National HIV testing campaigns to support UNAIDS 90-90-90 agenda: A lesson from Kenya
Background: HIV diagnosis is the gateway to antiretroviral therapy. However, 20-50% of HIV-infected individuals are unaware of their HIV status, derailing epidemic control.
Objective: To increase awareness of HIV status and enrollment into HIV care & treatment (C&T) services through a national HIV testing services (HTS) rapid results initiative (RRI) campaign in Kenya.
Design: This cross-sectional analysis presents yield of undiagnosed people living with HIV (PLHIV) and their enrollment into HIV C&T resulting from HTS RRI implemented in July-August 2013 as an example of utilizing RRIs to catalyze achievement of UNAIDS targets.
Results: During the campaign 1,462,378 persons received HTS, of whom 220,902 (15%) were children (aged <15 years), 55,088 (7%) couples and 116,126 (8%) key populations. A total of 37,630 (2.6%) HIV+ individuals were identified. Among children who received HTS, 3,244 (1.5%) tested HIV positive, compared to 34,386 (2.8%) among adults. Of the eight regions in Kenya: Nyanza, Rift-valley and
Nairobi contributed 73.3% of all HIV+ individuals identified. HTS at health facility settings yielded the highest proportion (69%) of HIV+ and key populations had the highest prevalence (4.8%). Of those infected, 29,851 (79.3%) were enrolled into HIV C&T. Sex, age and setting of HTS were significantly associated with enrollment into HIV C&T (p<0.0001).
Conclusion: National HTS campaigns have the potential of increasing knowledge of HIV status. Targeted provision of HTS at health facility settings, to key populations and high burden geographical regions would narrow the gap of undiagnosed PLHIV towards achieving UNIADS 90-90-90 targets for HIV epidemic control.