Plant Source Apportionments and Radiological Risk Using Natural Radionuclides of Herbal Remedies Consumed in Katsina, Nigeria
The use of herbal remedies for treatment of various ailment are common practice in developing countries, but the formulation of these products is usually complex, hence, the need for thorough quality check especially with possible health risk these could pose. Therefore, this study examined the plant mix of Anogeissus leiocarpus, Prosopis Africana, Boswellia odorata Guiera senagalensis among the samples in ten (10) herbal remedies sold in Katsina, Nigeria using cluster analysis of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232) and further evaluates the radiological hazard due to consumption of the herbal remedies. The activity concentration of the K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 was determined using gamma spectroscopic analysis and the Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) and Annual Gonad Equivalent Dose (AGED) due to consumption of radionuclides in the herbal remedies were calculated. The results recorded the activity concentration of K-40 ranges from 63.92±2.78 - 210.43±6.54 Bq/Kg, Ra-226 varied from 8.55±4.07 - 41.19±2.71 Bq/Kg and Th-232 activity concentration ranges from 30.51±0.27 - 157.31±1.29 Bq/Kg. The exposure of human consuming the herbal remedies using the AACED showed ingestion of K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 in the herbal remedies is below the standard average radiation dose of 0.3 mSv. However, the indexes, Raeq and AGED in three samples are above 370 and 300 mSvyr-1 recommended limits, respectively. Hence these herbal remedies are not safe for consumption based on radiolological hazard.
Keywords: Activity, Herbal Remedies, Natural Radionuclides, Nigeria