ChemSearch Journal https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj <p><em>Chemsearch Journal</em> is a peer – reviewed journal that publishes original research work, scientific papers and technical reports in all the field of Chemistry (pure science, agriculture, environmental science, science education and related fields).</p><p>This journal is now Open Access so the content can be freely accesses online.</p> en-US ChemSearch Journal 2276-707X The copyright belongs to Chemical Society of Nigeria, Kano State Chapter. Editorial https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202404 <p>No abstract.</p> A.A. Audu Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 ii ii Stability assessment of na-doped mesoporous gamma alumina catalyst in transesterification reaction https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202405 <p>The leaching of active species was reported to have been the major problem among alkali doped heterogeneous catalysts. Modifying the structure and texture of catalyst support can improve the catalyst’s stability and its activity. In this study, mesoporous gamma alumina, with exellent textural properties, was modified using different amount of NaOH by wet impregnation method, and the catalyst's stability evaluated. The catalysts were characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, N<sub>2</sub>-sorption (BET), Basic Back Titration, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. There was increased in the number of basic sites and decreased in surface area with increased in the amount of NaOH doping. The FESEM image indicated the incorporation of Na into the alumina after modification. The catalysts were employed in the methanolysis of corn oil, and the biodiesel product analyzed using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (<sup>1</sup>H NMR) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red/Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) analyses. The reaction conditions for the methanolysis were catalyst loading (5 wt%), oil:methanol molar ratio (1:15), temperature (65 °C) and reaction time (3 h). Highest biodiesel yield of 98.9% was obtained in the present of 15% Na/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> catalyst. From the leaching test, the catalyst was found to be relatively stable, as only 0.7% of Na<sub>2</sub>O was leached out. The lixiviation study further buttresses this assertion, with only about 13.5% yield, ruling out any considerable homogeneous contribution in catalytic activity.</p> Abdu Muhammad Bello Kamaluddeen Suleiman Kabo Balarabe Sarki Sagagi Abdul Rahim Yacob Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 1 7 Isolation and characterization of a fatty acid from the seed extracts of citrullus lanatus (water melon) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202406 <p>A sample of powdered watermelon seeds sample was macerated with ethanol for two weeks using a maceration method. The mixture was stirred using magnetic stirrer, for 24 hours, in order to extract the powders. It was then decanted, filtered and concentrated on a rotavapor (R110) at 40 ºC in order to obtain the crude ethanol extract (F001). The crude ethanol extract was partitioned into aqueous methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone in order to obtain F002, F003, F004 and F005 fractions respectively. The methanol fraction indicated strong activity in the antimicrobial test compared to other fractions. Based on these results, the methanol fraction was subjected to activity-guided chromatographic purification targeting the compound responsible for the observed activity. The methanol fraction (10 g) of the extracted seeds of <em>Citrullus lanatus</em> was chromatographed on a silica gel column, using different eluents. This afforded 117 fractions which were combined based on their thin layer chromatography (TLC) pattern. The pooled fraction (-62 – 67-) was further chromatographed in order to obtain the fatty acid. The structure of the compound was characterized – using,- Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>1</sup>H NMR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>13</sup>C NMR), Distortionless enhancement bypolarization transfer (DEPT), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques and Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis in order to propose the structure of the compound as a straight chain aliphatic dicarboxylic acid (3-methylnonadec-4,6-diene1,19-dioic acid).</p> AbdulRazaq Tukur Maryam Ismail Usman Nasiru Malan Musa Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 8 14 Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) using environmentally benign catalyst (yam peel) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202407 <p>Homogeneous alkali-catalyzed transesterification is the typical process used in biodiesel production, complicating the downstream separation processes and causing oversupply of glycerol as by-product. In this work the synthesis of biodiesel by solid heterogeneous acid catalysts using sulphuric and phosphoric acids functionalized yam peel as catalysts and fried oil as the source of glyceride was investigated. The solid acid catalysts were prepared by carbonization followed by direct sulfonation and phosphoration via reflux. The FTIR Spectra of the catalyst and the XRD confirmed the incorporation of sulphate and phosphate groups on the carbonized yam peels. The amount of catalyst loading was investigated on the biodiesel yield. Sulphuric acid treated catalyst showed highest yield of 62.6 % at 1.0 g catalyst load, with phosphoric acid treated catalyst having slightly lower at 61.2 % and 1.0 g load. The physicochemical analysis of the used oil showed acid value of 27.50 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid (FFA) value of 13.83, density 0.91 g/mL, saponification value 154.28mgKOH/g. The presence of high free fatty acid in the oil feed indicate that the preferred catalyst to be used is heterogeneous catalyst.</p> Muhammadu Abdulsalam Hamisu Umar Farouk Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 15 23 Synthesis, characterization, kinetics, thermodynamics and nematicidal studies of Sm(III), Gd(III) and Nd(III) Schiff Base Complexes https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202408 <p>Schiff base derived from benzaldehyde and ethylenediimine and its Sm(III), Gd(III) and Nd(III) complexes were synthesized. The ligand N, N’-Bis(2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethanone)ethylenediamine (N, N'- B2HDE) and its complexes were characterized by molar conductivity, melting point, solubility test and spectrophotometrically (IR and UV-Vis). The kinetics was studied by determining the rate of formation at different temperatures. The observed rate constants <em>k</em> was obtained and used to obtain activation energy (Ea). Thermodynamics parameters showed that activation energy (Ea) obtained for Sm(III) and Gd(III) was 0.452, and 1.196 KJ respectively which were positive (Ea) indicating that, the rate of formation increased with increased temperature. The result of thermodynamic parameters showed that; the ΔG<sup>o</sup> of the complexes were -3896.02 KJmol<sup>-1</sup>and - 8201.18KJmol<sup> 1</sup> which indicated the ability of the studied ligand to form stable complexes, while ΔH<sup>o</sup> was 1168 KJmol<sup>-1</sup> and 2268 KJmol<sup>-1</sup>, for Sm(III) and Gd(III) respectively. The negative result of the ΔS<sup>o</sup> of Sm(III) and Gd(III) was -16.99 KJmol<sup>-1</sup> and -19.91 KJmol<sup>-1</sup>respectively. The ligand and its metal complexes were screened for nematicidal activities against a root knot nematode,<em> Meloidogyne incognita</em>. The metal complexes revealed better nematicidal activities than ligand. The solubility showed that ligand and its metal complexes were electrolytic nature, soluble in acetone, dimethylsulphoxide, dimethylformaldehyde while the melting point of ligand and complexes was found to be between 120-130 <sup>o</sup>C. The complexes had molar conductivity of 11.5-12.0 indicating an electrolytic property; The IR spectra coordinated through azomethine nitrogen atom and hydroxyl group. UV-Vis spectrophotometer showed a complexation of the metal and ligand, demonstrating an octahedral geometry for both complexes. Hatching test of the ligand and its metal complexes showed that they behaved radically different from each other. The behaviour of the ligand and its complexes at different time (hours) and concentrations employed showed significant difference in terms of their nematicidal activity against <em>M.</em><br><em>incognita</em>.</p> Moses Saviour Iorungwa Ahulle Raymond Wuana Lawrence Tyagher Zack Msugh Agbendeh Patience Dooshima Iorungwa Nguamo Surma Qrisstuberg Msughter Amua Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 24 34 Speciation, bioavailability and human health risk of heavy metals in soil and spinach (amaranthus spp.) in Kano Metropolis, Northwestern-Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202409 <p>The rapid population growth and industrialization affected the environment momentously and one of the most noteworthy impacts is the toxicological effect of toxic chemical pollutants. The noxiousness of toxic heavy metals to ecosystem rests on their biochemical form therefore, measuring their chemical status gives more information than the determination of the concentration. This research aimed at assessing the chemical forms of heavy metals and ecological effects. Eight soil and spinach samples were collected using point composite sampling method. The soil was analyzed using five stages of sequential extraction methods. The results were subjected to statistical analysis to carry out a descriptive and inferential statistic. The results revealed that significant fraction of the heavy metals exist in carbonate bond form (63.57%) which is accessible to plant, then residual (11.46%), Fe – Mn oxide (9.39%), organically bond (8.12%) and, exchangeable form (7.53%), furthermore, Ni (100.02 mg kg-1) and, Pb (29.02 mg kg-1) have the highest concentration in the spinach. The bioavailability of chemical pollutants ranked in this direction as: Ni &gt; Cd &gt; Pb &gt; Zn &amp; Cu &gt; Cr. The high potential of non-carcinogenic effect by Ni and the carcinogenic effect in the area due to elevated values of risk proportion and risk guide. The available form of heavy metals is present in substantial proportion and consequently, there is serious threat with regard to the carcinogenic effect.</p> Y.A. Abdullahi M.A. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 35 43 Cytotoxic activities of fractionated ethanol extract of the root bark of terminalia catappa and isolation of eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202410 <p>The crushed root bark of <em>terminalia catappa Linn</em> was extracted using aqueous ethanol. The crude extract was suspended in water and successively partition into n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fractions. The fractions i.e.; n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were subjected to cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>1</sup>H NMR) analyses. The cytotoxicity of the isolates were evaluated in terms of lethality concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>). Comparing the result obtained to vincristine sulphate with LC<sub>50</sub> of 0.61 μg/ml, ethyl acetate and n-hexane fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity having LC<sub>50</sub> value of 0.82 μg/ml and 1.21 μg/ml. The LC50 values of the water, dichloromethane and n-butanol fractions were 11.90 μg/ml, 13.25 μg/ml and 17.10 μg/ml respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction with significant activity in in-vitro cytotoxic activity and a good proton NMR profiles, was further fractionated and purified using column chromatography, preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) and the isolate obtained were characterized using spectroscopic techniques (MS, IR, <sup>1</sup>H and <sup>13</sup>C NMR, <sup>1</sup>H-<sup>1</sup>H COSY and <sup>1</sup>H-<sup>13</sup>C HSQC). We concluded that the compound isolated was eriodictyol-7- <em>O-β</em>-D-glucopyranoside.</p> A. Usman H.R. Mohammed O.A. Abdullahi L.N. Usman J. Isah Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 44 51 Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and dyeing potential on leather using bromamine-derived anthraquinone acid dyes https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202411 <p>Three different anthraquinone acid dyes were synthesized by condensation of bromamine acid with <em>p</em>-acetamido aniline, <em>p</em>-aminophenylacetic acid and <em>p</em>-benzaldehyde to obtain two blue and one green crystalline solid dyes. The synthesized dyes were fully characterized using UV-Visible, FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The results of the antimicrobial screening of the dyes as indicated by the zone of inhibition (ZOI) showed that, all the synthesized dyes have significant activities against the test microbes compared to the standard drugs used, except <em>Candida albicans</em> which was resistant against all the synthesized dyes. The result of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed that, at concentrations of 100μg/ml and 50 μg/ml of dyes I and II, the growth of <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Salmonella typhi</em> were inhibited, while for dye III, 25 μg/ml was the minimum concentration required to inhibit the growth of <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Baccillus subtillis</em> and<em> Escherichia coli</em>. Furthermore, investigating the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) showed that, at a lower concentration of 25 μg/ml of dye III Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were killed compared to 50 μg/ml of dyes I and II required to completely kill <em>Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The results for dyeing and fastness properties on leather showed that, the synthesized dyes gave excellent homogeneity of coloration on leather. A remarkable degree of evenness indicates good penetration and affinity of these dyes to fabrics. Thus, the synthesized dyes possess excellent light and washing fastness rating of 6 and 4 hence, gave good dyeing on leather.</p> Ajani Olayinka Oyewale Kasali Ademola Bello Martha Bamidele Omotola AbdulRazaq Tukur Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 52 63 Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant assessment of Cassia alata (Linn) leaf extracts https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202412 <p>This study investigated the phytochemical components and assessed the antioxidant activity of Cassia alata leaf extracts. The results showed that alkaloids were present in all the extracts, while saponins, phenols and flavonoids were detected in ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts, determined using four models in the presence of vitamin C and quercetin as standards at four different concentrations (0.25, 5.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L), demonstrated that the activities were concentration-dependent in all the extracts. Thus, <em>Cassia alata</em> having important phytochemicals may be used in therapeutic medicine as a source of natural antioxidants.</p> G.I. Ndukwe J.G. Tetam P.D. Clark Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 64 72 Phytochemical, antifungal and acute toxicity studies of Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. whole plant extracts https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202413 <p><em>Mitracarpus scaber</em> have been reported in the treatment of various ailments such as ulcer, cancer, skin diseases etc. It is therefore important to investigate these plant parts to ascertain their therapeutic potentials. The <em>Mitracarpus scaber</em> whole plant was extracted with water and methanol, screened for their phytochemical properties and antifungal effects. The plant samples were also investigated for alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenolic contents using quantitative techniques. The antifungal activities of the plant samples were tested against <em>Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum auduounii</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of the extracts were also determined. Flavonoid, steroid, triterpenes, tannins, carbohydrate, glycoside, phenols were detected in both extracts while anthraquinones was absent. Alkaloid was detected in the aqueous extract but absent in methanol extract. Quantitatively, the phenols (97.0 mg/g) was the highest phytochemical detected in the plant while the lowest was alkaloid (9.2 mg/g). Toxicity of the samples was expressed as LD<sub>50</sub>, it was found above 5000 mg/kg and did not cause mortality in all the tested rats. Aqueous extract only showed inhibition on <em>Candida albicans</em> and <em>Trichophyton mentagrophytes</em> with no inhibition on <em>Microsporum auduounii</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> while ethanol extract only showed inhibition on <em>Candida albicans</em> with no inhibition on <em>Microsporum auduounii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes</em> and <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> at the lowest concentration 12.5 mg/ml. The aqueous extract has MIC and MFC of 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml respectively against <em>Candida</em><br><em>albicans</em> and <em>Trichophyton mentagrophytes</em>. Thus, the traditional claims of the uses of the plants as antifungal agents were therefore supported.</p> M.M. Namadina A.U. Mukhtar F.M. Musa M.H. Sani S. Haruna Y. Nuhu A.M. Umar Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 73 81 Acid hydrolysis of compost humic acid functional groups heterogeniety in lead (II) complexes https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202414 <p>An acid hydrolysis of compost humic acid functional groups heterogeneity in lead (II)-humate complexes was carried out. Humic acid from compost was isolated and its functional groups were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR). The dissociation constants (pKa), stepwise stability constants (Log K) and formation constants, (K<sub>f</sub>), of the hydrolysed and unhydrolysed humic acids were determined and compared. A potentiometric titration – technique was used to determine the dissociation constants (pKa) and the stepwise stability constants (Log K) of hydrolysed and unhydrolysed humic acids in aqueous solution at carboxyl functional group. The FTIR spectra of isolated humic acid from compost had distinct clear absorption bands indicating the presence of OH (3620cm<sup>-1</sup>), C=O of carbonyl (1704 cm<sup>-1</sup>), functional groups aliphatic components CH2 (2922 cm<sup>-1</sup>) and C-O of polysaccharide (1023 cm<sup>-1</sup>). The pKa values of the hydrolysed and unhydrolysed compost humic acids were found to be 5.0107 and 5.4743 at carboxyl groups respectively. The values of the step stability constants were found to be Log K<sub>1</sub> = 11.4772, Log K<sub>2</sub> = 10.3058 and Log K<sub>3</sub> = 9.7251 for lead (II) hydrolysed compost humic acid and Log K<sub>1</sub> = 11.0111 and Log K<sub>2</sub> = 10.0161 for lead (II) unhydrolysed compost humic acid at carboxyl group respectively. The formation constants of the lead (II) complexes were found to be 1.15× 10<sup>3</sup> and 1.102× 10<sup>2</sup> at carboxyl group respectively. Acid hydrolysis causes change of dissociation constants (pKa) at carboxy group of hydrolysed humic acid which was probably the main factor that gave rise to the changes in stepwise stability constants and formation constants of the complexes.</p> Y. Sabo W.L.O. Jimoh A.N. Shaibo Q.O. Sholadoye Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 82 89 Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of securidaca longipedunculata root against urinary tract infection pathogens https://www.ajol.info/index.php/csj/article/view/202415 <p>Urinary tract infection caused by bacteria leads to inflammation and over growth of uropathogens and prevalence of infection for both genders, but women is more vulnerable especially at the sexually active ages. But unfortunately, the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains brings most serious public health concerns. It is therefore, important to look for more alternative, effective, safer and safer treatments. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimicrobial activity of <em>Securidaca longipedunculata</em> root extracts against some human pathogenic bacteria and fungi using agar well diffusion method and agar dilution for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Phytochemical and acute toxicity studies were carried out using the standard methods. Phytochemicals which include alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and triterpenes were detected in both aqueous and methanolic extracts. The antimicrobial results revealed that, the methanolic extract had promising antibacterial activity. For intense <em>Escherichia coli</em> was found to be the most susceptible bacteria in both methanol and aqueous extracts at 500mg/ml with inhibition zones of 20 mm and 16mm, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was next most susceptible bacteria to methanol extract of the root with inhibition zone of 16 mm and MIC of 31.25 mg/ml respectively. The extracts does not showed activity against all the tested fungal isolates at lowest concentration 62.5 mg/ml. The LD<sub>50</sub> of <em>Securidaca longipedunculata</em> was found to be greater than 5000 mg /kg and could be considered safe for consumption.</p> M.M. Namadina R.S. Shawai F.M. Musa U. Sunusi M.A. Aminu Y. Nuhu A.M. Umar Copyright (c) 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 2 90 98