Bilharzia Induced Pathologies and Techniques of Detection in Uganda: A review
AbstractBackground: Schistosoma S. mansoni was observed and reported in Uganda in 1902. Schistosoma S. mansoni is widely distributed in Uganda along permanent water bodies. Objective: To review the literature on previous techniques and conventional ones used for the assessment and comparison of morbidity due to schistosomiasis in Uganda. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Gulu University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Results: Since its first detection in 1902 Schistosomiasis mansoni and later Schistosomiasis haematobium in Uganda, morbidity assessment was based on physical examination and intensity of eggs excretion. The first field study in Uganda of schistosomiasis pathologies using ultrasound was that conducted in West Nile in Obongi, Rhino Camp and Pundu in 1991 and reviewed in 1992. These armless and none invasive method of pathologies detection has the advantage of repeatability. It showed that after treatment there was reversibility of pathological conditions introduced by the parasites in the hosts. Conclusion: Schistosomiasis mansoni pathologies as detected by the none invasive ultrasound findings compared well with those of the more risky invasive liver biopsy. The detection of pathologies by clinical examination was less sensitive. Pathological lesions due to S. haematobium correlated with abnormalities of the urinary tract and intensity of eggs in urine.
East African Medical Journal Vol. 87 No. 7 July 2010