Determination of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antifungal Properties of Annona senegalensis Leaves (African Custard Apple)
Phytochemical screening of Annona senegalensis leaves was carried out in order to identify and to quantify the bioactive compounds that are present in the plant. Methanol extracts and aqueous extracts of the plant leaves were screened for the presence of ten metabolites. The qualitative study indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, steroids, cardiac glycoside and carbohydrates for both the aqueous extracts and the methanol leaves extract. Tannins and terpenoids were only present in the aqueous extract and saponins were only present in the methanol extract. Anthraquinones were absent in both of the extracts. Quantitative analysis showed the amount of alkaloid that was present in both the leaves extract of Annona senegalensis. Antifungal activities of the methanol extracts and the aqueous extracts of Annona senegalensis were investigated and assessed against cultured Trichoderma spp fungus. The susceptibility of the tested fungus on the extracts was determined by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones formed around the well. The highest anti-fungal activity was observed in the aqueous extracts of the leaf. This gave an inhibition zone of 14.5mm. The methanol extract of the leaf gave the lowest inhibition zone of 8.3mm.
Keywords: Annona senegalensis, bioactive, extracts, metabolites, leaves, phytochemical, antifungal