English in Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia <p><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if !mso]><object classid="clsid:38481807-CA0E-42D2-BF39-B33AF135CC4D" id=ieooui></object> <mce:style><! st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } --> <!--[endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!-- [if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --> <!--[endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if !mso]><object classid="clsid:38481807-CA0E-42D2-BF39-B33AF135CC4D" id=ieooui></object> <mce:style><! st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } --> <!--[endif] --> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1073750139 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!-- [if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --> <!--[endif] --></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: normal;"><em><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">English in Africa </span></em><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">was founded in 1974 to provide a forum for the study of African literature and English as a language of Africa. The Editor invites contributions, including unsolicited reviews, on all aspects of English writing and the English language in Africa, including oral traditions. <em>English in Africa </em>is listed in the <em>Journal of Commonwealth Literature </em>Annual Bibliography, the Modern Language Association <em>MLA International Bibliography</em>, Institute for Scientific Information <em>Arts and Humanities Citation Index</em>, and accredited by the South African Department of Education.</span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">The journal has its own website at </span><span style="font-size: 10pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0cm; line-height: normal;"><a title="http://www.ru.ac.za/isea/publications/journals/englishinafrica/" href="http://www.ru.ac.za/isea/publications/journals/englishinafrica/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.ru.ac.za/isea/publications/journals/englishinafrica/</a></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0cm; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">It is also indexed on EBSCO, by Gale</span><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;">Publishing and by SABINET Online. EiA is archived by JSTOR and SABINET Gateway</span></p> en-US <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--><span style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial;" lang="EN-GB">Copyright is vested in the authors.</span> englishinafrica@ru.ac.za (Alannah Birch) b.cummings@ru.ac.za (Bev Cummings) Wed, 10 Feb 2021 12:25:24 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Sites in Contestation: Reading Contemporary Popular Culture in Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203845 <p>No Abstract.</p> Nedine Moonsamy, Corinne Sandwith Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203845 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dance in Ethiopia: Traditionality and Contemporariness https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203846 <p>Dance practices in Ethiopia remained vibrant, albeit transformed, as the<br>country transitioned from feudalism to socialism (1974), and then to neoliberal<br>capitalism (1991). For centuries, a vast array of movement traditions has been<br>essential to religious and communal rituals in Ethiopia. Today, traditional<br>Ethiopian dance is most visible in tourist restaurants or YouTube videos. The<br>trajectory of dance from ritualised practices to commercialised performances<br>presents a seeming paradox: traditional Ethiopian dance as we know it today is,<br>in fact, a modernised performance genre serving multiple functions: memory<br>transmission, ideological dissemination, and profit generation, among others.<br>In the 1980s, the socialist state harvested dances from around the country to<br>produce “modernised” performances on the stages of government theatres,<br>propagating the ideology of national unity amidst border wars and internal<br>oppression. In the 1990s, as Ethiopia opened to the West, these dances continued<br>to be performed on restaurant stages, not so much to propagandise for the<br>state as to generate profit for the industry. The modernisation of traditional<br>dance continues in Ethiopia, under the auspices of neoliberal privatisation,<br>which has also led to the westernisation of youth culture. Since the late 1990s,<br>a group of young Ethiopians have devoted themselves to contemporary<br>dance by adopting Western aesthetics and distinguishing their practice from<br>traditional dance. Recently, they have grappled with the imperative to infuse<br>Ethiopian dance traditions in their work in order to be recognised in the global<br>dance field. Through dance ethnography, oral histories, and video archives,<br>this paper illuminates both traditionality and contemporariness as historical<br>constructs – categories of differential powers used to organise the current<br>dance field in Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ethiopian dance, contemporary dance, traditional dance, multiple modernities, decolonizing dance</p> Hui Wilcox, Melaku Belay Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203846 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Genre versus Prize: The Short Story Form and African Oral Traditions https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203847 <p>In “The Short Story in Africa,” Nadine Gordimer writes that the genre is more malleable and open to experimentation with style, language and form than the novel, which means that it is more easily accommodated within a variety of media spaces. Gordimer adds that the short story is “a fragmented and restless form, a matter of hit or miss, and it is perhaps for this reason that it suits modern consciousness” (170–71). Taking its cue from Gordimer’s remarks, this article attempts to examine the genre of the short story through the lens of the literary prize industry in Africa. In most parts of the continent the development of the short story, like that of the novel and other genres,&nbsp; has been slow, facing a number of challenges such as a historically impoverished publishing industry. The rise in popularity of the local and global literary prize for the short story has however played a significant role in the promotion of the genre and literature generally on the continent. The article examines the short story’s increased presence in the digital space and interrogates the general assumption on the part of many of the prize-awarding bodies that the short story can be linked to African oral traditions. The aim of the article is to explore the relationship between the genre and the rising popularity of the literary prize on the continent, focusing on the various ways in which the prize is (re)shaping the contemporary African short story.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Orality, literary prize, publishing, exoticism, literary fracture, disconnectivity </p> Doseline Kiguru Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203847 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Film as /and Popular Social Text: The Reception of John Trengove’s<I> Inxeba/The Wound </I>and Wanuri Kahui’s </I>Rafiki</I> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203848 <p>This article is interested in popular and institutional or state responses to the representations of queerness offered in the films Inxeba/The Wound (South Africa, 2017) and Rafiki (Kenya, 2018). Aside from portraying the marked homophobia that continues to circulate on the African continent, the institutional and state responses to the films have overshadowed the positive popular reception which has&nbsp; characterised conversations around the films on social media and public spaces. This article shows how social media functions as an<br>important space of contestation for diverse issues relating to non-normative gender and sexual identities. As these films circulate in different spaces and are viewed by diverse audiences, they elicit equally diverse reactions and responses. The article examines how viewers, in Africa and beyond, receive and engage with the queerness represented in the two films. It argues that the multifaceted reactions to Inxeba/The Wound and Rafiki are central to articulating important questions about what it means to be queer in Africa,<br>and particularly what it implies for black queers to inhabit heteronormative and patriarchal spaces on the continent. Through an analysis of the reactions and receptions of the two films in Africa and the global North, it is argued that it is possible to trace important inter-regional, intra-continental and intercontinental dialogues and conversations regarding the representation of queer African subjectivities. The intra-continental and inter-continental dialogues bring to light questions of gaze and viewing that are inherent in the circulation of queer-themed films.</p> <p><strong>Kewords:</strong> Inxeba/The Wound, Rafiki, reception, popular culture, queerness</p> Gibson Ncube Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203848 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Re-Imagining Bobi Wine: Student Electoral Politics as Popular Performance Space https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203849 <p>During the 2019 Guild elections in two Ugandan public universities (Makerere and Kyambogo), poetry performances in the form of songs were deployed by some candidates to articulate particular ideological perspectives. This paper examines the poetics and politics of the songs – the aesthetics of the musical performances themselves and their power in mobilising large crowds for the guild vote. I argue that poetry performances in the form of songs do not function merely as election entertainment, but rather that they are central to the contest itself and therefore go a long way to defining its very nature. I also argue that the fact that the 2019 elections at both Makerere and Kyambogo Universities were won by people allied to the People Power movement, whose leader, Hon. Robert Ssentamu Kyagulanyi, provided two songs with which the candidates articulated their message to the electorate, demonstrates the influence of both musicians and popular songs in processes of political mobilisation. Data for this paper was collected using observation, interviews and focus group discussions with selected members of the electorate, and a close reading of the lyrics of the songs. As my analysis reveals, the songs<br>animated the election campaigns to the extent that their performance not only defined the character of the elections, but also, to some extent, contributed to their final outcome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:&nbsp; Popular song and performance, student elections, Bobi Wine, Uganda, Makerere, Kyambogo </p> Danson Sylvester Kahyana Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203849 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fragments Towards an Impossible (Domestic) Genre of the Human in Kenyan Crime Fiction https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203850 <p>Extrajudicial executions and other forms of police violence in Kenya have always been an issue of significant concern in local and international media and human rights organisations. Reflective of this, scholarly interest in crime fiction in Kenya has grown significantly in recent years. However, the gendered implications of criminality – from sex work to errant motherhood to alternative modes of investigation – are still largely overlooked in postcolonial literary fiction and criticism. As part of a larger study on how women writers and characters shape crime fiction in Kenya, this paper critically engages with stories that the criminalised woman knows, tells, forgets,&nbsp; incarnates, discards or hides about the city. It does so by examining the history of urban sex workers in Kenya, the representation of ‘urban women’ in postcolonial Kenyan novels and contemporary mainstream media, and the various (post) colonial laws that criminalise sex work. Through Justina, an elusive character in Yvonne Adhiambo Owuor’s Dust, I consider how (post)colonial legislative frameworks and social life attempt to manage “impossible domesticity” (Saidiya Hartman) inside and against the geo-history of gendered and classed criminality in urban Kenyan spaces. My purpose is to interrogate hegemonic constructions of the citizen – and by extension, of the human&nbsp; – in Kenyan law and public morality </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> crime fiction, feminism, sex work, human, <em>homo narrans</em></p> Wairimũ Mũrĩithi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203850 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Scheherazade’s Achievement(s): Practices of Care in Fatema Mernissi’s Memoir, <I>Dreams of Trespass</I>: Tales of a Harem Girlhood, and her Creative Non-Fiction, <I>Scheherazade Goes West</I> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203851 <p>The Moroccan feminist sociologist Fatema Mernissi (1940–2015) is probably best known for her pioneering scholarly work on gender equality in Islam. This paper, however focuses on her life writing: her memoir, <em>Dreams of Trespass:</em> Tales of a Harem Girlhood, published in 1994 and her reflections on its Eurocentric reception, which culminated in the publication of her work of creative non-fiction <em>Scheherazade Goes Wes</em>t: Different Cultures, Different Harems in 2001. Written in popular genres in accessible registers, Mernissi’s texts translate her scholarly feminism into stories of the everyday in order to encourage her readers to see possibilities of feminist practices within and against oppressive social structures. Both texts deal with the way in which women’s agency is circumscribed by particular horizons of constraint determined by their social contexts and thus the texts contrast local, particular forms of constraint with more diffuse forms of oppression that characterise western modernity. This paper offers a reading of her harem childhood to trace some of the alternative modes of enacting small freedoms that the memoir documents. As becomes apparent in Mernissi’s reflections on the memoir’s reception, these achievements seem to be largely illegible within meritocratic scripts of success. In contrast, Mernissi asserts that care for self and&nbsp; other – via modes of storytelling, performance, artistic production and looking after one’s physical wellbeing – mark direct, albeit subtle, forms of resistance even if they are not recognised as such. Drawing on a popular cultural repertoire, the well-known figure of&nbsp; Scheherazade emerges in Mernissi’s texts as a central role model for women crafting pockets of resistance and webs of care. In this way, Mernissi’s texts offers a Moroccan perspective on the debate of the conditions of possibility of ordinary feminist practices inspired by popular artistic forms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Fatema Mernissi, life writing, Scheherazade, ethics of care, storytelling, Moroccan feminism </p> Tina Steiner Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203851 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203852 <p>No Abstract.</p> Sue Marais Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/eia/article/view/203852 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000