Existential technique and cognitive restructuring strategies in management of self esteem of clinically diagnosed epileptic patients in Nigeria
Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with lots of psychosocial implications that can result in low self-esteem and social inhibitions in several social activities. The uncertainty of never knowing where the seizure will occur lowers one’s self-esteem and dignity.
Objective: This study, therefore, investigated effectiveness of existential technique and cognitive restructuring strategies in enhancing self-esteem of clinically diagnosed epileptic patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Methods: Pre-test, post-test, control group experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix was adopted. Three groups which were; existential technique, cognitive restructuring; and control. Purposive sampling technique was used to select sixty (60) diagnosed epileptic patients between 15 and 60 years of age from three hospitals. Treatment lasted for six weeks. Self-Esteem Scale (r=0.85) was the only instrument used. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and Duncan post hoc test.
Results: There was significant mean effect of treatments on participants’ self-esteem (F(2,49) = 43.9;p<0.05, Effect size =0.82). Cognitive restructuring therapy obtained the highest adjusted post-test mean score in self-esteem (x̄ =396.44), existential technique ( x̄=383.1), the control group ( x̄= 351.28). Sex has a significant main effect on the self-esteem (F(1,49) = 11.9; p< 0.05, Effect size=0.42). Male participants obtained higher self-esteem mean score (x̄ = 372.6) than their female counterparts (=368.91). Age had a significant main effect on the self-esteem (F(1,49) = 14.6; p< 0.05,Effect size=0.5). The older epileptic participants obtained higher self-esteem mean score ( x̄= 377.0) than the young epileptic patient ( x̄= 365.9).
Conclusion: Existential technique and cognitive restructuring were effective in enhancing self-esteem of clinically diagnosed epileptic patients. Counselling and clinical psychologists should endeavor to be pragmatic in addressing the self-components of epilepsy personality.
Keywords: Existential technique, Cognitive restructuring, Self-esteem, Diagnosed epileptic patients