T.R.H. Nana Marcus Mosiah Garvey’s “Universal negro”, Nana Kwame Nkrumah’s “All-African,” and the theory of intraspecific Aggressive Ideological Mimicry (AIM)17

  • Ọbádélé Kambon
  • Lwanga Songsore
Keywords: Aggressive Ideological Mimicry (AIM), All-Africanism, PanAfrikanism, bait-and-switch


This paper explores ethological and sociological parallels drawing upon research on interspecific and intraspecific aggressive mimicry. In aggressive mimicry, the mimic imitates the model, oftentimes to achieve predatory or parasitic ends. By looking at articulated thoughts, words, and actions as covered in this study, we advance the idea that “AllAfricanism” is an ideological mimic with respect to authentic PanAfrikanism20 centered on Black Power and the Black Survival Thrust. In fine, in their role as predators/parasites, All- Africanists lure in unsuspecting prey/hosts via a simple bait-and-switch strategy commonly seen in ethological contexts. In such  contexts, mimicry can be visual, acoustic, chemical, tactile, electric, or any combination of these sensory modalities (Dalziell &  Welbergen, 2016). We find that, similar to observations made in ethological studies, success of the aggressive mimic is often  dependent on the victim not being able to discern the difference between the authentic model and the mimic. When and where timely
discernment is possible, intended victims may be able to escape ideological predation just as in the case of physical predation. In this case, predatory aggressive ideological mimicry (AIM) involves the consumption of the victim’s time, energy, resources,   materials/money, and spirit/space (TERMS) and may lead to physical harm or even untimely death (Kambon, K. 2018, pp. 21-22).

Keywords: Aggressive Ideological Mimicry (AIM), All-Africanism, PanAfrikanism, bait-and-switch 


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1684-4173
print ISSN: 1027-1775