East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps <p><em>The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences</em> is dedicated to all aspects of Pharmaceutical Sciences research and is published in English.</p><p>The scientific papers published in the Journal fall into three main categories: review papers, original research papers and short communications. Review papers in any discipline of pharmaceutical sciences are written at the invitation of the editor. They may cover highly specialized fields or general subjects of importance. Original research papers and short communications should describe original and unpublished work. The main purpose of short communications is rapid communication of brief (and often preliminary) research results on current topical issues. They should be limited to one or two double-spaced written pages. Original research papers are subjected to external review, whereas short communications may sometimes only be reviewed by the receiving editor.<br />The journal also covers announcements and reports on symposia, meetings, courses and other events of interest as well as book reviews and new literature surveys in pharmaceutical and allied sciences.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ecajps/i" href="http://uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ecajps/issue/archive" target="_blank">http://uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ecajps/i</a></p> Bioline International en-US East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1026-552X Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Adulteration of herbal preparations https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/217838 <p>No Abstract</p> Prof. Kennedy O. Abuga Copyright (c) 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 24 1 1 2 Identification and Analysis of Adulterants in Aphrodisiac Herbal Medicines Sold by Private Herbal Clinics, Pharmacies and Herbal Drug Shops in Kampala, Uganda https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/217839 <p>High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), column chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) were used for the identification and analysis of three phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in 50 randomly selected aphrodisiac herbal samples. Twenty-seven samples were found to contain one or two or all three synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors representing 54% of the analyzed samples. The FTIR spectral characteristics obtained from the isolated compounds were found to be in conformity with those of sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil reference standards. Patients who use these herbal sexual enhancers with the notion that they are safe and natural are likely to be exposed to serious health risks related to safety and quality of the herbal products. There is need for additional effort to effectively regulate herbal medicines in order to protect the consumers from the threat of adulteration.</p> Keneth Dumba Wilberforce Kwiringira Jane Namukobe Muhammad Ntale Copyright (c) 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 24 1 3 14 Investigation of Theophylline Release Kinetics from Carbopol 940P Sustained Release Matrix Tablets https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/217841 <p>The hydrophilic matrix material, Carbopol 940P, has not been extensively investigated for drug release as the other polymers such as Carbopol 971P and 934P. The present study was aimed at investigating the release kinetics of a highly soluble drug, theophylline, from Carbopol 940P only without the addition of any other ingredient or excipient. Drug release from these matrices was analysed according to Higuchi, first order and zero order release kinetics. At low drug loading (20 %), release was mainly diffusion-controlled as the release pattern was best explained by square root of time kinetics (Higuchi mechanism). However, at higher drug loading (30 % and 40 %), constant release rates were obtained as shown by zero order kinetics explaining the release data best. Constant release rates are most desirable with controlled or sustained release devices. This ensures that constant drug levels in the blood/body are achieved. Carbopol 940P demonstrated that it is applicable in the fabrication of a controlled release matrix that is simple, easy to prepare and cost effective.</p> Rosemary T. J. Chigwanda Panashe Chipengo Margaret Siyawamwaya Copyright (c) 2021-11-24 2021-11-24 24 1 15 20 Assessment of Bacterial Contamination in Herbal Medicine Products Vended in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/217843 <p>Traditional medicines are widely used in Tanzania; however, the microbiological safety of herbal medicine products (HMPs) is unknown. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine microbial levels and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from HMPs vended in Morogoro Municipality. Fifty samples of HMPs were collected from vendors in six wards in the municipality. Bacterial contamination was determined through total viable count and bacterial isolation while susceptibility to the selected antimicrobials was determined by agar disc diffusion method. About 88% of the tested HMPs significantly (p&lt;0.05) had higher total bacterial counts than WHO recommended levels. Ten percent of HMPs were contaminated with the pathogenic E. coli and 8% with S. aureus. The isolated bacteria were only susceptible to ciprofloxacin but were resistant to the rest of the tested antimicrobials at standard doses. Unhygienic handling practices and limited safety knowledge by the HMPs vendors was also observed. Use of the unregulated but vended HMPs may put the users at risk of acquiring infections with pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant bacteria that portends increased treatment challenges.</p> Jonas D. Kira Ernatus M. Mkupasi Abdul A. S. Katakweba Helena A. Ngowi Copyright (c) 2021-11-24 2021-11-24 24 1 21 28 Quality of Alcohol Based Hand Sanitizers Marketed in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/217844 <p>The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has propelled the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to the fore as a SARS-CoV-2 control measure. To be effective these products must comply with relevant quality parameters such as alcohol concentration, methanol limits and purity. The current study was designed to determine the quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products in the Nairobi metropolitan area. For this purpose, 74 commercially marketed samples were collected and subjected to analysis by gas chromatography. Only three samples (4.1%) complied with the regulatory specifications for alcohol content, methanol limits and pH. Five samples (6.8%) complied with the specification for alcohol content but did not meet methanol or pH limits. A total of 44 (59.5%) samples had methanol levels that exceeded threshold limits. Eleven samples (14.9%) were found with methanol substitution (i.e., methanol, instead of ethanol or isopropanol, was the main alcohol component). The results show that users of alcohol-based hand sanitizers are being exposed to substandard and falsified products which in addition to being non-efficacious pose harm due to unacceptable levels of toxic impurities. Regular, routine post-market surveillance is needed to prevent such products from reaching the market.</p> Kennedy Abuga Nasser Nyamwey Obed King’ondu Copyright (c) 2021-11-24 2021-11-24 24 1 29 37 Use of Product Quality Review to Evaluate Quality and Process Capability: A Case Study of Ibuprofen in a Model Tablet Manufacture https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/217866 <p>Product quality review in the pharmaceutical industry is a regulatory requirement comprising periodic evaluation of licensed pharmaceutical products to verify consistency of the manufacturing process and appropriateness of specifications. In this study, product quality and process capability in the manufacture of ibuprofen tablets were evaluated. A quality review of 39 batches produced in the year 2019 was conducted. Components for review included starting materials, critical in-process controls, finished product results, non-conformances, deviations and quality relevant product complaints. Control charts and statistical analysis were used to trend results and compute process capability indices. Starting materials, in-process controls and finished product results complied with quality specifications. Process capability indices for tablet weight, size, dissolution and assay were greater than 1.0. The study showed that the established quality attributes of ibuprofen tablets were consistently produced and it was concluded that the manufacturing process was controlled and sufficient to assure reproducible outcomes.</p> Sarah Vugigi Christian Mshila Ikoni Ogaji Copyright (c) 2021-11-24 2021-11-24 24 1 38 47