English in Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia <p><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if !mso]><object classid="clsid:38481807-CA0E-42D2-BF39-B33AF135CC4D" id=ieooui></object> <mce:style><! st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } --> <!--[endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!-- [if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --> <!--[endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if !mso]><object classid="clsid:38481807-CA0E-42D2-BF39-B33AF135CC4D" id=ieooui></object> <mce:style><! st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } --> <!--[endif] --> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1073750139 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!-- [if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --> <!--[endif] --></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: normal;"><em><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">English in Africa </span></em><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">was founded in 1974 to provide a forum for the study of African literature and English as a language of Africa. The Editor invites contributions, including unsolicited reviews, on all aspects of English writing and the English language in Africa, including oral traditions. <em>English in Africa </em>is listed in the <em>Journal of Commonwealth Literature </em>Annual Bibliography, the Modern Language Association <em>MLA International Bibliography</em>, Institute for Scientific Information <em>Arts and Humanities Citation Index</em>, and accredited by the South African Department of Education.</span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">The journal has its own website at </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0cm; line-height: normal;"><a title="http://www.ru.ac.za/isea/publications/journals/englishinafrica/" href="http://www.ru.ac.za/isea/publications/journals/englishinafrica/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.ru.ac.za/isea/publications/journals/englishinafrica/</a></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0cm; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">It is also indexed on EBSCO, by Gale</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">Publishing and by SABINET Online. EiA is archived by JSTOR and SABINET Gateway</span></p> Institute for the Study of English in Africa en-US English in Africa 0376-8902 <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial;" lang="EN-GB">Copyright is vested in the authors.</span> Foreword https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/211048 <p>No Abstract.</p> Tony Voss Copyright (c) 2021-07-21 2021-07-21 48 1 7 11 Souls in Civilization – Why Do We Struggle to Read Olive Schreiner’s Short Fiction and Allegories? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/211049 <p>Olive Schreiner’s short fiction, published in Dreams (1890),<em> Dream Life and Real Life</em> (1893) and <em>Stories, Dreams and Allegories</em> (published posthumously in 1923), were very popular on their publication and were praised for their aestheticism and political thought. This paper attempts to explore why these stories and allegories have not been taken up as much as Schreiner’s other work in the present day by reading them in the context of various perspectives on allegory.</p> Marike Beyers Copyright (c) 2021-07-21 2021-07-21 48 1 13 32 Bakhtin and <i>Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonala</i>nd: Beyond Allegory and Realism https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/211050 <p>Olive Schreiner’s novella <em>Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland (</em>1897) has been variously considered to be a political pamphlet, an allegory or at the very least a piece of moralising Victorian realism. Certainly at its centre there is the powerful proclamatory voice of the Christ figure, ventriloquized by both the Cape preacher and later Peter Halket himself. As most critics have acknowledged – from its early reviewer in the <em>New York Tribune</em> in 1897 to most recently Rajendra Chetty and Matthew Curr in 2016 – the figure of Christ expounds an ethic or ideology associated with the author herself. However, these critical approaches tend to ignore the conflicting ideas and ideological outlooks held in some of the other voices in the text. In this article, I consider whether these opposing voices are illustrations of Mikhail Bakhtin’s ontology of the dialogic novel with its centripetal and centrifugal ideological forces. If in fact these voices can be considered to be dialogical, then the sublation of the voice of the author/Christ cannot be complete and the novella’s allegorical nature can at the very least be questioned.</p> Matthew Blackman Copyright (c) 2021-07-21 2021-07-21 48 1 33 52 Olive Schreiner’s Oceanic Imaginary and the Question of Deep History https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/211053 <p>This article proposes a reading of the ocean in Olive Schreiner’s life, her letters and her works. Schreiner’s representation of the South African landscape has been much celebrated in literary scholarship, yet the oceanic settings in her novels have been ignored to date. This article explores the representation of the sea in three parts: I draw on Schreiner’s biographies to consider both her geographic movements and her reading practices as models for her scenes of the sea. Secondly, I turn to the letters she wrote after her crossing to England and read for mentions of the ocean and the sea and the language Schreiner uses to represent them. Lastly, using an oceanic lens, I read and compare <em>The Story of an African Farm and From Man to Man.</em></p> Maria Geustyn Copyright (c) 2021-07-21 2021-07-21 48 1 53 72 Queer Hospitality and African Resistance in the Novels of Olive Schreiner https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/211054 <p>This article analyzes moments of queer hospitality in two novels by Olive Schreiner to argue for new ways of understanding her complex views of race and gender. I focus on Otto Farber’s missionary ethics, in contrast to a competing model of imperialist domination, to show the beginnings of queer hospitality in African Farm. Otto’s disruptive Christian morality frames two of the few instances of African resistance in this early novel. While the unfinished later novel, From Man to Man, seems at first glance to embrace two classic Victorian domestic plots, those of marriage and of the fallen woman, I argue that Rebekah’s Cape Town home functions as a queer space that allows a radical rewriting of those plots. Her adopted mixed-race daughter, Sartje, and Bertie’s rebellious African maid, Griet, embody as-yet unfulfilled potential for women of colour in the novel. Rebekah’s redefinition of her own marriage and Bertie’s fall into prostitution create new spaces for women’s lives and allow us to imagine profoundly altered understandings of sympathy, maternity, and community. Drawing on Sara Ahmed’s call for a new communicative ethics in our globalized moment, I highlight moments of resistance and possibility in both novels to demonstrate both the political limitations and ethical potential of Schreiner’s South African vision.</p> Rachel Hollander Copyright (c) 2021-07-21 2021-07-21 48 1 73 96 Making Space for Women’s Sexual Selves in Olive Schreiner’s <i>From Man to Man</i> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/211055 <p>In this article I argue that Olive Schreiner’s novel <em>From Man to Man or Perhaps Only</em>– (1926) explores the female subject’s relationship to sexuality in late nineteenth-century colonial South Africa in spatial terms. Reading the novel through Sara Ahmed’s (2006) idea of “queer phenomenology” and the concepts of “bodily horizon,” “extension,” and “orientation,” I claim that it is in the interaction of body and space that the potential lies for both oppression and resistance in relation to sexual and racial norms in the novel. The analysis focuses on how the main characters, Rebekah and Bertie, respond to restrictive sociosexual norms through their orientation in space. The article further considers how Rebekah and Bertie attempt to manage their troubled relation to colonial domesticity, and ultimately transform it, through their relationships with the servants Dorcas and Clartje and with Rebekah's adopted daughter Sartje; the former of which are ultimately imbued with notions of sexualised invasion. This article reveals how the spatial and embodied practices of the main characters are essential in negotiating their sexual positions in late nineteenth-century South African society.</p> Sanja Nivesjö Copyright (c) 2021-07-21 2021-07-21 48 1 97 121 From Words to Deeds: the Story of the Olive Schreiner Scholarship https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/211056 <p>In 1955 a group of Olive Schreiner’s former friends and admirers of her work founded a scholarship for South African women: in accordance with her ideals of education for women and equality of opportunity for all peoples, the scholarship was open to South African woman, irrespective of race, colour or creed, who wished to study at a university in South Africa. The scholarship was administered by a committee of trustees until 1985, when it was handed over to the University of Cape Town. This essay traces the story of the Olive&nbsp; Schreiner Scholarship. The founding of the scholarship is set against the background of Schreiner’s ideas on the importance of education for all women, as expressed in her polemical writing and her letters. Using as a primary source the minutes of committee meetings, the essay goes on to show how Schreiner’s ideals were carried forward in the aims of the founders and trustees and in their practical&nbsp; management of the Olive Schreiner Scholarship from 1955 to 1985, a time of institutionalised inequality in educational opportunities for South Africans of different communities. The legacy of the scholarship is illustrated using extracts from the responses of five former scholarship holders to a questionnaire submitted to them in 2020.</p> Mary Bock Copyright (c) 2021-07-21 2021-07-21 48 1 123 145 Tribute- Stephen Gray (1941–2020): Controversial Man of Letters https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/211057 <p>No Abstract.</p> Craig MacKenzie Copyright (c) 2021-07-21 2021-07-21 48 1 147 149