived self efficacy were the main outcome measures
Results: 45.9% of the subjects in the study had high adherence level of diabetic self-care activities, and this finding is inconsistent with the desirable adherence level for a chronic condition with potential for serious and life threatening complications. A high perceived self-efficacy level was found in 75.7% of the study subjects. There was a strong positive relationship between perceived self-efficacy and adherence to diabetic self-care activities (r = .964), and regression analysis showed an r squared of .930 which is evident of a strong positive relationship.
Conclusions: There is need for the medical-surgical nurses to develop strategies that would further improve diabetic clients' perceived self-efficacy so as to increase adherence to diabetic self-care activities.