Tobacco consumption prevalence and pattern among residents of Sokoto metropolis, northwest Nigeria
Objective: Tobacco consumption is a global public health problem affecting both developed and developing countries and is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. These deaths have been linked to direct tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of tobacco consumption among residents in Sokoto metropolis.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey conducted in Sokoto metropolis which is cosmopolitan in nature. A multi-stage sampling method was used to recruit the 1,000 survey participants that included both sex. WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factor surveillance was modified and adopted as a tool for data collection. Ethical clearance was obtained from the State Research Ethics Committee.
Results: Respondents’ median age was 30 years, IQR 25-43. Those aged 25-39 years were more represented (45.2%) and adolescence and young adult accounted for 23.1% while elderly constituted 3.7%. Thirty nine percent were unskilled labourers, 11% were traders and top Executive (Civil servants/Business) accounted for 12.4%. Almost half (49%) reported an estimated annual household income of less than N100,000 while 13.2% earned N1,000,000 and above. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 7.1% and the smokers had smoked for an average of 14.3 ± 5.2 years. Ten percent were currently using any form tobacco, while 0.6% reported current use of smokeless tobacco product daily and one third had been exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke in a closed place. Of the respondents’ social demographic, only gender and occupation demonstrated statistically significant association with cigarette smoking, however none did predict their smoking behaviours.
Conclusion: Despite efforts to prevent initiation and promote cessation, cigarette smoking is a common practice that cut across socio-economic stratum. Stringent policies on smoking including delineation of smoking zone should be put in place to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and subsequently burdens of diseases attributed to tobacco consumption.
Keywords: Tobacco consumption, pattern and prevalence, Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria