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East African Medical Journal

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Cryptosporidiosis and its genotypes among children attending Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya

CI Nyamwange, G Mkoji, S Mpoke, HS Nyandieka

Abstract


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and the associated factors, and characterise the Cryptosporidium isolates from children aged five years and less with diarrhoea.
Design: A prospective cross-sectional study.
Setting: This was a health facility and laboratory based study. Screening for
Cryptosporidium oocysts was done at the Microbiology laboratory, School of Medicine, Moi University, Eldoret and genotyping and sub-genotyping at the Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects: Children aged five years and less seen at the outpatient clinic and those admitted in the pediatric wards at MTRH were recruited into the study upon obtaining assent and written consent from the parents or guardians.
Results: The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was 9.8% (N=317). A duration of diarrhoea of more than two weeks was associated with cryptosporidiosis (OR= 1.8301) compared to those with diarrhoea for less than one week. There were no sex related differences in the cryptosporidiosis prevalence (P= 0.9752). Waste disposal, water sources and treatment, and livestock in homesteads were not associated with cryptosporidiosis. About 82% of the isolates were C. hominis and 18% were C. parvum. There were 6
subtypes of C. hominis and 4 subtypes of C. parvum in circulation.
Conclusion: The prevalence of cryptosporidiosis is comparable to other regions of the world with C. hominis being the most common followed by C. parvum. Human-to-human transmission is the main mode of spread of cryptosporidiosis. All the Cryptosporidium isolates were from children residing in peri-urban and rural areas.



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