Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among women infected with HIV in Machakos County Hospital Kenya
Background: Cervical cancer is increasingly becoming a major threat to health among women in the world particularly in developing countries where screening programs are not well established. In Kenya, cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer among women and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women of reproductive age.
Studies have shown that women infected with HIV especially those with low CD4 counts or decreasing immunity are at a higher risk of developing pre cancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer than those in the general population without HIV infection.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in HIV positive women attending Comprehensive care clinic at Machakos Level 5 Hospital.
Design: Cross sectional descriptive study
Setting: Machakos County hospital.
Subjects: Women infected with HIV attending Machakos County Hospital Comprehensive care clinic.
Results: 295 women infected with HIV were enrolled in this study and cervical smear taken for cytology screening. 22 were excluded from the analysis due to unsatisfactory smears. The prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities was 14 out of 273 (5.1%) with HSIL being the most prevalent at 5 out of 273 (1.8%). Other lesions were ASC-H 4 (1.46%), LSIL 3 (1.05%), SCC and Adenocarcinoma both with 1(0.36%).
In this study, age and Pap smear findings had no statistically significant association, X²=6.262, p=0.618.
Conclusion: This prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV infected women in this study was 5.2%. There was no statistically significant association between age and Pap smear findings.