Contemporary Journal of African Studies <p>The <em>Contemporary Journal of African Studies</em>, formerly published as <em>Research Review of the Institute of African Studies</em> (see RRIAS pages here: <a title="/index.php/rrias/index" href="/index.php/rrias/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>) publishes academic and scholarly articles that set forth the findings of new research in any branch of African Studies, or discuss and re-evaluate earlier or current research or publications by an author or authors.</p> en-US <p>© Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, 2013</p><p>The journal content is licensed under a Creative Commons License Attribution – Non-Commercial, No-Derivates CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.</p> (Prof. Akosua Adomako Ampofo) (Edwina Ashie-Nikoi, PhD) Tue, 21 Jun 2022 20:53:47 +0000 OJS 60 From the Editorial Team <p>CJAS Editor-in-Chief Akosua Adomako Ampofo introduces volume 9.1</p> Akosua Adomako Ampofo Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction: Assembling Peacekeeping and Policing in Ghana <p>By exploring the case of Ghana, this special issue provides two perspectives on UN peacekeeping that until now have been underdeveloped in the literature. First, rather than taking a mission and its host country as the analytical point of departure, the contributions in the special issue focus on how peacekeeping has shaped domestic security in Ghana – a consistent contributor of security personnel to peacekeeping since 1960. Second, instead of focusing on the military component, attention is paid to the link between peacekeeping and law enforcement, and thus how policing – as carried out by the state-sanctioned Ghana Police Service, Ghana Armed Forces and a range of non-state actors – intertwines with and is partially shaped by practices, ideas and discourse that can be traced back to mission deployments. Theoretically, the concept of assemblage is used to frame how peacekeeping stretches across state boundaries and intersects with the politics and practices of domestic security provision. Both at a state institutional level, and in day-to-day policing by individual police officers, order-making practices and discourses are constituted by the assembling of a multitude of logics and historicities that integrate and assimilate as well as contradict and oppose one another. It is how the experience of peacekeeping becomes part of and shapes these ever-evolving assemblages that the contributions to this special issue investigate. Changes may be institutional and macro-political but are as often deeply personal and individualised, with implications for how security personnel perceive and practice their roles.</p> Peter Albrecht Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Variations in Police Performance in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Domestic Policing in Ghana <p>The Ghana Police Service is constantly criticised by the Ghanaian public for poor performance and an inability to deal effectively with rising crime rates. Media reports and scholarly research have corroborated these criticisms, citing instances of police brutality, corruption, negligence, ineffectiveness and complicity in crimes. However, with few exceptions, the same police are widely applauded in United Nations peacekeeping operations for their professionalism, outstanding performance, and contributions to restoring peace and the rule of law. This raises the question of why the police’s performance at home differs from its performance in peacekeeping contexts. This article analyses the factors that underpin the perceived variations in police performance at home and internationally. Based on in-depth interviews conducted with relevant stakeholders and the application of assemblage theory to the empirical evidence gathered, it argues that perceived variations in performance have nothing to do with the technical competencies and knowledge of police personnel. Rather, this discrepancy can be explained by factors including: the effects of the colonial legacy on the police; different mandates/tasks in mission and in Ghana; distinct socio-cultural and political dynamics that influence policing; different legal frameworks and principles that govern domestic and international policing; limited availability of human and logistical resources and funding for domestic policing; and different methods for dealing with indiscipline and corruption.</p> Festus Aubyn Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assembling Community Policing: Peacekeeping and the Ghana Police Service’s Transformation Agenda <p>This article shows how peacekeeping experiences manifest in the Ghana Police Service’s (GPS) community policing strategies and practices in often inconspicuous and individualized ways. Peacekeeping constitutes an important element of what the article refers to as the community policing assemblage. However, the article emphasises that the shape of the community policing assemblage is conditioned by a wide range of discourses and practices beyond peacekeeping. Global and national policies and strategies relating to policing, including the GPS’s own transformation agenda, local and individual interpretations and translations of peacekeeping experiences and what community policing means, all play into how the assemblage is formed. Thus, the article disentangles the effects of peacekeeping and puts it in the context of broader policing in Ghana, based on in-depth interviews and observations with police officers, mainly from the GPS’s community policing headquarters in Tesano, Accra. It concludes that while several studies have shown how peacekeeping has shaped Ghana’s security institutions and sense of role in the world, it has not been able to chip away at or counteract the deep and deepening control that security institutions in the country are subjected to by politicians. Arguing that the peacekeeping experience may have a profound transformative effect on individual police officers, yet little if any impact in terms of depoliticising the GPS and policing more broadly, is a less sweeping conclusion. However, suggesting that the effects of peacekeeping often are local and individualized, at times deeply embodied experiences, is also a more accurate conclusion empirically.</p> Peter Albrecht Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Anatomy of Ghanaian Domestic Military Operations: Exploring Operations Vanguard and Calm Life <p>This article focuses on the under-researched and under-discussed domestic security implications in Ghana of military participation in international peacekeeping operations. While there is appreciable awareness and knowledge of the role of peacekeepers in reducing conflict in host countries, very little attention is given to their actions when they return home. The money, training and combat experience emanating from peacekeeping are likely to have considerable institutional, policy, operational (tactics, techniques and procedures) and political consequences in their home countries. In Ghana, especially, peacekeeping training and combat experience provide tools that can be used for internal security interventions. Increasingly, there has been a change in policy in Ghana where the military is involved in several local security operations. This policy shift has seen the creation of a number of joint internal operations involving the military and the police. Based on fieldwork in Ghana, the article explores two major internal operations: Operation Calm Life (to combat armed robbery) and Operation Vanguard (to combat illegal mining). The study shows how diverse dimensions of experience from peacekeeping have practical implications for shaping domestic security provision.</p> Fiifi Edu-Afful Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Addressing Conflicts over Resource Use in Ghana: The case of Operations Vanguard and Cow Leg <p>Ghana is endowed with natural resources including forests, minerals, water and grazing lands which have made significant contributions to national development. At the same time, competing demands for these resources have created many conflicts that have proven difficult to manage. This paper seeks to further understand the challenges associated with resource use in Ghana, in particular the nature of conflicts and conflict resolution mechanisms under two joint police-military operations: Operation Cow Leg, which deals with long-running conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and local farmers over grazing rights; and Operation Vanguard, which addresses conflicts between the state and those involved in illegal small-scale mining popularly known as galamsey. Drawing on the literature on international peacekeeping, and using data collected via qualitative methods, the paper argues that while joint police-miliary operations such as Cow Leg and Vanguard are necessary, their implementation has failed to involve local people, and paid insufficient attention to the ways that local conflicts follow traditional processes of resolution.</p> Osman Alhassan, Richard Asante Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Domestic Peacekeeping Practices in the Tamale Metropolis <p>This article contributes to understanding local security practices in urban Africa by examining links between international peacekeeping and local policing in Tamale, the capital of Ghana’s Northern Region. It uses the concept of assemblage to suggest that while experiences, skills and lessons gained from consistent engagement in United Nations peacekeeping may be detected in local policing in Tamale, their effects on everyday policing are in practice limited. This is due to the central role of traditional authorities in local security and general political interference in police matters. Local policing in Tamale is an assemblage of formal (police and military) and informal (chiefs and community leaders) security arrangements, with the latter, especially, dictating how crimes should be dealt with. This makes it next to impossible for the police to do their job without interference. The article examines how non-state or traditional actors shape policing and security provision in Tamale, and what space is available for police officers to use the skills they believe they have learned in peacekeeping missions. The paper shows through empirical analysis how local policing is shaped more by kinship and politics than international principles of human rights and democracy.<br>&nbsp;</p> Mustapha Abdallah, Kwesi Aning Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assembling UN Peacekeeping and Counterterrorism in Ghana <p>Through the case of Ghana, this article proposes a link between international peacekeeping deployments and national processes of stabilisation. Based on fieldwork among soldiers and police officers, it explores how peacekeeping experiences are transferred and translated into security provision at home within the field of counterterrorism. Introducing the notion of the ‘peacekeeping-counterterrorism assemblage’ as an analytical lens for unpacking the co-production of external and internal security provision and, more specifically, the processes and practices through which international peacekeeping experiences become entangled with national counterterror policing, the article empirically unfolds the relational and societal impact of peacekeeping on domestic security. The exposure to the human consequences of warfare in peacekeeping missions, the article shows, has nurtured a profound awareness of keeping war at a distance, which may have a preventive effect on the policing of the threat of terrorism, as well as on the broader dynamics of domestic security and stability in Ghana</p> Maya Mynster Christensen Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Gender Dimensions of Resource Conflicts in Ghana: Deconstructing the Male-Centric and Binary Outlook of Communal Conflicts <p>The literature on gender and conflicts in Africa is dominated by essentialised and narrow male-centric constructions of conflict and stereotypes of female victimhood which obscure alternative female-centric ideation and experiences on conflict and conflict resolution. Using interdisciplinary methodologies, and drawing in insights from anthropology and history, this article explores the nature of women’s constructions of and participation in community conflicts and what drives their participation. We do this by investigating the gendered nature of community conflicts and conflict resolution in eight communities that are experiencing conflict over chieftaincy, land use and resources. We show that issues that are of concern for women – for example disputes over water use or witchcraft accusations – are largely relegated to the background. Moreover, women are excluded from most aspects of conflict and conflict resolution, at both the local and state level. We argue for a re-examination of the normative gendered constructions of conflict in Ghana to include female-centric ideas of conflict and conflict resolution.</p> Deborah Atobrah, Benjamin Kwansa, Dzodzi Tsikata Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Politics of Religious Sound: Conflict and the Negotiation of Religious Diversity in Ghana <p>Genevieve Nrenzah reviews J. A. Arthur's <a href="">The Politics of Religious Sound: Conflict and the Negotiation of Religious Diversity in Ghana</a></p> Genevieve Nrenzah Copyright (c) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000