https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/issue/feed ChemSearch Journal 2020-07-08T13:10:44+00:00 Dr. M. B. Ibrahim mbibrahim.chm@buk.edu.ng Open Journal Systems <p><em>Chemsearch Journal</em> is a peer – reviewed journal that publishes original research work, scientific papers and technical reports in all the field of Chemistry (pure science, agriculture, environmental science, science education and related fields).</p><p>This journal is now Open Access so the content can be freely accesses online.</p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197358 Editorial 2020-07-08T07:32:30+00:00 A.A. Audu mbibrahim.chm@buk.edu.ng <p>No Abstract.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197359 Retraction Notice: “Synthesis and Characterization of BiVO4 nanoparticles and its Photocatalytic Activity on Levofloxacin Antibiotics” 2020-07-08T07:37:22+00:00 A.A. Audu mbibrahim.chm@buk.edu.ng <p>RETRACTION NOTICE: “Synthesis and Characterization of BiVO4 nanoparticles and its Photocatalytic Activity on Levofloxacin Antibiotics”. (ChemSearch Journal 10(2): 104 – 111, December, 2019) by Usman Saidu,</p> <p>Department of Chemistry, Sule Lamido University Kafin Hausa, P.M.B. 048, Jigawa State, Nigeria. Received: 29/10/2019, Accepted: 06/12/2019.</p> <p>The retraction is agreed upon after discovering that the author utilizes data that was not authorised/approved by his PhD supervisor leading to his&nbsp; requesting for its retraction.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197361 Erratum Notice: “Spectrophotometric Study of Stability Constants of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) Complexes of 2, 2 – Bipyridine at Different Temperatures” 2020-07-08T07:48:36+00:00 A.A. Audu mbibrahim.chm@buk.edu.ng <p>ERRATUM NOTICE: “Spectrophotometric Study of Stability Constants of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) Complexes of 2, 2 – Bipyridine at Different Temperatures” (ChemSearch Journal 5(1): 51 – 55, June, 2014) by 1Ibrahim, M. B. and 2Moyosore, A.</p> <p><br><sup>1</sup>Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano. <sup>2</sup>Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, Katsina. Received: 12/05/2014, Accepted: 23/06/2014.</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197363 Synthesis, Characterization and Optimization of Magnetite Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Application in the Removal of Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) 2020-07-08T08:47:27+00:00 S. Mamman mamman.suwaiba@yahoo.co.uk R.E.A. Mohammad mamman.suwaiba@yahoo.co.uk S.S. Abdullahi mamman.suwaiba@yahoo.co.uk A.S. Chadi mamman.suwaiba@yahoo.co.uk A.H. Birniwa mamman.suwaiba@yahoo.co.uk <p>Diclofenac (DCF) remains one of the most extensively used sold anti-inflammatory and analgesics that have been in use for an extended period. It has been widely detected in aquatic environments at concentrations that are indicative of detrimental environmental effects in addition to its inclusion on the EU's first watch list therefore, its removal from the environment is crucial. In this study, a selective Molecularly Imprinted Polymer<br>(MIP) was synthesized via a bulk polymerization strategy with methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and Diclofenac sodium (DCF) as the template molecule. The structure of the prepared MIP/ NIP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Several parameters influencing the adsorption efficiency of the MIP were optimized via the batch adsorption experiment. The results revealed that the maximum removal efficiency of the MIP (79%) was achieved at the optimized conditions of pH 2, 10 mL of 10 mg/L of adsorbate solution at 60 min contact time which was higher than its corresponding non molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) which<br>was (57%). The result of the reusability study showed that the adsorbent can be reused up to five cycles, hence it is efficient and promising for the removal of diclofenac from aqueous media.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> NSAIDs, optimization, removal, reusability, selectivity</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197367 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies of Benzylpenicillin and its Co(II) Complex 2020-07-08T09:34:41+00:00 I.E. Otuokere ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com U.F. Robert ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com K.K. Igwe ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com S.U. Mpama ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com <p>Co(II) complex of benzylpenicillin was synthesized by the reaction between benzylpenicillin and CoCl<sub>2</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O. The structure and nature of bonding of the complex have been explored by conductivity, elemental analysis, continuous variation method, infrared and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The physical properties such as colour, solubility and melting point were determined for both the benzylpenicillin and its Co(II) complex. Elemental analysis of the complex agreed with the calculated value. Continuous variation method suggested metal:ligand ratio of 1:1. From the spectral data analysis, the ligand benzylpenicillin behaved as a tetradentate ligand coordinating to the metal ion through OH, C=O of amide, C=O of carboxylate, C=O of β-lactam and NH. A trigonal bipyramidal geometry has been proposed for the metal complex. Benzylpenicillin and its Co(II) complex have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four gram positive strains <em>(Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus</em> and <em>Enterococcus feacalis</em>) and four gram negative (<em>Escherichia coli, Enterobacter clocae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Campylobacter fetus</em>). The Co(II) complex showed enhanced antibacterial activity when compared with pure benzylpenicillin. It was deduced that Co(II) benzylpenicillin complex have improved antibacterial activity than benzylpencillin alone and it was evident that the overall potency of benzylpencillin was enhanced on coordination with cobalt ion.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antibacterial, Benzylpenicillin, Complex, Tetradentate, Co(II) </p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197371 Determination of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antifungal Properties of <i>Annona senegalensis</i> Leaves (African Custard Apple) 2020-07-08T09:49:46+00:00 AbdulRazaq Tukur abdulrazaqtukur@gmail.com Nasiru Malan Musa abdulrazaqtukur@gmail.com Hafsat Ahmad Bello abdulrazaqtukur@gmail.com Nasiru Alhaji Sani abdulrazaqtukur@gmail.com <p>Phytochemical screening of Annona senegalensis leaves was carried out in order to identify and to quantify the bioactive compounds that are present in the plant. Methanol extracts and aqueous extracts of the plant leaves were screened for the presence of ten metabolites. The qualitative study indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, steroids, cardiac glycoside and carbohydrates for both the aqueous extracts and the methanol leaves extract. Tannins and terpenoids were only present in the aqueous extract and saponins were only present in the methanol extract. Anthraquinones were absent in both of the extracts. Quantitative analysis showed the amount of alkaloid that was present in both the leaves extract of <em>Annona senegalensis</em>. Antifungal activities of the methanol extracts and the aqueous extracts of Annona senegalensis were investigated and assessed against cultured Trichoderma spp fungus. The susceptibility of the tested fungus on the extracts was determined by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones formed around the well. The highest anti-fungal activity was observed in the aqueous extracts of the leaf. This gave an inhibition zone of 14.5mm. The methanol extract of the leaf gave the lowest inhibition zone of 8.3mm.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Annona senegalensis, bioactive, extracts, metabolites, leaves, phytochemical, antifungal</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197372 Synthesis, Characterization and Adsorption Properties of Protonated Cross-linked Chitosan for the Removal of Basic Blue 3 Dye from Wastewater 2020-07-08T10:03:39+00:00 A.S. Chadi abchadis@gmail.com U. Saidu abchadis@gmail.com S. Mamman abchadis@gmail.com A.A. Abubakar abchadis@gmail.com <p>Dye wastewater remediation is important for water treatment and adsorption is an effective treatment process. A modified protonated crosslinked chitosan (PCCH) was synthesized and compared with pure chitosan for a cationic basic blue 3 dye removal from an aqueous solution. Adsorbent were characterized using techniques such as SEM/EDX, FTIR, and BET analysis. Batch experiments were conducted under optimized pH, adsorbent<br>dosage and initial concentration at room temperature within a range of one hour. The highest adsorption efficiency was 91.93% and 58.97%, adsorption capacity 6.19 mg/g and 3.83 mg/g for PCCH and pure chitosan respectively. Result however fitted well with Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics models(R2&gt;0.99).</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Adsorbent, Adsorption, Basic Blue 3, Chitosan, Crosslinking, Wastewater</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197374 Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Steel Processing Effluent on Sodium Hydroxide Modified Nigerian Kaolinite 2020-07-08T10:14:55+00:00 F.A. Adekola jonnylawal@gmail.com <p>This study investigated the quality level of heavy metal-laden effluent discharge (wastewater) from a steel processing plant in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria and the utilization of NaOH treated Nigerian kaolinite clay as low-cost adsorbent for remediation of the effluent. Physicochemical analysis of the wastewater was carried out and the clay adsorbent was characterized using X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). From the results obtained, XRD reflection peaks of the 63 μm fractions obtained after purification revealed the clay as kaolin. FTIR absorption bands at 3689.64 and 3619.67 cm<sup>-1</sup> represent surface -OH stretching of the octahedral and inner -OH between the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. The EDS spectra of the kaolin following treatment with NaOH showed an increase in silica and alumina content from 15.92% to 24.81% and 13.36% to 15.58% respectively. Physicochemical parameters of the raw effluents were above the recommended limits set by National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) of Nigeria for industrial discharge. The metal ion concentrations were 309.0, 20.50, 40.40 and 10.90 mg/L for Fe<sup>2+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup> and Cr<sup>6+</sup> ions respectively. Successive reuse of the treated clay in four adsorption cycles recorded removal efficiency of 99.77, 99.95, 98.91 and 99.91% for Fe<sup>2+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup> and Cr<sup>6+</sup> ions respectively and decrease in the physicochemical parameters to permissible level. The Water Quality and Metal Pollution Indices (WQI/MPI) of the effluent after adsorption showed the treated wastewater fulfilled environmental requirement for industrial discharge. The study concluded that NaOH treated clay offered potential for remediation of heavy metal-laden industrial effluents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Adsorption, Clay, Effluents, Heavy metals, Steel</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197378 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies of 4-{[(E)- Phenylmethylidene] amino}-N-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide and its Mn(II) Complex 2020-07-08T10:21:45+00:00 I.E. Otuokere ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com J.C. Anyanwu ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com K.K. Igwe ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com <p>A Schiff base, 4-{[(E)-Phenylmethylidene]amino}-N-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (PTSA) was prepared by a reaction between benzaldehyde and sulphathiazole. Mn(II) complex of PTSA was also prepared. The melting point, colour, yield and conductivity of PTSA and [Mn(PTSA)] were determined. The PTSA and [Mn(PTSA)] were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Low conductivity value of 13.9 Sm2mol<sup>-1</sup> indicated the non-electrolytic nature of the complex. The PTSA behaved as a tridentate ligand towards Mn, it coordinated through NH-group, two C=N groups. PTSA and [Mn(PTSA)] have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacterial strains; <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Ecsherichia coli,</em> <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Salmonella typhi</em>. It was observed that the complex was more potent than PTSA against the bacterial strains used. In line with the findings, PTSA and [Mn(PTSA)] inhibited<em> E. coli, P. aerugunosa, S. typhi </em>and<em> S. aureus.</em> The Mn(II) complex showed enhanced antibacterial activity when compared with PTSA. It was deduced that [Mn(PTSA)] complex have improved antibacterial activity than PTSA alone and it was evident that the overall potency of PTSA was enhanced on coordination with manganese ion.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antibacterial, Complex, Manganese, Schiff base, Spectroscopy </p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197380 Growth Performance and Nutrient Availability of Tomatoes (<i>Lycopersicum Esculentum</i>) Seedlings in Anaerobic Slurry Amended Soils 2020-07-08T13:04:59+00:00 M. Maliki muniratu.maliki@edouniversity.edu.ng I.H. Ifijen muniratu.maliki@edouniversity.edu.ng <p>To study the growth performance and nutrient availability of tomatoes (lycopersicum esculentum) seedlings in anaerobic slurry amended soils, a greenhouse trial was conducted at the faculty of agriculture, University of Benin. Four rates of the anaerobic slurry were used, namely 0, 200, 400, 600 cm<sup>3</sup>/3kg soil in a completely randomized design in triplicate. Results from the pre- plant soils revealed that the application of the amendment<br>enhanced the soil quality. Soil organic carbon, N, P, K, Ca, Na and % base saturation were significantly (P &lt; 0.05), were higher than the control, while the soil pH remained in the acidic region and the soil exchangeable acidity reduced. Apart from, stem girth which showed no significant difference, plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, and total biomass yield by the plant were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) better than the control, but in no particular order. Plant growth parameter suggest that the 600 cm<sup>3</sup> treatment performed better for plant height,&nbsp; leaves length and number of leaves while total biomass yield was better with the 400 cm<sup>3</sup>/ treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Anaerobic Slurry, Growth, Nutrient, Tomatoes </p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197382 Effects of Temporal Rainfall Variability on Water Quality of River Ruiru, Kiambu County, Kenya 2020-07-08T10:47:26+00:00 Ann Waithaka ann.waithaka@yahoo.com K. Shadrack Murimi ann.waithaka@yahoo.com Kennedy Obiero ann.waithaka@yahoo.com <p>This paper assessed the effects of temporal rainfall variability on water quality of River Ruiru, Kiambu County. Findings from the study indicated that DO, TDS, thermal conductivity, total phosphorus and total nitrogen values were within World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) and National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) (2006) recommended values. The BOD values were found to be within NEMA (2006) limits in all sampling sites though above WHO (2011) limits both seasons except at Kwa Maiko where they were within the limit during the dry season. The pH and turbidity values were above WHO (2011)/ NEMA (2006) recommended values during dry and wet seasons except for Ruiru dam sampling site where they were within the limits during the dry season. The results for the total coliforms and E. coli indicated that River Ruiru was severely polluted. Moreover, the results indicated that pH, turbidity, DO, thermal conductivity and TDS had higher mean during wet season (M=8.40, M=79.00, M=51.20, M=87.00 and M=54.20) than in dry season (M=6.80, M=11.60, M=43.40, M=73.00, and M=45.40). The difference for these water quality parameters between dry and wet seasons was significant (P=0.003, P=0.034, P=0.005, P=0.013 and P=0.014).These findings will help in understanding the effects of temporal rainfall variability on water quality which is one component of the knowledge base required in applying the principles of integrated water resources management (IWRM) thus providing critical input to the decision making on water resources management and planning.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: River Ruiru, Temporal rainfall, Watershed, Water quality</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197383 Chemometrics Approach to QuEChERS-dSPE for Multi-Standard Determination of Pesticides in Blank Samples of Milli-Q-Water Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) 2020-07-08T11:59:21+00:00 Abubakar Lawal abubakarlawal360@yahoo.com Lukman Bola Abdulra’uf abubakarlawal360@yahoo.com <p>The development of the best efficient technique for multi-pesticide determination in food samples is one of the best ways to address issues concerned with the use of pesticides in agricultural practices. Even though, several conventional techniques have been used earlier such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid phase microextraction (LPME), unfortunately, these treatment techniques possess poor sensitivity towards targeted analytes due to lack of modifications and optimization which provides an optimum condition for the analyses. In the present work however, chemometrics (multivariate) approach was used as response surface methodology (RSM) for optimising significant factors of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) with the dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) technique. The Blanket-Burman (screening) and Box-Behnken (optimising) design generated by Minitab statistical software were used for the screening and optimisation of significant factors, respectively as well as quantification using total chromatographic peak areas (TCPA) responses of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry instrument. Eventually, the acquired average TCPA recovery (56%) for the RSM optimized QuEChERS-dSPE technique was favoured over that of default technique (44%) after comparative studies. This justifies the validity of the optimized method to play an important role in the determination of multi-pesticide residues in water and other food samples with higher matrix interferences.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Chromatographic peak areas, Chemometrics RSM, LC-MS, Pesticide analytes, QuEChERS-dSPE</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197387 Synthesis, Characterisation and Antimicrobial Studies of Metal(II) Complexes of Ofloxacin and Metronidazole 2020-07-08T12:07:43+00:00 T.T. Eugene-Osoikhia kemitunmise@yahoo.co.uk <p>Mixed ligands metal (II) complexes of Ofloxacin (OFL) and Metronidazole (MET) were synthesized and characterized by percentage metal analysis using complexometric titration method, infrared and electronic spectroscopies, magnetic susceptibility, melting points and conductance measurements. Infrared spectral data established that coordination was through OFL’s carboxy group oxygen and the pyridone carbonyl oxygen and MET’s imidazole nitrogen atom N and the hydroxyl oxygen atom of the terminal ethanol group. The magnetic susceptibility and electronic spectral data indicated that the metal (II) complexes have octahedral geometries while the low values of their molar conductance measurement suggest their non-electrolyte nature. The in-vitro antimicrobial studies were carried out against clinical strains of <em>Staphylococcus aureus,&nbsp; Enterotoxigenic Escherichia. coli, Enteropathogenic Escherichia. coli , Klebsiella pneumonia, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Morganella morganii,&nbsp; Salmonella typhi</em> and one fungus (<em>Trichophyton rubrum</em>) showed enhancement in antimicrobial activities of the free ligands through coordination to the metals as all the complexes exhibited better antimicrobial activities than the free ligands with the cobalt complex [Co(OFL)(MET)(H<sub>2</sub>O)<sub>2</sub>] showing the best activity at the concentration of 100 μg/ml.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antibiotics, Metronidazole, Microorganisms, Mixed ligands, Ofloxacin </p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197389 Investigation of Phenolic Contents and TLC-Direct Bioautography Screening of Four Nigeria Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activities 2020-07-08T12:13:58+00:00 Babatunde Oluwatoyin o.babatunde@acu.edu.ng Abdulkabir Oladele Oladimeji o.babatunde@acu.edu.ng Bola Jacob Oguntuase o.babatunde@acu.edu.ng <p>In search of lead compounds with no side effect, four medicinal plants; <em>Euadenia trifoliata, Lactuca capensis, </em><em>Alstonia boonei</em> and<em> Ficus platyphylla</em> were screened for antioxidant activity. Dried leaves of the four plants were extracted with EtoAc/MeOH (1:1) and the extracts obtained were screened by TLC-Direct bioautography method (TLC-DB) to identify the most promising extract from the four plants for antioxidant property. The TLC chromatogram revealed that the extract from the leaf of Euadenia trifoliata was the most promising and was thus fractionated into&nbsp; dichloromethane, methanol and hexane soluble fractions. The fractions along with the crude extract were investigated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant potentials. Total phenolic content, TPCs, of the dichloromethane, methanol, crude and hexane extracts were 44.37, 28.83, 24.79 and 19.91 mg/g of gallic acid equivalents of extract, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the fractions using phosphomolybdate and free radical scavenging assays were in the order of methanol ˃ dichloromethane &gt; crude ˃ hexane extract. The results of our finding indicated that methanol was the most suitable solvent to extract polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds from E. trifoliata leaves. In conclusion high polyphenols content of E. trifoliata leaves is an indication that the plant could potentially provide a remedy against disorders caused by oxidative stress.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antioxidant, Euadenia trifoliata, Phenolics, Radical, TLC-Bioautography </p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197390 Effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) Concentration on Extraction of Added Lead in Soil and its Uptake by Cowpea 2020-07-08T12:19:36+00:00 M.S. Dagari msmusa.chm@buk.edu.ng W.L.O. Jimoh msmusa.chm@buk.edu.ng M.S. Musa msmusa.chm@buk.edu.ng <p>The effects of EDTA on extraction of added lead in soil and its uptake by cowpea were investigated in a growth chamber experiment. Cowpea seeds were planted and harvested in soil samples treated with Pb+2 added as lead nitrate at the concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg/kg with EDTA concentrations of 0, 10, 50 and 250 mg/kg. EDTA solubilized soil Pb+2 generated by forming a Pb-EDTA complex in a slow reversible process between pH 5.2 and pH 7.7 was highly significant (Pr&lt; 0.01). This facilitated Pb uptake by cowpea leading to significant accumulation in all parts of the plant and decrease in weights of plants harvested compared to the control. From this investigation, EDTA was found to remove considerable amounts of added Pb in soil and hence could be used as remediator of Pb contaminated soils.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cowpea, EDTA, Growth chamber, Lead, Soil</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197391 Adsorption of Methyl Orange from Aqueous Solution using Chitin and Polystyrene-Modified Chitin: Kinetics and Isotherm Studies 2020-07-08T12:29:00+00:00 Abdulganiyu Umar abdulg.ag@gmail.com <p>Chitin is a natural, biodegradable and non-toxic biopolymer. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to remove methyl orange from aqueous solution. The influence of physicochemical parameters, such as solution pH, dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the modified chitin has improved adsorption capacity and the percentage dye removal strongly depends on pH, nature and structure of the dyes. The maximum adsorption of methyl orange by both raw chitin and polystyrenemodified chitin occurred at the pH of 6, with percentage dye removal of 26.38% and 35.20% respectively, for an initial concentration of 10 mg/L. The pseudo-first-order model gives poor fittings for both chitin and the modified chitin as indicated by the low coefficients of determination (R<sup>2</sup>). The pseudo-second-order model fits the experimental data well, having R<sup>2</sup> close to unity. The Langmuir isotherm was found to conform better than the Freundlich model in the adsorption of both dyes on both chitin and the modified chitin with R<sup>2</sup> of nearly unity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Adsorption, Chitin, Isotherms, Kinetics, Methyl orange, Modified chitin</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197392 Extraction and Physiochemical Characterization of Oils Obtained from Selected Under-Utilized Oil Bearing Seeds in Nigeria 2020-07-08T12:38:19+00:00 M. Maliki muniratu.maliki@edouniversity.edu.ng E.U. Ikhuoria muniratu.maliki@edouniversity.edu.ng I.H. Ifijen muniratu.maliki@edouniversity.edu.ng <p>The oils extracted from selected underutilized seeds in Nigeria; Rubber seeds (RS), African pear seeds (APS) and Cotton seed (CS) using n-hexane were analyzed for their physico-chemical properties viz: melting point, relative viscosity, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value, acid value, percentage unsaponifable matter, ester value and heat of combustion, using standard methods. The % oil contents in the seeds were determined to be 42.967 ± 0.59%, 19.427 ± 0.13% and 35.433 ± 0.86% for RS, APS and CS respectively. The extracted oils were liquids at room temperature with oil extracts from APS and CS having pleasant odour with light green and golden brown colour respectively, however oil extract from RS had an unpleasant smell with brownish yellow colour. There was significant difference in the physiochemical properties investigated. The acid value ranged from 6.840 to 32.000 mg KOH/g, the saponification values were high ranging from 173.115 to 185.333 mg KOH/g. The iodine value of (RSO), (139.703 g I2/100g) classified it as a semi - drying oil. The peroxide value of RSO (14.300 mequiv O2/kg oil) falls above the Standard&nbsp; Organization of Nigeria (SON) recommended peroxide value (10 mequiv O2/kg oil) for edible oils and its free fatty acid (16.096 %) is also above the recommended 5% which makes it non-edible oils. The physicochemical properties of the oils suggest that they exhibit edible and industrial&nbsp; potentials.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: African Pear, Cotton, Oil, Rubber, Seed </p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197393 Plant Source Apportionments and Radiological Risk Using Natural Radionuclides of Herbal Remedies Consumed in Katsina, Nigeria 2020-07-08T12:47:30+00:00 O.J. Okunola ookunola@fudutsinma.edu.ng L.A. Abdulmalik ookunola@fudutsinma.edu.ng M.O.A. Oladipo ookunola@fudutsinma.edu.ng <p>The use of herbal remedies for treatment of various ailment are common practice in developing countries, but the formulation of these products is usually complex, hence, the need for thorough quality check especially with possible health risk these could pose. Therefore, this study examined the plant mix of <em>Anogeissus leiocarpus, Prosopis Africana, Boswellia odorata &nbsp; Guiera senagalensis</em> among the samples in ten (10) herbal remedies sold in Katsina, Nigeria using cluster analysis of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232) and further evaluates the radiological hazard due to consumption of the herbal remedies. The activity concentration of the K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 was determined using gamma spectroscopic analysis and the Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) and Annual Gonad Equivalent Dose (AGED) due to consumption of radionuclides in the herbal remedies were calculated. The results recorded the activity concentration of K-40 ranges from&nbsp; 63.92±2.78 - 210.43±6.54 Bq/Kg, Ra-226 varied from 8.55±4.07 - 41.19±2.71 Bq/Kg and Th-232 activity concentration ranges from 30.51±0.27 - 157.31±1.29 Bq/Kg. The exposure of human consuming the herbal remedies using the AACED showed ingestion of K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 in the herbal remedies is below the standard average radiation dose of 0.3 mSv. However, the indexes, Raeq and AGED in three samples are above 370 and 300 mSvyr-1 recommended limits, respectively. Hence these herbal remedies are not safe for consumption based on radiolological hazard.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Activity, Herbal Remedies, Natural Radionuclides, Nigeria</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197394 Effect of Selected Mordants on Fastness Properties of Cotton Fabric Dyed with Henna Leaves Extract 2020-07-08T12:50:10+00:00 Abdulganiyu Umar abdulg.ag@gmail.com <p>Henna extracts were obtained from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis using ethanol, distilled water and calcium hydroxide as solvents. The ethanol&nbsp; extract gave the highest percentage yield (5.6%), followed by the calcium hydroxide with (1.9%) yield. The ethanol extract was use to dye cotton&nbsp; fabric using copper (II) sulphate, iron (II) sulphate and crushed babool seeds as mordants. The cotton fabric dyed in the absence of the mordants&nbsp; show poor fastness to washing and fair fastness to rubbing and wet pressing with very good fastness to dry and dump pressing, but While the fabric dyed using mordants show very good fastness to washing, dump and wet pressing, and an excellent fastness to rubbing and dry-pressing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cotton fabric, Colour fastness, Henna Extracts, Mordants</p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197395 Methanolysis of <i>Balanite aegyptiaca</i> (Desert Date) Oil using CaO as Catalyst 2020-07-08T12:55:36+00:00 Kamaluddeen Suleiman Kabo kskabo@fudutsinma.edu.ng Abiodun B. Ogbesejana kskabo@fudutsinma.edu.ng Abdu Muhammad Bello kskabo@fudutsinma.edu.ng <p>Biodiesel is a trans-esterified vegetable oil which is renewable energy source that can be considered as a pivotal solution to combating global warming, climate stabilization through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on mineral diesel. In this work Methanolysis of Balanite aegyptiaca (Desert date) seeds oil was done using a heterogeneous catalyst (CaO). The transesterification was carried out at 55 oC for a period of 1 h. and catalyst loading of 0.4%. FTIR as well as the physico-chemical parameter analysis of the biodiesel obtained were carried out; the FTIR spectrum shows major peaks at 3007 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 2921 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1745 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1163 - 1210 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1439 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1033 cm<sup>-1</sup>correspond to C-H stretching of alkene, C-H stretching of alkane, C=O of esters, O-C stretching of ester, CH3 asymmetric bending, O-CH3 of ester respectively. The results show a high yield of biodiesel was obtained (96.3%). Physico-chemical results show the density of 0.9 g/cm3, iodine value 96.95, and acid value 0.9. Thus, it can be concluded that Desert date (<em>Balanite aegyptiaca</em>) seed oil can be used as a good feedstock for the biodiesel production with high percentage yield.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Biodiesel, Desert date, Heterogeneous catalyst, Methanolysis, Physico-chemical properties </p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/197396 Template Synthesis and Biological Study of Ni (II) Complexes derived from ethylenediamine and 2,4-pentanedione 2020-07-08T12:59:46+00:00 I. Waziri triumph2236@gmail.com U. Umaru triumph2236@gmail.com <p>In this study, nickel (II) complexes having formulae [Ni(en)2(acac)] and [Ni(acac)<sub>2</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O], have been synthesised from bis-ethylenediamine nickel (II) chloride, nickel bromide hexahydrate and 2,4-pentanedione as starting material. The complexes were characterised using various physicochemical analysis such as Infrared, electronic spectra, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and high resolution mass spectroscopy (HRMS). The IR spectral data of the complexes indicates the possible bonding/coordination of the ligands with the metal ion through oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the carbonyl and amine respectively, given rise to octahedral geometry. The elemental analysis and HRMS data obtained also agreed with the proposed molecular formula of the complexes. The result of molar conductivity studies in methanol solution (10–3M) showed that the complexes are electrolytes, and they are also soluble in polar solvents which include: methanol, ethanol, DMF, DMSO and slightly soluble in distilled water. The complexes has been tested for biological activities (anti-microbial and anti-fungal) using disc diffusion method and poisoned food techniques for anti-microbial and anti-fungal, respectively against Gram-positive bacteria: <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>-ATCC 25923, <em>Streptococcus Pyogene</em>-ATCC 19615, <em>Bacillus Subtilis</em>-ATCC 23857, Gram-negative bacteria:<em> Escherichia Coli</em>- ATCC 25922, <em>Salmonella typhi</em>-ATCC 6539,<em> Klebsiella</em> <em>Pneumonioe</em>-ATCC 13883, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>- ATCC 27853 and fungus: <em>Candida albicam</em>-ATCC 10231, using different concentrations (30, 20 and 10 μgmL–1) of the complexes. The comparative study of antimicrobial and anti-fungal activities of complexes with standard drugs, streptomycin and Fluconazole indicated that the complexes exhibit less activity as compared to the standard drugs at all the concentrations tested.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antibiotics, Complexes, Microbial, Transition metals </p> 2020-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)