Occurrence of risk factors for zoonoses in Kisumu City, Kenya: A questionnaire survey
Objective: To determine the occurrence of risk factors amongst farmers keeping livestock in Kisumu municipality, Kenya.
Methods: Thirty four contact house-holds involved in livestock keeping constituted the study group. The head of the household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire relating to public health issues affecting water, food and sanitation
Results: The water consumed at the household level originated from the taps (56%), bore holes (18%), local rivers (15%) and wells (15%). The wells were shallow and open to contamination. Fourty one percent (41%) of the households consumed water without boiling or any other form of treatment. Farmers had a history of slaughtering cattle (79%) and pigs (66%) at their homes and these animals were not inspected by legalized government officers. During the last five years, porcine cysticercosis and taeniosis (9%) were reported to occur amongst the homesteads. Although toilets were found in most homes, some were overflowing (27%), while children below 4 years (mean) of age defaecated in the bushes/grass within the neighbourhood. Most farmers (62%) disposed the manure next to the animal boma resulting in creation of small manure =hills‘ that were a nuisance and breeding ground for vector flies. Other risk factors for disease transmission included consumption of unwashed raw food (48%), dried raw fish (21%) and failure to wash cows‘ udder before milking (29%).
Conclusion: The study shows that risk factors for transmission of zoonoses are common in house holds keeping livestock in the study area and highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of these factors. Further studies should be conducted to determine the possibilities of zoonoses occurrences among the human population.