Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the root bark extracts of Neocarya macrophylla
Neocarya macrophylla is a medicinal plant commonly used in traditional medicine in Northern Nigeria to treat asthma, skin infections, treatment of wounds, dysentery, pulmonary troubles and a number of inflammations, as ell as treatment of eye and ear infections. In this work, the root back extracts of Neocarya macrophylla were screened for phytochemical constituents as well as the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, an ear infection-causing pathogen. The results revealed that some of the common phytoconstituents are present in most of the extracts. The susceptibility test results gives inhibition range of 13, 13, 13, 14 and 13 mm for the crude extract (NM), methanol extract (NM4), ethyl acetate extract (NM3), chloroform extract (NM2) and n-hexame extract (NM1) respectively against test organism at 50 mg/ml. The test results also showed inhibition range of 12, 11, 11, 12 and 12 mm for NM, NM4, NM3, NM2 and NM1 respectively at 25 mg/ml. Lastly, the results showed inhibition range of 11, 10, 09, 10 and 11 mm for NM, NM4, NM3, NM2 and NM1 respectively at 12.5 mg/ml. This indicates that NM2 is the most active fraction against the organism at 50 mg/ml, and the least active fraction was NM3 at 12.5 mg/ml. The test results also show that the root back extract NM2 has the potentials of providing the active components that could be developed into new antibacterial agents.
Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Escherichia coli, Neocarya macrophylla, Phytochemicals