Proximate and Heavy Metals Compositions of Some Commercial Fish Feeds available in Keffi Metropolis, Nasarawa State

  • J. Isah
  • B.S. Shuaibu
  • J. Mohammed
  • A.O. Hamza
Keywords: Concentration, Fish feeds, Heavy metals, Nutrient balance, Proximate analysis


The nutrient balance of feed influences its utilization and growth in fish. Proximate and heavy metals examinations were carried out on three different fish feed samples obtained from commercially available fish feed shops in Keffi metropolis and were labeled A, B, and C. The sealed samples were taken to the laboratory, ground using a mortar and pestle and kept in an airtight container for subsequent chemical analysis. The results of the proximate analysis shows that the moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate content range from, 3.17% - 7.50%, 9.39% - 11.61%, 37.85% - 48.90%, 5.00% - 13.33%, 2.53% - 6.00% and 21.31% - 30.78% respectively. The estimated levels of heavy metals analysed ranges from 0.35mg/kg - 0.61 mg/kg, 0.27mg/kg - 0.44 mg/kg, 1.15 mg/kg - 1.47 mg/kg, 0.02 mg/kg - 0.44 mg/kg, 3.15 mg/kg - 3.25 mg/kg and 0.40 mg/kg - 0.50 mg/kg for Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni and Pb respectively. The concentrations of the heavy metals determined are in order of Ni > Co > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd. The results of the proximate analysis obtained are in close argument with that obtained in the literature which ranges from 10.06% - 10.38%, 5.33% - 9.45%, 8.512% - 24.40%, 3.20% - 12.73%, 5.00% - 13.00% and 25.89% - 52.65% respectively. For the heavy metals, it ranges from 0.0579mg/kg - 0.0023mg/kg, 0.0002mg/kg - 0.0005mg/kg, 0.01mg/kg - 0.37mg/kg, 1.22mg/kg - 4.71mg/kg and 0.06mg/kg - 0.68mg/kg for Cu, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni and Pb respectively. It is therefore concluded that all the fish feed samples analysed contain the required nutrients in required proportions declared by the manufacturers and the regulatory guide lines. The heavy metals concentrations and proximate compositions obtained are within the certified limits as regulated by WHO, SON and FAO.


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eISSN: 2384-6028
print ISSN: 2276-707X