Vitamin and Mineral Compositions of Local Spices, Vegetables and Fish Wastes
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the vitamins and minerals content of some locally sourced ingredients such as fish liver oil, Baobab (Adansonia digitata) , Fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis), Cockcomb (Celosia spp), Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) leaves, Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aetiopica), Red pepper (capsicum frutenscen), Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevicae), rice bran, palm oil and colostrums. The results indicated that fish liver oil was the most potent source of vitamins A, D, E and B12 represented by 9x10 6 iu/100g, 48000icu/100g, 30mg/100g, and 40.5mg/100g, respectively. B-Complex vitamins were present among the spices and vegetables analyzed. Saccharomyces cerevicae was observed to a potent source of thiamin (9.4mg /100g) and niacin (41.8 mg / 100g). Capsicum spp and Telfaria occidentalis had ample amounts of riboflavin, thiamin and niacin. Rice bran had the highest amount of pyridoxine, 28.6mg/100g, while pantothenate was present more in the milk (8.2mg/100g) than other materials analysed. The mineral composition of the materials analysed showed that they have fairly uniform potency. Amaranthus cruentus was found to contain more mineral with 3.0, 1.4, 5.13, 1.10, 5.04 and 1.09% for copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), respectively. The results of the analysis indicated that vitamins and minerals potencies of these ingredients can be harnessed for the production of vitamin and mineral premix for animal feed formulation.
Keywords: HPLC, Minerals, Natural ingredients, Spices, Vegetables, Vitamin.