East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps <p><em>The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences</em> is dedicated to all aspects of Pharmaceutical Sciences research and is published in English.</p><p>The scientific papers published in the Journal fall into three main categories: review papers, original research papers and short communications. Review papers in any discipline of pharmaceutical sciences are written at the invitation of the editor. They may cover highly specialized fields or general subjects of importance. Original research papers and short communications should describe original and unpublished work. The main purpose of short communications is rapid communication of brief (and often preliminary) research results on current topical issues. They should be limited to one or two double-spaced written pages. Original research papers are subjected to external review, whereas short communications may sometimes only be reviewed by the receiving editor.<br />The journal also covers announcements and reports on symposia, meetings, courses and other events of interest as well as book reviews and new literature surveys in pharmaceutical and allied sciences.</p><p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ecajps/i" href="http://uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ecajps/issue/archive" target="_blank">http://uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ecajps/i</a></p> en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. ecajps@uonbi.ac.ke (Prof CK Maitai) peter.njogu@uonbi.ac.ke (Peter Njogu) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:43:58 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial : Post covid-19 reopening https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200119 <p>No Abstract.</p> Kennedy O. Abuga Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200119 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Artemisinin in <i>Artemisia annua</i> L. Leaf Extracts https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200120 <p>A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of artemisinin in crude plant material was developed and validated. Optimal separation of artemisinin from matrix components in the plant extracts was achieved using a Waters XTerra® RP18, 5 μm, 250 × 4.6 mm column, maintained at 40 °C, a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0 - acetonitrile (60:40) containing 5 mM hexane sulfonate in isocratic flow. The mobile phase flow rate was 1.0 ml/min while elution was monitored at 216 nm. The method satisfied the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) validation criteria for linearity, accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The developed method is applicable in routine quality control of Artemisia annua crude extracts.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Artemisia annua, artemisinin content, crude extract</p> Sarah Mwangi, Kennedy Abuga, Nelly Mungai, Julius Mwangi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200120 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A High-performance Thin Layer Chromatography Densitometric Method for the assay of Mebendazole Tablets https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200122 <p>A simple, precise and accurate high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for the assay of mebendazole tablets. The separation was carried out by using HPTLC Silica gel 60 F254, (20 × 10 cm) with 250 μm thickness using ethyl acetate - ammonia 25% solution (25:0.5) as a mobile phase. HPTLC separation of the drug was followed by densitometry measurement at 310 nm. Mebendazole was satisfactorily resolved with retention factor (Rf) values of 0.51 ± 0.02. The method complied with International Conference on Harmonization acceptance<br>criteria for linearity (250 - 600 ng), precision, accuracy and specificity.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> HPTLC, method validation, assay, mebendazole</p> Vicky P. Manyanga, Emmanuel Kimaro, Joseph Sempombe, Eliangiringa Kaale, Mhina Chambuso Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200122 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Product Evaluation of Carbamazepine 200mg Controlled Release Tablets using an in vitro-in vivo Correlation Simulation Model https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200123 <p>Evaluation of the dissolution characteristics of drugs and their bioavailability can be conducted using an in vitro-in vivo correlation model. This can help in assessing the products available in the market for quality. Random testing in post-marketing surveillance would gauge the quality of the drug products. This study involved evaluation of three batches of controlled-release carbamazepine, Tegretol 200mg CR® tablets through dissolution tests from which a dissolution profile and blood concentration-time profile were derived. The in vitro-in vivo correlation simulation model was used to determine the Area Under Curve and Maximum Plasma Concentration and demonstrate bioequivalence of the product batches. The three batches exhibited similarity upon statistical analysis. The results also correspond to the values obtained in literature from bioequivalence studies. In vitro-in vivo correlation can thus be a useful instrument in pharmacovigilance for marketed drug products.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> IVIVC, carbamazepine, bioavailability, pharmacokinetic parameters, dissolution</p> Julius N. Kiuri, Shital M. Maru, Stanley N. Ndwigah Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200123 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria Implicated in Neonatal Sepsis at Pumwani Maternity Hospital https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200124 <p>Neonatal sepsis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among infants in developing countries. The etiology and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bacteria responsible vary in different hospitals. This study identified bacteria in blood cultures of neonates with clinically suspected septicemia and demonstrated their susceptibility patterns. A longitudinal design targeting all neonates at Pumwani maternity hospital with suspected sepsis was used. One hundred and fifty neonates were selected using consecutive sampling. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Out of 150 blood specimens cultured, the cases of confirmed bacterial sepsis were 48(32%). Gram-positive pathogens predominated with <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Streptococcus viridans</em> accounting for 70%. The only Gram-negative isolates were<em> E. coli</em> and<em> Klebsiella spp</em>. Gram-positive isolates showed high sensitivity (above 80%) to meropenem, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ofloxacin, and amikacin. Gram- negative organisms were generally resistant to penicillins and absolutely sensitive to meropenem, ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Prevalence, Antimicrobial susceptibility, Neonatal sepsis</p> Norah K. Maore, Peter N. Karimi, Eric M. Guantai Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200124 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Survey of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in Nairobi: Packaging, Labelling and Regulatory Compliance https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200125 <p>Alcohol based hand sanitizers are currently recommended for routine use in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 global pandemic. The present survey examined hand sanitizers marketed in Nairobi County with regards to product appearance, packaging, labelling and declared composition. Seventy-six samples were collected from five sites within the Nairobi metropolis - Central Business District, Kibera, Kilimani/Karen, Ngong and Thika. A wide range of non-conformities were observed for the criteria applied. Many samples had incomplete or missing label information, ingredient lists, cautionary warnings, Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) standardization marks and permit numbers. Glycerin, fragrances and carbomers were the most common added ingredients. Poor formulation indicators such as haziness and phase separation were encountered in some products. The median price of the products was KES 250 (USD 2.36) per 100 ml although there was considerable variation in pricing of samples. None of the samples evaluated fully met all the standards for the parameters evaluated. Strict adherence to regulatory standards by producers of hand sanitizers is required to ensure that only compliant products are available on the market.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hand sanitizer, alcohol, labelling, coronavirus, product quality</p> Nasser N. Nyamweya, Kennedy O. Abuga Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/200125 Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial: Non-Compliance — the Patient Perspective https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/205787 <p>No abstract.</p> Charles K. Maitai Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ecajps/article/view/205787 Wed, 14 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000