Factors associated with anti-retroviral treatment failure among HIV/AIDS patients in Kibera slums, Nairobi county
Background: The introduction and scale up of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality, this advantage will however be eroded if factors associated with anti-retroviral treatment failure are not identified and well addressed.
Objective: To determine factors associated with anti-retroviral treatment failure among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Kibera slums, Nairobi county.
Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study
Setting: AMREF-Kibera community based Health Centre
Subjects: Adult HIV/AIDS patients who have been on ART for six months and above.
Results: It was clear that knowledge, attitudes and practices have a significant effect on anti-retroviral treatment failure with 86 % of the respondents agreeing that herbal medicine can be used as an alternative to ART while 75 % agreed that one does not need ART if they do not have AIDS. Poor adherence practices was also observed with the main reason of missing medication being due to stigma 81% followed by pill burden 78% and side effects 75%. The odds of ART failure were 1.09 times higher for those with poor knowledge about the purpose of ART drugs (ART Drugs are to Cure HIV AIDS). The odds of ART failure were 1.183 times higher for those with poor attitude (ART is a waste of Time). The odds of ART failure were 1.468 times higher for those with poor practices. The odds of ART Failure were 1.559 times higher for those with poor adherence practices as opposed to those with good adherence practices.
Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and poor attitudes towards ART in addition to poor adherence practices were associated with anti-retroviral treatment failure. The study therefore recommends that there is an urgent need to educate HIV/AIDS patients on ART and good adherence practices to avoid anti-retroviral treatment failure.