The association of the socio-demographic and economic characteristics with adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes among HIV positive pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy in public hospitals, Nairobi County, Kenya

  • J. K. Muthuka
  • Y. Kombe
  • A. Makokha
  • M. Kiptoo


Introduction: Risk factors for adverse pregnancy-fetal outcomes with immune reconstitution inflammatory response syndrome (IRIS) have not been studied in Kenya among pregnant women, while focusing on the improved immunity after anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation. This study aimed to assess the association between the different socio-demographic and economic characteristics and adverse pregnancy-fetal outcomes among HIV positive ART naïve pregnant women
Methodology: We used a prospective cohort design. We used chi-square test to investigate the association between social-demographic, economic characteristics and the adverse pregnancy-fetal outcomes. The study included ART naïve pregnant women seeking maternal care services with a confirmed HIV positive status within the first trimester of the pregnancy and excluded women who were not ART naïve and had other medical conditions before hospital visitation. A p-value of < 0.05 was set as the statistical significance and we performed logistic regression analysis to show independent outcome predictors. We determined adjusted relative risk at 95% confidence interval.
Results: Most women aged between 30 and 39 years and most of them were women who did not have adverse pregnancy-fetal outcomes. However, this finding was not significant. The mother's status of being separated was significant for an adverse pregnancy-fetal outcome.
Conclusions: There was a relationship in separated women and closely, unemployment status with an experience of adverse pregnancy-fetal outcome. 


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eISSN: 0012-835X