Instructions to Contributors Scope of Articles Discovery and Innovation publishes articles and reports in a wide range of subject areas: Basic sciences, agriculture, engineering and technology, applied sciences, ecology, the environment, non-renewable resources, traditional African science and technology, policy news and views, and social and human sciences. Special emphasis will be given to research and development, both in the humanities and natural sciences as well as the latter’s interface with the social sciences, particularly as they relate to major areas of concern in Africa. Articles being considered for publication elsewhere or published previously will not be considered. All material submitted for publication will be reviewed and edited to meet the standards of Discovery and Innovation. Copyright for material accepted for publication will transfer to the publisher. The journal publishes papers in English and French and each paper should have an abstract in both English and French of up to 200 words. Submission of Manuscripts Send original and 2 copies of manuscripts (including tables), and 3 sets of original illustrations to: The Editor-in-Chief Discovery and Innovation Academy Science Publishers African Academy of Sciences P. O. Box 14798 – 00800 or P. O. Box 24916 - 00502 Nairobi, Kenya. Format Manuscripts should be typewritten on one side of plain white paper, double-spaced, with wide margins and free of errors. Complex mathematical equations must be hand-written for clarity in typesetting. Refer to a recent issue of the journal for style of presentation. Computer Disks Discovery and Innovation can accept disks from IBM, IBM compatible, or Macintosh systems. We typeset from word processor programmes, for example Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. State the programme and the system used. A virus-free computer diskette can be sent with the revised manuscript (original and two copies). Illustrations Illustrations should be black and white. If colour is necessary, the cost of production will be charged to the author. Artwork submitted specifically for the cover must be in colour, accompanied by a slide or negative as well as a sharp print. Magnification to be indicated by an appropriate scale bar on the figure and not in the figure legend. Figures must be numbered on the reverse with the author’s name, a shortened title, and the top indicated. Lettering on the figures must be sharp, large and dark enough to withstand reduction down to either 8.5 or 18 cm. in width. Legends to figures should be typed on a separate page giving sufficient data to make the illustration comprehensible without reference to the text.Figures must be cited in the text. Editor reserves the right to redraw figures if the quality is not up to our standards. Tables should be labeled at the top with a number and title. Units of measure should be metric and clearly indicated. Tables must be cited in the text in numerical order and present material that is not included in the text. Only standard abbreviations should be used; unusual ones should be given initially in full with the abbreviation in parentheses, thereafter abbreviated. References Only articles or books that have been published or are in press (accepted for publication) may be included in the list of references. Any other material must be accompanied by permission from the source. Papers presented at conferences or symposia may not be listed unless the proceedings are published. Unpublished and personal communication material may only be cited in the text. References must be cited in the text by author and date e.g. Macharia, 1983, or Olembo, et al. (in case of more than two authors). The Havard system will be followed and journals abbreviated according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals as follows: Mwaniki A. S. 1992. Influence of temperature on potato flowering. J. Crop Sci. 1: 21–27. Adewunmi, C. O. and V. O. Marquis 1980. Molluscidal evaluation of some Jetropha species grown in Nigeria. J. Crude Drug Res. 18: 141–142. Books to be given as follows: Arnould, M., F. Duvant, J. du Mouza and R. Strillon 1988. Ultrasonic evaluation of materials. In Technical Ceramics. Edited by H. Nash and E.V. Otieno, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 121–152. Avoid footnotes. Research Articles Research articles should preferably be from 3,000 to 4,000 words. Each research article must have an abstract that is a noncritical informative digest of the contents and conclusions of the article. It should be a single paragraph not more than 200 words, including key words, in both English and French. Provide a running title of no more than 30 characters in the language in which the paper is presented. The article should begin with an Introduction, stating the hypothesis, defining the problem, and giving a brief survey of the relevant literature. The Results section will support the hypothesis or answer the question stated in the Introduction. The Discussion section interprets the data and draws conclusions. Review Articles Review articles should be from 3,000 to 4,000 words. Extensive literature citation is encouraged; references should be cited in full. Abstracts are not required. Other SectionsLetters and Viewpoints: Debates on policy issues relating to science, technology and industry; personal views and experiences of scientists and technologists relevant to important policy issues. • News and Reports: Science and technology breakthroughs or matters of concern in Africa or outside Africa, but with direct relevance to Africa. • New Technologies and Products: Evaluation of new products and technologies developed for or relevant to African markets. • Book Reviews: Books addressing African science and technology published anywhere in the world. • Announcements: Information on scientific conferences, training programmes, industrial exhibitions, awards of interest to the African scientific community. Page Proofs Page proofs will normally be sent to the author for correction if time permits. Failure to comply with the deadline will mean inadvertent errors in the published article.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1015-079X