Main Article Content

Social and psychological effects of covid-19 pandemic among frontline healthcare workers in western Kenya

K. Kathukumi
Z. Maingi
S.N. Jaika
S.O. Konyole
C.Y. Tibbs
P. Odera


Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the social and psychological effects of COVID-19 among the frontline Healthcare workers in western Kenya.

Design: The study adopted biopsychosocial theory and cross-sectional research design. A semi-structured Patient-Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to collect data.

Setting: The study was conducted in selected hospitals in Kakamega, Bungoma, and Busia counties in western Kenya.

Subjects: The target population was the frontline HCWs. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques and, Yamane’s formula were used to select and calculate a sample size of 356 frontline HCWs out of 3200 HCWs in the three counties.

Intervention: It was suggested that frontline HCWs be trained in life skills, debriefings and guidance and counseling that can reduce the severity of COVID -19 and related social or psychological effects.

Main outcome measure: The Kenyan government should initiate an awareness campaign, online counselling and psychotherapy practices for frontline HCWs in hospital facilities in western Kenya.

Results: It was found out that at least every frontline HCW experienced a social-psychological condition related to the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic that includes worry, anxiety, sleep disorder, depression, phobic reaction, sleeplessness, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD).

Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many frontline HCWs suffered from social and psychological effects of worry about their personal and family life safety, upsetting experiences, and nervousness.