Nurses infection prevention practices in handling injections: A case of Rift Valley Provincial Hospital in Kenya

  • RK Chemoiwa
  • VK Mukthar
  • AK Maranga
  • SJ Kulei


Objective: To analyse the infection prevention practices in handling of injections by nurses in Rift Valley Provincial Hospital in Kenya.
Design: A cross-sectional observational study.
Setting: Rift Valley Provincial hospital which is a level five health facility situated in Nakuru County, Kenya.
Subjects: A sample of 386 injection procedures attributed to the nurses in Rift Valley Provincial Hospital was considered for this study
Results: The study established that among all the injections administered in this study, 43.7% (386) adhered to aseptic techniques. Over seventy five percent (76.9%, n=386) of the observed injections procedures did not involve the hand-washing, 53.4% (n=206) did not involve swabbing of a vial rubber cap with alcohol swabs and 95.1%(n=263) involved using of multidose drug in more than one designated patient. Over ninety five percent (95.6%, n=364) of the observed procedures involved use of sterile the syringe bit of the devices only while the rest used either clean or contaminated syringes. Around forty percent (42.2%, n=316) of the injections preparation was done elsewhere (not at the patient bedside) before administration. Slightly over thirty five percent (36.6%, n=386) of the injections were administered immediately upon reconstitution(at the right time). The study also established the use of aseptic techniques to reconstitute and administer was significantly related to the number of nurses to patients ratio per shift (X2(1) = 3.5: p = 0.04).
Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that patient safety in public hospital is still relatively low. The adherence to basic infection prevention procedures/aseptic techniques in handling of injections by health workers is still a concern. The adherence to aseptic techniques in handling injections is significantly associated with the nurses to patients ratios. Therefore, it is imperative to improve nurse to patient ratio in public health facilities in Kenya.

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