https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/issue/feed Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2022-03-22T08:50:11+00:00 Kefena Effa (PhD) ejas.editorial@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>EJAS is to provide readers with original scientific research, both basic and applied, with far reaching implications of Ethiopian agriculture. Thus, EJAS seeks to publish those papers that are most influential in Ethiopian agriculture and that will significantly advance scientific understanding of agriculture.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals" href="http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals</a></p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/222208 Recovery of Soil Health and Crop Productivity of Degraded Cultivated Land of Northwest Ethiopian Highlands 2022-03-04T14:21:42+00:00 Getachew Alemayehu getachew.64@gmail.com Agegnehu Shibabaw getachew.64@gmail.com Enyew Adgo getachew.64@gmail.com Folkard Asch getachew.64@gmail.com Bernhard Freyer getachew.64@gmail.com <p>አህፅሮት</p> <p>በአብዘኛው የኢትጵያ ከፍተኛ ቦታዎች በከፍተኛ የአፈር መሸርሸርና የለምነት መVጠጥ ምክንያት የሚታረሰው መሬት ጤንነቱ በጣም የተጎዳ ከመሆኑም ባሻገር ምርታማነቱን ዝቅተኛ እንዲሆን አድረጎታል፡፡ በመሆኑም ሰብልን አፈራርቆ መዝራትና የተፈጥሮ የአፈር ማዳበሪያ መጨመር በሰብል አፈር ጤናማነትና ምርታማነት ማገገም ላይ ያላቸውን ፋይዳ ለማወቅ እንደ አውሮፓዊያን ዘመን አቆጣጠር ከ2013 እስከ 2015 ዓ.ም ለሶስት ተከታታይ ዓመታት በሰሜን ምዕራብ ከፍተኛ ቦታዎች ውስጥ በሚገኝ በተጎዳ የሰብል አፈር ላይ የመስክ ጥናት ተካሂኳዷል፡፡ ሙከራውም በአምስት የሰብል አፈራረቆ መዝራትና አራት የተፈጥሮ ማዳበሪያ መጠን ጥምርታዎችን በራንደማይዝድ ኮምፕሊት ብሎክ ዲዛይን (RCBD) የተባለ ቴክኒክ በመጠቀም በአራት ድግግሞሽ ተሰርቷል:: በተከታታይ ለሶስት ዓመታት ትክክለኛ ሰብልን አፈራርቆ መዝራትና የተፈጥሮ ማዳበሪያ በመጨመር የሰብል ምርታማነትን እሰከ 1230 በመቶና የአፈር ባህሪያትን ከ20 እስከ 154 በመቶ እንዲሸሻል አድርÕል:: የዳቦ ስንዴ-የነጭ ዋጅማ-ድንች ፍርቅርቆሽ ከ75 ኩንታል በሄክታር የተፈጥሮ ማዳባሪያ ጥምርታ ከፍተኛ መሸሻል አሳይŸል፡፡ ስለዚህ ትክክለኛ የሰብል ፍርቅርቆሽና የተፈጥሮ ማዳበሪያ መጠቀም በከፍተና ቦታዎች ውስጥ የሚገኘውን የተጎዳ የሰብል አፈር ለምነትና ምርታማነት በከፍተና ደረጃ ማገገምና ማሻሻል እንደሚቻል የሙከራው ውጤት ያመላክታል፡፡</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>Severe soil degradation and fertility depletion have resulted in poor soil health and low crop productivity in the cultivated land of most Ethiopian highlands. Thus, a three-year experiment from 2013 to 2015 was conducted to assess the potential of crop rotation and organic matter application for recovery of the soil health and crop productivity of cultivated land in northwest Ethiopian highlands. </em><em>Factorial combinations of five crop rotations [bread wheat–clover–potato (R1<sup>+</sup>); clover–bread wheat undersowing lupine–potato (R2<sup>+</sup>); potato–clover–bread wheat (R3<sup>+</sup>); bread wheat undersowing lupine–potato undersowing lupine–bread wheat (R4<sup>+</sup>); and lupine–potato undersowing lupine–bread wheat (R5<sup>+</sup>)] and four manure application rates [control without manure (M1); 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> sesbania green manure SGM (M2); 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> fresh cattle manure FCM (M3); and 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> SGM + 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> FCM (M4)] were laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications at on-station and on-farm testing sites. Interaction of crop rotation and manure application significantly improved the soil properties and crop productivity of the experimental plots. Combined applications of crop rotation and manure in a three-year period resulted in the improvement of crop productivity up to 13 folds, as well as of bulk density, pH, CEC, and contents of organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, and exchangeable potassium of the experimental soils up to 25, 20, 67, 92, 154, 96 and 54 percent, respectively, compared to their baseline records. These highest improvements of physicochemical soil properties and crop productivity were mainly recorded from the interaction of R1<sup>+</sup> and M4. The results clearly showed that long-term sound crop rotation and organic matter application have a great potential for recovering the soil health and crop productivity of degraded cultivated land in Ethiopian highlands.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/222219 Fodder Yield and Nutritive Values of Hydroponically Grown Local Barley Landraces 2022-03-01T13:54:28+00:00 Bonsa Bulcha dnazerawi2010@gmail.com Diriba Diba dnazerawi2010@gmail.com Geleta Gobena dnazerawi2010@gmail.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>በዋነኛነት</em> <em>በኢትዮጵያ</em> <em>ከጊዜ</em> <em>ወደ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>እየጨመረ</em> <em>የመጣውን</em> <em>የህዝብ ብዛት ለመመገብ</em> <em>በመሬት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ባለው</em> <em>ጫና</em> <em>ምክንያት</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>የመኖ</em> <em>ምርትን</em> <em>በቀላሉ</em> <em>ዕውን</em> <em>ማድረግ</em> <em>አልተቻለም።</em> <em>ከጊዜ</em> <em>ወደ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>እየጨመረ</em> <em>የመጣውን</em> <em>የአረንጓዴ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>ፍላጎት</em> <em>ለማሟላት</em> <em>አማራጮች</em> <em>አንዱ</em> <em>ሃይድሮፖኒክ </em><em>(</em><em>መኖን</em> <em>ከአፈር</em> <em>ይልቅ</em> <em>በውኃ</em> <em>ማብቀያ</em> <em>ዘዴ</em><em>) </em><em>መጠቀም</em><em>&nbsp; </em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>በሦስት</em> <em>ሀገር</em> <em>በቀል</em> <em>ገብስ</em> <em>ዘሮች</em> <em>ማለትም</em> <em>ጥቁር፣</em> <em>ሞስኖ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ነጭ</em> <em>ገብስ የተለያዩ&nbsp; የውኃ</em> <em>ማጠጣት</em> <em>ሰዓታት ልዩነት</em><em>፣ የመከር</em> <em>መሰብሰብ ቀን ልዩነትና የዘር ልዩነት በምርት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ንጥረ-ነገር ይዘቶች ላይ</em> <em>የሚያደርሱትን</em> <em>ተፅዕኖ</em> <em>ለመገምገም</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ተካሂዷል። ሦስቱም</em> <em>ሃገር በቀል የገብስ</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>ለ</em><em>12 </em><em>ተከታታይ</em> <em>ቀናት</em> <em>በሙከራ</em> <em>ቤት </em><em>(</em><em>ላት</em> <em>ሃዉስ</em><em>) </em><em>በ</em><em>2</em><em>፣</em><em> 3 </em><em>እና</em><em> 4 </em><em>የውኃ</em> <em>ማጠጫ</em> <em>ሰዓታት ልዩነት</em> <em>በቅለዋል።</em> <em>መኖው</em> <em>የታጨደዉ</em> <em>በ</em><em>6</em><em>ኛ፣</em><em> 8</em><em>ኛ፣</em><em> 10</em><em>ኛ</em> <em>እና</em><em> 12</em><em>ኛው</em> <em>የዕድገት</em> <em>ቀን</em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>የ</em><em>የመከር</em> <em>መሰብሰብያ </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ቀናት</em> <em>ልዩነት</em> <em>በመኖ</em> <em>ምርትና ተያያዥነት</em> <em>ያላቸው</em> <em>የምርት</em> <em>ክፍሎች</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>መካከል</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>ልዩነቶችን</em> <em>ፈጥሯል። </em><em>ከፍተኛው</em> <em>የመኖ</em> <em>ዕድገት</em> <em>ከተዘራ</em> <em>በ</em><em>12</em><em>ኛው</em> <em>ቀን</em> <em>ታይቷል፣</em> <em>ከፍተኛው</em> <em>የደረቅ</em> <em>ቁስ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ግን</em> <em>በ</em><em>6</em><em>ኛው</em> <em>የዕድገት</em> <em>ቀን</em> <em>ተመዝግቧል።</em> <em>የጥቁር፣</em> <em>ሞስኖ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ነጭ</em> <em>ገብስ አማካይ</em> <em>የደረቅ</em> <em>ቁስ</em> <em>ምርት በቅደም</em> <em>ተከተል</em><em> 23.3</em><em>ቶን</em><em>–</em><em>ሄክታር፣</em><em> 18.78 </em><em>ቶን</em><em>–</em><em>ሄክታር እና</em><em> 19.85</em><em>ቶን</em><em>–</em><em>ሄክታር ነዉ፡፡ የክሩድ </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ፕሮቲን</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የሴል</em> <em>ዎል</em> <em>ይዘቱ</em> <em>ለበቀለ</em> <em>ገብስ</em> <em>ከእህሉ</em> <em>ከፍ</em> <em>ያለ</em> <em>ነው። የገብስ</em> <em>እህል</em> <em>ደረቅ</em> <em>ቁስ</em> <em>ይዘት</em><em> 93.6በመቶ </em><em>ሲሆን</em> <em>በ</em><em>12</em><em>ኛ</em> <em>ቀን</em> <em>ወደ</em><em> 91.7በመቶ </em><em>ቀንሷል።</em> <em>የበቀለ</em> <em>ገብስ</em> <em>የተሰበሰበበት</em><em> 6</em><em>ኛው</em> <em>ቀን</em> <em>እንቪትሮ ዽራይ ማተር ይዘት ከፍተኛ</em> <em>ውጤት</em> <em>ያስገኛል</em> <em>ምክንያቱም</em> <em>ገና</em> <em>የበቀለበት</em> <em>ደረጃ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ስለነበር</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ብዙ</em> <em>ያልበቀለ</em> <em>እህል</em> <em>ስላለው። የክሩድ ፕሮቲን</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>ይዘቱ</em> <em>እየጨመረ</em> <em>የመጣ</em> <em>አዝማሚያ</em> <em>ነበረው</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በ</em><em>12</em><em>ኛው</em><em> ቀን </em><em>መሰብሰብ</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>ሆኖ</em> <em>ታይቷል።</em> <em>ስለዚህ</em> <em>ሞስኖ ለሚባል የአገባኒ ገብስ ዓይነት ከፍተኛው</em> <em>የቅጠላማነት ባዮማስ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ምርትን</em> <em>ተዛማጅ</em> <em>ክፍሎች</em> <em>መገኘቱን</em> <em>መደምደም</em> <em>ይቻላል።</em> <em>በ</em><em>12</em><em>ኛው</em> <em>ቀን</em> <em>የመኸር</em> <em>መሰብሰብያ ከፍተኛ</em> <em>የሃይድሮፖኒክ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>ምርትና</em> <em>ጥራት</em> <em>ለማግኘት</em> <em>በአካባቢው</em> <em>የገብስ</em> <em>ዘሮችን</em> <em>ለመሰብሰብ</em> <em>አመቺ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>እንደሆነ</em> <em>ተለይቷል። የበቀለ</em> <em>ሀገር በቀል ገብስ</em> <em>ዘሮች</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>የክሩድ </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ፕሮቲን እና</em> <em>የሴል</em> <em>ዎል</em> <em>ይዘቶች</em> <em>ሲኖራቸው</em> <em>ያልበቀለው</em> <em>የገብስ</em> <em>እህል</em> <em>ተጓዳኝ</em> <em>ግን</em> <em>ትንሹን</em> <em>ይይዛል።</em> <em>ስለዚህ</em> <em>ከተዘራ</em> <em>በኋላ</em> <em>በ</em><em>12</em><em>ኛው</em> <em>ቀን</em> <em>የሚታጨደዉ</em> <em>ጥቁር</em> <em>ገብስ</em> <em>በዚህ</em> <em>ሙከራ</em> <em>መሠረት</em> <em>በአካባቢው</em> <em>ከሚገኙ</em> <em>የገብስ</em> <em>ዘሮች</em> <em>መካከል</em> <em>በሃይድሮፖኒክ </em><em>(</em><em>መኖን</em> <em>ከአፈር</em> <em>ይልቅ</em> <em>በውኃ</em> <em>ማብቀያ</em> <em>ዘዴ</em><em>) </em><em>ለማምረት</em> <em>ይመከራል። ለወደፊትም እንስሳትን በመመገብ ተጨማሪ ሙከራ ተሠርቶ የወተት ይዘቱን፣ የሥጋ ምርቱን እና/ወይም የምጣኔ ሀብት ጠቀሜታዉን ማየት ቢቻል መልካም ነዉ ተብሎ&nbsp; ይመከራል፡፡ </em></p> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h1>Abstract</h1> <p><em>Significant fodder production cannot easily be realized mainly due to the pressure on land for the production of staple food crops to feed the ever increasing human population in Ethiopia. To meet the parallel increasing demand for green fodder, one of the alternatives is hydroponic fodder to supplement the meager pasture resources. A study was conducted at Wollega University to </em><em>evaluate the effect of watering interval, harvesting</em> dates and landraces on fodder yield and nutritive values of <em>three local barley landraces viz: black barley, Mosno, and white barley</em> <em>under hydroponic systems.</em><em> All three landraces were </em><em>grown for 12 consecutive days in lath house at 2, 3 and 4h watering intervals. The fodder was harvested at 6<sup>th</sup>, 8<sup>th</sup>, 10<sup>th</sup> and 12<sup>th</sup> days of growth. There were significant differences (P&lt;0.05) among dates of harvesting on hydroponic fodder yield and yield related components of all the landraces. The highest fodder growth was observed at 12<sup>th</sup> days after sowing, whereas the highest dry matter (DM) yield was recorded at the 6<sup>th</sup> day of growth. The average dry matter yield for the landraces was 23.3t/ha, 18.78t/ha and 19.85t/h<sup>2</sup> for black barley, Mosno and white barley, respectively. The crude protein (CP) and cell wall contents were higher for sprouted barley landraces than its grain.&nbsp; The DM content of the barley grain was 93.6% and decreased to 91.1% for sprouted barley on the 12<sup>th</sup> day of harvesting. The 6<sup>th</sup> date of harvesting of sprouted barley resulted in higher In vitro-dry matter digestibility. The CP content had an increasing trend and remained highest on 12<sup>th </sup>day of harvesting. Therefore, it can be concluded that watering at 4h intervals had resulted in the highest biomass yield and yield related components of barley grown under a hydroponic system. Among the landraces used in this experiment, Mosno was found to be best variety for green fodder biomass yield and as well for better nutritive values. The 12<sup>th</sup> date of harvesting was identified as an optimum time of harvesting for the highest hydroponic fodder yield and yield related components. Sprouting barley had highest CP, cell wall contents (NDF, ADF and ADL) and ash contents compared to its grain counterpart. The IVDMD and DM percentage were higher in barley grain than sprouted barley fodder landraces. Watering at 4 h interval and harvesting at 12<sup>th</sup> day could be recommended for applications for the production of optimum fodder with better nutritive values from hydroponically grown barley. On the basis of this finding, it is also very important to undertake feeding experiments to see dairy performances of cows and/or other feeding trials for evaluating animal performances and economic returns.</em></p> 2022-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/222220 Dairy Cattle Market Participation and Performance in Selected Urban and Peri-urban Areas of Ethiopia 2022-03-01T14:03:36+00:00 Adam Bekele adbk2012@gmail.com Tilaye Teklewold ttddeneke@yahoo.com Stefan Berg adbk2012@gmail.com Henrietta Moore adbk2012@gmail.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>ይህ</em> <em>ጽሁፍ</em> <em>የከተማና</em> <em>ከተማ</em><em>-</em><em>ገብ</em> <em>አባቢዎች</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ከብቶች</em> <em>ግብርናና</em> <em>ልማትን</em> <em>የምርት</em> <em>ገበያ</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>ተሳትፎ</em> <em>የሚፈታተኑ</em> <em>ማነቆዎችን</em> <em>ለመለየትና</em> <em>የማሻሻያ</em> <em>ፖሊሲ</em> <em>ሀሳብ</em> <em>ለማመንጨት</em> <em>በተካሄደ</em> <em>የዳሰሳ</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ተደግፎ</em> <em>ገላጭ</em> <em>እንዲሁም</em> <em>የግብይት</em> <em>ደረጃዎችን</em> <em>መሰረት</em> <em>ያደረገ</em> <em>የኢኮኖሜትሪክስ</em><em> (</em><em>ደብል</em> <em>ኸርድል</em><em>) </em><em>የትንተና</em> <em>ሞዴል</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>የተዘጋጀ</em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>ውጤቱ</em> <em>እንደሚያመለክተው</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ከብት</em> <em>አርቢዎች</em> <em>የገበያ</em> <em>ተሳትፎና</em> <em>የገበያ</em> <em>ስርዓት</em> <em>ያልዳበረና</em> <em>ወደ</em> <em>ልማዳዊ</em><em> (</em><em>ኢ</em><em>-</em><em>መደበኛ</em><em>) </em><em>የግብይት</em> <em>ስርዓት</em> <em>የሚያደላ</em> <em>እንደሆነ</em> <em>በአንጻሩም</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ከብት</em> <em>አርቢዎች</em> <em>የገበያ</em> <em>ተሳትፎአቸው</em> <em>ከቦታ</em> <em>ወደ</em> <em>ቦታ እንዲሁም</em> <em>በከብት</em> <em>ብዛትና</em> <em>በአርቢዎቹ</em> <em>ማህበራዊና</em> <em>ኢኮኖሚያዊ</em> <em>ሁኔታ</em> <em>አንጻር</em> <em>ቢለያይም</em> <em>አብዛኛዎቹ</em> <em>ከመግዛት</em> <em>ይልቅ</em> <em>ወደ</em> <em>መሸጥ</em> <em>ያዘነበሉ</em> <em>መሆናቸው</em> <em>ታውቋል።</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>አርቢዎች</em> <em>ወደ</em> <em>መሸጥ</em> <em>እንዲያዘነብሉ</em> <em>የተገደዱባቸው</em> <em>ምክንያቶች</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ከብቶች</em> <em>ማርቢያ</em> <em>ቦታ</em> <em>እጥረት፣</em> <em>የበሽታ</em> <em>መከሰትና</em> <em>የከብቶች</em> <em>እርጅና</em> <em>መሆናቸው</em> <em>ታውቋል።</em> <em>በሌላ</em> <em>በኩል</em> <em>የአርቢዎቹ</em> <em>የግብይት</em> <em>ውሳኔዎች</em> <em>በሁለት</em> <em>ደረጃዎች</em> <em>የሚከናወንና</em> <em>እያንዳንዱ</em> <em>የውሳኔ</em> <em>ደረጃ</em> <em>በአርቢዎቹ፣</em> <em>በእርባታ</em> <em>ስፍራዎችና</em> <em>ከእርባታ</em> <em>ውጭ</em> <em>በሆኑ</em> <em>ባህርያት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>የተመሰረቱ</em> <em>መሆኑን</em> <em>የትንተናው</em> <em>ውጤት</em> <em>ያመላክታል።</em> <em>እነዚህ</em> <em>ሁኔታዎች</em> <em>ከቀጠሉ</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ልማት</em> <em>ስራው</em> <em>የሚዳከምና</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ምርቱን</em> <em>እጥረት</em> <em>የሚያባብሰው</em> <em>ይሆናል።</em> <em>ስለሆነም</em> <em>በከተማና</em> <em>ዙሪያው</em> <em>ያሉ</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ልማት</em> <em>ፖሊሲዎችና</em> <em>አተገባበራቸውን</em> <em>መፈተሽና</em> <em>ማሻሻል</em> <em>እንዲሁም</em> <em>ህጋዊና</em> <em>ኢ</em><em>-</em><em>መደበኛ</em> <em>ያልሆኑ</em> <em>የግብይት</em> <em>ስርዓቶች</em> <em>እንዲዳብሩ</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ልማትና</em> <em>ግብይት</em> <em>ትስስር</em> <em>ማዕከላት</em> <em>የሚበረታቱበት</em> <em>ሁኔታዎች</em> <em>መፈጠር</em> <em>በተለይም</em><em> &nbsp;</em><em>ለግብይት</em> <em>ተሳትፎ</em> <em>አለመዘመን</em> <em>ሁኔታዎችና</em> <em>ማነቆዎች</em> <em>የአርቢዎቹን</em> <em>የውሳኔ</em> <em>ደረጃዎች</em> <em>መለያየትን</em> <em>በማገናዘብ</em> <em>የምክርና</em> <em>አስተዳደራዊ</em> <em>ድጋፍ</em> <em>መስጠት</em> <em>ለወተት</em> <em>ከብት</em> <em>ግብይትና</em> <em>ልማት</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>ጠቀሜታ</em> <em>ይኖረዋል።</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>This study examined important factors determining the market participation of dairy cattle farmers in selected urban and peri-urban areas of Ethiopia. Descriptive and double-hurdle negative binomial count data (econometric) models were used to analyze the cross-sectional data that was collected from the farmers through a household survey. Results indicate that dairy farmers’ market participation and the marketing system in which they operate are poorly developed and are inclined to be informal. Though dairy farms' market participation varied by region, herd size, and farm owners’ socio-economic characteristics, more involvement was observed in the selling than in the buying of dairy cattle mainly due to limited space, disease incidence, and old age. Results from the econometric model suggest that farm owners’ selling and buying decisions took place in two separate stages (conception and action) and that each stage was influenced by sets of farm owners, farm and non-farm specific characteristics. The implication would be that most of the dairy farms would be forced to close business and the demand and supply gap would continue to persist. Improvement of the existing government attention towards dairy cattle business in urban and peri-urban areas is crucial for achieving better performance in the dairy marketing system and might be achieved through enforcement of urban-dairy production policies and organized (formal) market development such as the establishment of dairy production and cattle marketing hubs in peri-urban areas and training in animal husbandry practices considering the decision-making stages practiced by dairy farmers.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/222224 Responses of Holstein and Boran X Holstein Crossbred Cows to Super-ovulatory Hormones used for In vivo Embryo Production 2022-03-22T08:50:11+00:00 Tamrat Degefa tamgeleto@gmail.com Sayid Ali tamgeleto@gmail.com Mosisa Dirre tamgeleto@gmail.com Asnaku Funga tamgeleto@gmail.com Jeilu Jemal tamgeleto@gmail.com Hamide Jemal tamgeleto@gmail.com Alemayehu Lemma tamgeleto@gmail.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>የ</em><em>ቦስ ኢንዲከስ እና ቦስ ታውረስ የተባሉት የከብቶች ዝርያ ወይም ዲቃሎቻቸው በአንድ ጊዜ በዛ ያለ </em><em>ዕ</em><em>ንቁ</em><em>ላ</em><em>ሎችን እንዲያኮርቱ ለማድረግ ለሚሰጣቸው የሆርሞን ህክምና የተለያየ ምላሽ መስጠታቸው&nbsp; መሰረታዊ የሥነ</em><em>-</em><em>ተዋልዶ ባህሪይ ልዩነት እን</em><em>ዳ</em><em>ላቸው ጥናቶች ያመለክታሉ፡፡&nbsp; በመሆኑም በ</em><em>ፅ</em><em>ንስ የማምረት ሂደት ውስጥ ተጨማሪ ዕንቁላሎችን እንዲያኮርቱ ለማድረግ ተመሳሳይ የአሰራር ሥልት መጠቀም የማይቻል መሆኑን ያሳያል፡፡ ስለዚህ የዚህ ጥናት ዋና ዓላማ ለቦስ ታወረስ የተመረጠ የአሰራር ሥልትን የሆሊስቲን ዲቃላ ለሆኑት የቦረና ላሞች ላይ በቀጥታ ከመጠቀም ይልቅ ምላሻቸውን በመመርኮዝ የአሰራር ሥልት መረጣ ለማድረግ የተደረገ ጥናት ነው፡፡ ይህንን ጥናት ለማድረግ ከ3</em><em> - </em><em>8 ዓመት ዕድሜ ያላቸውን 36 የቦረናና ሆሊሲቲን ዲቃላ ላሞችና ን</em><em>ፁ</em><em>ህ ሆሊስቲን ላሞች ለሙከራው ተጠቅመናል፡፡ በሙከራው ጅምር ላይ ለ7 ቀናት የሚቆይ በብልታቸው ውስጥ ፕሮጄስትሮን ሆርሞን የተነከረ ሲ</em><em>.</em><em>ዳ</em><em>.</em><em>ር</em><em>.</em><em> የተቀመጥ ሲሆን ላ</em><em>ሞ</em><em>ቹን</em> <em>በሦስት ቡድን ተከፍ</em><em>ለ</em><em>ው </em><em>5</em><em>00</em><em>፣</em> <em>65</em><em>0</em> <em>እና </em><em>8</em><em>00 </em><em>አይ</em><em>.</em><em>ዩ</em><em>.</em><em> ፕሉሴት (የ</em><em>ኤፍ</em><em>.</em><em>ኤስ</em><em>.</em><em>ኤች</em><em>. </em><em>እና ኤል ኤች </em><em>ሆርሞን </em><em>ድብልቅ)</em> <em>ከ4ኛ ቀን እስከ 7ኛ ቀን በ12 ሰዓታት ልዩነት ጧትና ማታ </em><em>ተሰ</em><em>ጥቷቸዋል፡፡ በ7ኛ ቀን ከብልታቸው ውስጥ የተቀመጠው ሲ</em><em>.</em><em>ዳ</em><em>.</em><em>ር</em><em>.</em><em> ሲወጣላቸው ኢስትሩሜት ሆርሞን በመውጋት ለ</em><em>72</em><em> ሰዓታት የኮርማ ፍላጎት እንደሚያሳዩ ለማረጋገጥ ክትትል ተደርጓል፡፡ በመቀጠልም ተጨማሪ ዕንቁላል ማኮረታቸውን ለማረጋገጥ አድገው ነግር ግን ያልተለቀቁ ዕንቁላሎችና የተለቀቁ ዕንቁላሎች ብዛት በአልትራሳዎንድ መሳሪያ ተቆጥሯል፡፡ ያልተ</em><em>ፀ</em><em>ነሱ ዕን</em><em>ቁላ</em><em>ሎችና የተፈጠሩ </em><em>ፅ</em><em>ንሶች ተሰብስበው ተቆጥረው ተመዝግቧል፡፡ ተጨማሪ ዕንቁላል እንዲያኮርቱ ሆርሞን ከተወጉ </em><em>ፅ</em><em>ንስ ሰጪ ላሞች ውስጥ ከን</em><em>ፁ</em><em>ህ ሆሊስቲን </em><em>(8.67± 3.06)</em><em> ይልቅ የቦረና እና የሆሊስቲን ዲቃሎች </em><em>(15.45 ± 0.5)</em><em> በቁጥር ከፍ ያለ ዕንቁላል መልቀቃቸውን የሚያሳዩ ምልክቶች እንዳላቸው ታይቷል፡፡ የተሰበሰቡት </em><em>ፅ</em><em>ንሶች ወይም ያልተ</em><em>ፀ</em><em>ነሱ </em><em>ዕ</em><em>ንቁላሎች</em><em>ን</em><em> ቁጥር </em><em>ሲ</em><em>ታይም የቦርና ዲቃሎች ከን</em><em>ፁ</em><em>ህ ሆሊስቲን የበለጠ በዛ ያለ ቁጥር የሰጡ መሆኑ ታይቷል፡፡ በጣም የጎላ ልዩነት ባይኖርም ከሦስቱ የፕሉሴት ዶዝ መጠን ውስጥ የ</em><em>650</em><em> አይ</em><em>.</em><em>ዩ</em><em>.</em><em> የወሰዱት እንስሳት የተሻለ የ</em><em>ፅ</em><em>ንስ ቁጥር እና የተለቀቁ ዕንቁላሎች ብዛት አስገኝቷል፡፡&nbsp; ከአምስቱ የአካል ሁኔታ ምዘና መስፈርት (ከ</em><em>2</em><em>.</em><em>5</em><em> እስከ </em><em>5</em><em> መካከል ያሉት ተወስደው) በ</em><em>3.5</em><em> እና </em><em>3.8</em><em> ነጥብ መካከል ያሉት ላሞች ከፍተኛ ቁጥር ያላቸው ዕንቁላሎችን </em><em>(15.74 ± 0.59፤ 14.33 ±</em> <em>2.90</em><em> በቅደም ተከተል) የሰጡ ሲሆን በ</em><em>3</em><em>.</em><em>8</em><em> ነጥብ ላይ ያሉት በቁጥር የተሻለ ዕንቁላል/</em><em>ፅ</em><em>ንስ ሰጥተዋል፡፡ ከዚህ በመነሳት የቦረና እና የሆሊስቲን ዲቃላ ላሞች ተጨማሪ ዕንቁላል እንዲያኮርቱ ለተሰጣቸው የሆርሞን ህክምና ለአነስተኛ ዶዝ የተሻለ ምላሽ የሚሰጡ መሆኑንና &nbsp;ባለ </em><em>650 </em><em>አይ</em><em>.</em><em>ዩ</em><em>.</em><em> ዶዝ ሆርሞን በሁሉም መስፈርት በቦረና እና ሆሊስቲን ዲቃላ ላሞች ላይ የተሻለ ውጤታማ መሆኑ ተረጋግጧል፡፡ </em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>Variability in the response to super-ovulatory treatments in Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crosses was reported to be a fundamental biological difference in reproductive function between them and has been a major barrier to the adoption of similar superovulation protocols. Therefore, this study was designed to optimize the super-ovulatory protocol for the Boran x Holstein crossbred cows. A total of 36 Boran x Holstein crossbred and pure Holstein cows 3-8 years of age were utilized for this study. A 7-day CIDR treatment was initiated on Day 0, and cows were treated on Days 4-7 with 500, 650, or 800 IU of </em><em>Pluset® (combined FSH and LH product) </em><em>administered at 12-hour intervals in a decreasing dose regimen. Estrumet (Prostaglandin F2α analogue) was given on day 7 before CIDR withdrawal. Each super-ovulated cow was monitored for 72 hours to assess behavioral estrus in response to super-ovulatory treatment. Ovarian response was also assessed by counting the number of corpora lutea and number of un-ovulated follicles via transrectal ultrasound scanning, the number of total collections, and the number of viable embryos. From the super-ovulated donor cows, Boran X Holstein crosses had a higher (P&lt;0.009) number of corpora lutea (15.45 ± 0.5) than pure Holstein (8.67± 3.06). The number of collected embryos/oocytes and the number of viable embryos collected was significantly higher for crossbred cows (p&lt;0.01, p=0.06) than the pure Holstein cows. Although it was not statistically significant, from the three </em><em>Pluset® (combined FSH and LH product)</em><em> dose levels the 650 IU dose have produced a higher response in terms of corpora lutea number and number of collected viable embryos. From the five-scale body condition scoring (Recorded 2.5 to 5) cows with 3.5 and 3.8 scales have produced a higher number of corpora lutea (15.74 ± 0.59; 14.33 ± 2.90, respectively), while those with 3.8 scores had the highest total number of collections (6.33 ± 2.60). From the findings, it can be concluded that Boran X Holstein crossbred cows have a better ovarian response to lower doses of exogenous gonadotropins than pure Holstein cows. The 650IU </em><em>Pluset® </em><em>dose level is the optimal level for superovulation of crossbreeds. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/222227 Occurrence, Associated Risk Factors and Drug Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Isolated from Fish Value Chain, Northwest Ethiopia 2022-03-01T14:34:00+00:00 Birhan Agmas marshetadu@gmail.com Gizachew Gelaw marshetadu@gmail.com Marshet Adugna marshetadu@gmail.com Yechale Teshome marshetadu@gmail.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>ሳልሞኔላ</em> <em>በዓለም</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ከሚተላለፉ</em> <em>ዋና</em> <em>ዋና</em> <em>የምግብ</em> <em>ወለድ</em> <em>በሽታ</em> <em>አምጪ</em> <em>ተህዋሲያን</em> <em>አንዱ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>የዓሳ</em> <em>ምግቦች</em> <em>ደግሞ</em> <em>ለተዋሃሲው</em> <em>መተላለፊያ</em> <em>ዋንኛው</em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>ይህ</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>የተካሄደው</em> <em>በሰሜን</em> <em>ምዕራብ</em> <em>ኢትዮጵያ</em> <em>ካለው</em> <em>የዓሳ</em> <em>ዕሴት</em> <em>ሰንሰለት</em> <em>ያለውን</em> <em>የሳልሞኔላ</em> <em>ክስተት፣</em> <em>መድኃኒትን</em> <em>የመቋቋም</em> <em>ችሎታና</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ተዛማጅ</em> <em>አደጋዎችን</em> <em>ለመገመት</em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>የጥናት</em> <em>ወረዳዎችን፣</em> <em>ቀበሌዎችን</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የማረፊያ</em> <em>ቦታዎችን</em> <em>ለመምረጥ</em> <em>ባለብዙ</em> <em>ደረጃ</em> <em>ናሙና</em> <em>ዘዴ</em> <em>ተተግብሯል።</em> <em>የዓሳ</em> <em>በሳልሞኔላ</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>መብል</em> <em>በተመረጡ</em> <em>ሚዲያዎች</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>በማሳደግና</em> <em>በመለየት</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ተደርጓል፣</em> <em>በመቀጠል</em> <em>አንቲባዮሱም</em> <em>ሳልሞኔላ</em> <em>ፖሊቫን</em><em>-</em><em>ኦን</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>የተለመደው</em> <em>የባዮ-ኬሚካል</em> <em>ምርመራዎች</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የሴሮሎጂ</em> <em>ማረጋገጫ</em> <em>ተሰርቷል።</em> <em>በበሽታው</em> <em>አጋላጭ</em> <em>ሊሆኑ</em> <em>በሚችሉ</em> <em>የአደጋ</em> <em>ምክንያቶች</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>መረጃ</em> <em>የተሰበሰበው</em> <em>በተዋቀረ</em> <em>መጠይቅ</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>አምራቾችን</em> <em>ፊት</em> <em>ለፊት</em> <em>ቃለ</em><em>-</em><em>መጠይቅ</em> <em>በማድረግ</em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>በጥናቱ</em> <em>አካባቢ</em> <em>የሳልሞኔላ</em> <em>አጠቃላይ</em> <em>ስርጭት</em><em> 36.43</em><em>በመቶ</em> <em>ነበር።</em> <em>ከተለዩት</em> <em>የሳልሞኔላ</em> <em>ናሙናዎች</em> <em>መካክል</em><em> 25 </em><em>በመቶው</em> <em>ቢያንስ</em> <em>በአንድ</em> <em>መድሃኒት</em> <em>የመቋቋም</em> <em>ችሎታ</em> <em>አሳይቷል።</em><em> Ciprofloxacin (CIP-5μg) </em><em>ከፍተኛው</em> <em>የሳልሞኔላ</em> <em>መድሃኒት</em> <em>መቋቋም</em><em> (9.8</em><em>በመቶ</em><em>) </em><em>ሲሆነ</em> <em>ሲፍታዚዲሜ</em><em> (CAZ-30μg) </em><em>በተከታይ</em><em> 5.88</em><em>በመቶ</em> <em>ሆኖ</em> <em>ተገኝቷል።</em> <em>ሁለት</em> <em>የሳልሞኔላ</em> <em>ናሙናዎች</em><em> (3.92</em><em>በመቶ</em><em>) </em><em>ለሶስት</em> <em>አንቲባዮቲኮች</em> <em>የመቋቋም</em> <em>ችሎታ</em> <em>አሳይተዋል።</em> <em>የሳልሞኔላ</em> <em>መከሰትን</em> <em>በተናጥል</em> <em>የሚገመቱ</em> <em>ምክንያቶች</em> <em>ብክለት</em><em> 1.06 (95</em><em>በመቶ</em><em> CI: 1.04</em><em>፣</em><em> 5.4) </em><em>፣</em> <em>በረዶ</em> <em>ቤት</em> <em>ያልተቀመጠ</em> <em>ዓሳ</em><em> 2.2 (95</em><em>በመቶ </em><em>&nbsp;CI: 1.09 </em><em>፣</em><em> 11.41) </em><em>እና</em> <em>ደካማ</em> <em>አያያዝ</em><em> 1.8 (95</em><em>በመቶ</em><em> CI: 1.02 </em><em>፣</em><em> 13.32) </em><em>ናቸው።</em> <em>በአጠቃላይ</em> <em>የጥናታችን</em> <em>ውጤት</em> <em>ሳልሞኔላ</em> <em>ለዓሳ</em> <em>የምግብ</em> <em>መበከል</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የህዝብ</em> <em>ጤና</em> <em>አደጋ</em> <em>ሊጥል</em> <em>ይችላል።</em> <em>ስለዚህ</em> <em>ችግሩን</em> <em>ለማቃለል</em> <em>የግንዛቤ</em> <em>ማስጨበጫ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በአጠቃላይ</em> <em>አዲስ</em> <em>ተገቢ</em> <em>የጥራት</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>ቁጥጥር</em> <em>ርምጃዎች</em> <em>መተግበር</em> <em>አለባቸው።</em> <em>በሰሜን</em><em>-</em><em>ምዕራብ</em> <em>ኢትዮጵያ</em> <em>የዓሳ</em> <em>ፍጆታን</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>የሳልሞኔሎሲስ</em> <em>አደጋን</em> <em>ለመቀነስ</em> <em>በማረፊያ</em> <em>ጣቢያዎች፣</em> <em>በዓሳ</em> <em>ቸርቻሪዎች፡</em> <em>በሆቴሎች</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በምግብ</em> <em>ቤቶች</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>ብክለትን</em> <em>ለማስወገድ</em> <em>በዓሳ</em> <em>ዕ</em><em>ሴት</em> <em>ሰንሰለት</em> <em>መካከል</em> <em>ንፅህናን</em> <em>ማሻሻል</em> <em>ወሳኝ</em> <em>ነው።</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><strong>Salmonella</strong><em> is one of the major foodborne pathogens worldwide that fish food as one of the vehicles for its transmission. The study was conducted to estimate the occurrence, drug-resistant profile, and associated risk factors of Salmonella isolated from the fish value chain in Northwest Ethiopia. A multistage sampling technique was applied to select study districts, kebeles, and landing sites. Salmonella contamination of fish muscle was tested using selective media, followed by conventional biochemical tests and serological confirmation, using Antiserum Salmonella Polyvalent-O. Salmonella enumeration was accomplished using a traditional three-tube Most Probable Number (MPN) approach. Data on potential risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire through a face-to-face interview. Data were entered and analyzed using STATA version 12.&nbsp; The overall prevalence of Salmonella in the study area was 36.4 %. Twenty-five percent of Salmonella isolates showed resistance to at least one drug. Ciprofloxacin (CIP-5μg) was found to be the highest Salmonella drug resistance (9.8%) followed by Ceftazidime (CAZ-30μg) 5.9%. Two isolates (3.9%) of salmonella were resistant to three antibiotics. Factors that independently predict the occurrence of Salmonella were the presence of contamination 1.06 (95 % CI: 1.04, 5.4), non-iced fish after landing 2.2 (95 % CI: 1.09, 11.41), and poor handling practice 1.8 (95 % CI: 1.02, 13.32). In conclusion, our study results highlighted Salmonella as a potential fish origin food contaminant and a public health risk. Therefore, appropriate control measures, including awareness-raising and the creation of a new code of quality in general, should be implemented to mitigate the problem. Improving hygiene along the fish value chains to avoid cross-contamination at landing sites, fish retailers, hotels and restaurants is crucial to reduce the risk of salmonellosis through fish consumption in North-Western Ethiopia</em><em>. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/222233 Black Soldier Fly (Hermetiaillucens) Larvae as a Sustainable Source of Protein in Poultry Feeding: A Review 2022-03-01T14:40:26+00:00 Chala Edea chalaedea@gmail.com Etalem Tesfaye chalaedea@gmail.com Tekalegn Yirgu chalaedea@gmail.com Misba Alewi chalaedea@gmail.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>በታዳጊ አገር የሚገኙ ዶሮ አርቢዎች በአሁን ጊዜ ከፍተኛ የሆነ የዶሮ መኖ ዋጋ እና ዝቅተኛ ጥራት ያለው መኖ ችግር እያጋጠማቸው ይገኛል፡፡ በራሪ-ነፍሳት ዕምቅ የዶሮ መኖ የአካል-ገንቢ ምንጭ ናቸው፡፡ በራሪ-ነፍሳትን ለዶሮ መኖነት መጠቀም ከሰው ምግብ ጋር ምንም ዓይነት ቀጥተኛ የሆነ ሽሚያ የለውም፡፡ በመሆኑም የዚህ ጽሑፍ ዓላማ በራሪ ነፍሳት በሆነው ጥቁር-ዝንብ ዕጭ ዙሪያ በዓለም ደረጃ ለዶሮ የአካል-ገንቢ መኖነት የተሰሩ ስራዎችን በማጣቀስ እና በአንድ በማድረግ በሃገራችን ተጨባጭ ሁኔታ በአማራጭነት ወደትግበራ እንዲገባ ለማመላከት ነው፡፡ የጥቁር-ዝንብ ዕጭ ጉዳት አልባ በራሪ-ነፍሳት ሲሆን ተጓዳኝ ጠቀሜታውም በዋናነት ለዶሮ እና ዓሳ ርባታ እንደ ዋና አማራጭ የአካል-ገንቢ መኖ ምንጭነት፤ የተፈጥሮ ቆሻሻን በማምከንና ጥቅም ላይ እንዲውል በማድረግ ረገድ ከፍተኛ አስተዋጽዖ አለው፡፡ አብዛኛው የጥናት ውጤቶች አንደሚጠቁሙት የጥቁር-ዝንብ ድቁስ ዕጭ ጤናማና አዋጭ የሆነ ከፍተኛ የአካል-ገንቢ ይዘት ያለው የዶሮ መኖ ለማቀናበር የጎላ አስተዋጽዖ ያደርጋል፡፡ የዚህ በራሪ-ነፍሳት ዕጭ ከፍተኛ የሆነ ካልሲየም፤ ፎስፈረስ እንዲሁም ከ35-42 በመቶ የሚደርስ የአካል-ገንቢ ይዘት ያለው ሲሆን የመዋሃድ ባህሪውም ከፍተኛ እና ከአኩሪ አተር ዘይት ጭማቂ ጋር ተነጻጻሪ ነው፡፡ መረጃዎች እንደሚጠቁሙት የጥቁር-ዝንብ ድቁስ ዕጭ ይዘት በዶሮ መኖ ውስጥ ወሳኝ የሆኑት አሚኖ-አሲድ ይዘት ያላቸውን እንደ ላይሲን እና ሜታዬኒን መጠን ከተፈጨ ስጋና ዓሳ ጋር ተነጻጻሪ ነው፡፡ የብዙ ተመራማሪዎች ውጤት እንደሚያመለክተው የጥቁር-ዝንብ ድቁስ ዕጭ በዕንቁላል ጣይና ስጋ ዶሮ አመጋገብ ሂደት ውስጥ ምንም ዓይነት የጎንዬሽ ጉዳት የሌለውና የሚያስገኘው ውጤትም የአኩሪ አተር ዘይት ጭማቂ እና የተፈጨ ዓሳ ተረፈ- ምርት ከተመገቡት ጋር ተነጻጻሪ ነው፡፡ በተጨማሪም ምርምር ውጤቶች እንደሚጠቁሙት የጥቁር-ዝንብ ድቁስ ዕጭ ለዕንቁላል ጣይ ዶሮ መመገብ የዕንቁላል ምርትና ጥራት እንደሚጨምር ይጠቁማል፡፡ እንደማጠቃለያ ለማጣቀሻነት የተወሰዱት የምርምር ጽሑፎች እንደሚጠቁሙት የጥቁር-ዝንብ ድቁስ ዕጭ ሙሉ-ለሙሉ ወይም በከፊል የአካል ገንቢ ምንጭነት የሚውሉትን እንደ አኩሪ አተር ዘይት ጭማቂና የተፈጨ የዓሳ ተረፈ-ምርትን በመተካት ጥቅም ላይ ሊውል እንደሚችል ያመላክታል፡፡ ሰለሆነም ይህን የጥቁር-ዝንብ ድቁስ ዕጭ በዶሮ መኖ ማቀነባበር ሂደት ውስጥ መጠቀም አዋጭና አከባቢያዊ ጠቀሜታ አለው፡፡</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>&nbsp;Currently, poultry producers in developing countries are facing problems of high cost and poor quality of poultry feed. Insects are one of the potential protein sources for poultry feed. The use of insects as poultry feed is not in direct competition with human for food consumption. The objective of this paper is to review the current work related to the use of Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae meal as an alternative protein source in poultry feeding. Black soldier fly is a harmless insect serving as an alternative protein source in animal feeding and in the disposal of organic wastes, by-products, and side streams. The results of numerous studies showed that BSF larvae meal could safely and economically be used as protein concentrate in poultry ration.&nbsp; BSF larva contains high calcium and phosphorus and contains about 35-42% crude protein with biological value and comparable amino acid profile to that of soybean meal (SBM). The lysine and methionine contents of BSF larva are comparable to that of meat meal. Recent evidence suggests that the nutritional value of BSF larva is comparable to that of fish meal.&nbsp;&nbsp; Many authors suggested that BSF larvae meal could replace a fish meal or upgrade the nutritive value of SBM in broiler diets without any adverse effect on the production performance. The use of BSF larvae in layers diet resulted in enhanced laying performance and egg qualities.&nbsp; Generally, all the available literature confirms the feasibility of total or partial replacement of fish meal and SBM with BSF larvae meal. No negative effects were reported from growing chicks fed on BSF larvae meal. Most of the publications reviewed indicated that the growth of chicks fed with BSF larvae meal was either equivalent or superior to SBM in nutritive value as measured by the production performance of growing and laying birds.&nbsp;&nbsp; Therefore, the inclusion of BSF larvae meal into the poultry feeding system has both economic and environmental benefits.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/222237 Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Crossbred Dairy Cattle in the Central Ethiopia 2022-03-01T14:49:42+00:00 Direba Hunde direbahunde@yahoo.com Yosef Tadesse direbahunde@yahoo.com Tesfaye Getachew direbahunde@yahoo.com Million Tadesse mill_tadsse@yahoo.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>የዚህ</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ዓላማ</em> <em>በመካከለኛው</em> <em>ኢትዮጵያ</em> <em>ምርታማና</em> <em>አካባቢን</em> <em>የሚላመዱ</em> <em>ዲቃላ</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ከብቶች</em> <em>ዝርያዎችን</em> <em>በቀጣይነት</em> <em>ለማፍራት</em> <em>በተሻለ</em> <em>የማሻሻያ</em> <em>ስልት</em> <em>ለመደገፍ</em> <em>የዝርያዎች</em> <em>ንጽጽር</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የዘረ</em><em>-</em><em>ውርስ</em> <em>ሂደት</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ለማካሄድ</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>ጥናቱ</em> <em>የቦረና</em> <em>እና</em><em> 11 </em><em>አይነት</em> <em>የዲቃላ</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ከብቶች</em> <em>ዝርያዎችን</em><em> (</em><em>የፍሬዥያን</em> <em>ከቦረና</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የጀርሲ</em> <em>ከቦረና</em> <em>ድቅሎች</em><em>) </em><em>የ</em><em>38 </em><em>ዓመት</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ምርት፣</em> <em>የስነተዋልዶ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>አከባቢን</em> <em>የመላመድ</em> <em>ብቃት</em> <em>መረጃዎቸን</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>ተከናውኗል፡፡</em> <em>ውጤቱ</em> <em>እንደሚያሳየው</em> <em>የተለያዩ</em> <em>የዲቃላ</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>ከቦረና</em> <em>ላሞች</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ሲነጻጸሩ</em> <em>ከ</em><em> 3 </em><em>አስከ</em><em> 7 </em><em>እጥፍ</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ይሰጣሉ፡፡</em> <em>የዲቃላ</em> <em>ላሞች</em> <em>ቀጣይ</em> <em>ትውልዶች</em> <em>የደም</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>በ</em><em>50 </em><em>በመቶ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ከመጠበቅ</em> <em>ይልቅ</em> <em>ወደ</em><em> 75 </em><em>በመቶ</em> <em>የውጭ</em> <em>ደም</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>ማሳደጉ</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ምርትን</em> <em>በ</em><em>34 </em><em>በመቶ</em> <em>ያሳድጋል፡፡</em> <em>ነገር</em> <em>ግን</em> <em>የስነተዋልዶ</em> <em>ብቃታቸው</em> <em>በጥቂቱ</em> <em>ስለሚቀንስ</em> <em>የከብቶች</em> <em>መረጣ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ትኩረት</em> <em>ሊደረግ</em> <em>ይገባል፡፡</em> <em>የፍሬዥያን</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የጀርሲ</em> <em>ዝርያዎችን</em> <em>ለማዳቀል</em> <em>መጠቀማችን</em> <em>የዲቃላ</em> <em>ከብቶች</em> <em>የመጀመሪያ</em> <em>ትውልድ</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ምርትና</em> <em>የስነተዋልዶ</em> <em>ብቃታቸውን</em> <em>በከፍተኛ</em> <em>ደረጃ</em> <em>ቢያሻሽልም</em><em> (additive and heterosis) </em><em>በቀጣይ</em> <em>ትውልድ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ግን</em> <em>በ</em><em> recombination loss </em><em>ምክንያት</em> <em>ምርታማነታቸው</em> <em>በከፍተኛ</em> <em>ደረጃ</em> <em>ቀንሷል፡፡</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ምርት፣</em> <em>የሚታለቡበት</em> <em>የቀን</em> <em>ብዛት</em><em> (lactation length)</em><em>፣</em> <em>የመጀመሪያ</em> <em>ጥጃ</em> <em>የመውለጃ</em> <em>ዕድሜ፣</em> <em>በወሊድ</em> <em>መካከል</em> <em>የቆይታ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በእርባታ</em> <em>የሚቆዩበት</em> <em>ጊዜ</em><em> (herd life) </em><em>የዘረ</em><em>-</em><em>ውርስ</em><em> (</em><em>የመተላለፍ</em> <em>አቅም፤</em><em> heritability) </em><em>መጠን</em> <em>በቅደም</em> <em>ተከተል</em><em> 0.30±0.00</em><em>፣</em><em> 0.18±0.02</em><em>፣</em><em> 0.19±0.06</em><em>፣</em><em> 0.09±0.03 </em><em>እና</em><em> 0.28±0.06&nbsp; </em><em>ናቸው፡፡</em> <em>የዝርያ</em> <em>ባህሪያት</em> <em>ተዛምዶ</em><em> (genetic correlation of traits) </em><em>በተመለከተ</em> <em>በወተት</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በሚታለቡበት</em> <em>የቀን</em> <em>ብዛት</em><em> (0.84±0.04)</em><em>፣</em> <em>በሚታለቡበት</em> <em>የቀን</em> <em>ብዛት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በወሊድ</em> <em>መካከል</em> <em>የቆይታ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em><em> (0.86±0.10) </em><em>እንዲሁም</em> <em>በሚታለቡበት</em> <em>የቀን</em> <em>ብዛት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በእርባታ</em> <em>የሚቆዩበት</em> <em>ጊዜ</em><em> (0.94±0.07) </em><em>መካከል</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>ተዛምዶ</em> <em>ታይቷል</em><em>:: </em><em>በአጠቃላይ</em> <em>ውጤቱ</em> <em>በዲቃላ</em> <em>ከብቶች</em> <em>መካከል</em> <em>የታየው</em> <em>የምርት</em> <em>ልዩነት፣</em> <em>ዘረ</em><em>-</em><em>ውርስ</em> <em>መጠን፣</em> <em>የዝርያ</em> <em>ባህሪያት</em> <em>ተዛምዶ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በትውልዶች</em> <em>መካከል</em> <em>ያለው</em> <em>የምርት</em> <em>መዋዠቅ</em> <em>የዲቃላ</em> <em>ከብቶችን</em> <em>በመረጣ</em> <em>ለማሻሻል</em> <em>እንደሚቻል</em> <em>የሚያመለክትና</em> <em>ለዚሁም</em> <em>ተስማሚ</em> <em>የማሻሻያ</em> <em>ስልት</em><em> (breeding program) </em><em>መንደፍ</em> <em>እንደሚያስፍልግ</em> <em>አመልክቷል፡፡</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Abstract&nbsp;</p> <p><em>The aim of this study was to estimate the additive, heterosis, recombination loss, heritabilities, and correlations between milk yield (MY), lactation length (LL), calving interval (CI), age at first calving (AFC), and herd life (HL) for crossbred of Friesian (F) and Jersey (J) with Boran (B). Analysis of fixed effects and crossbreeding parameters were undertaken using a general linear procedure. Genetic parameters were estimated by multivariate analysis procedure with wombat software. Crossbred cows significantly outperform the B cows by 3 to 7 folds of MY per lactation. </em><em>Even though the performance of CI and AFC are slightly compromised, upgrading from 1/2F:1/2B (F1) to 3/4F:1/4B (F1) had a better advantage as average MY improved by about 34% following this approach. The additive effects of F and J breed were </em><em>3985.2±150 and 1195.6±257 kg for MY, </em><em>166.3±16 and 18.5±27 days for LL, 52.9±25 and -40.3±44 days for CI, -0.23±2 and -9.8±4 months for AFC, and 548.7±431 and -569.9±784 days for HL, respectively. </em><em>The estimated heterosis effects were 1054.8</em><em>±145</em><em> and -150. 6</em><em>±76 </em><em>kg for MY, 62.4</em><em>±15</em><em> and -7.3</em><em>±8</em><em> days for LL, -58.1</em><em>±24</em><em> and -88.7</em><em>±13</em><em> days for CI, -1.9</em><em>±3</em><em> and -4.7</em><em>±1</em><em> months for AFC and -215.0</em><em>±446</em><em> and -890.1</em><em>±226</em><em> days for HL for J and F with B breed crosses, respectively. The loss due to recombination of F and B was significant (p &lt; 0.005) and undesirable for MY, LL, AFC which reflect the need for an appropriate breeding program. The heritability (h<sup>2</sup>) estimates were </em><em>0.30±0.00 for </em><em>MY, </em><em>0.18±0.02 for LL, 0.09±0.03 for CI, 0.19±0.06 for AFC and 0.28±0.06 for HL. </em><em>Strong genetic correlations were obtained between MY and LL (</em><em>0.84±0.04)</em><em>, LL and CI (</em><em>0.86±0.10),</em><em> and LL and HL (</em><em>0.94±0.07). </em><em>The estimated genetic variance, heritabilities, and correlations between traits and decline in the performance of inter-se generations reveal the available potential of improvement through selection and the need of designing appropriate breeding programs.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/222317 Seed-Business Oriented Demonstration Trials: An Efficient Option to Promote Tef (Eragrostis tef ) Varieties 2022-03-03T06:55:33+00:00 Abate Bekele abatebekele98@gmail.com Solomon Chanyalew solchk2@gmail.com Tebkew Damte tebkew@yahoo.com Nigussu Husien abatebekele98@gmail.com Worku Kebede abatebekele98@gmail.com Kidist Tolosa abatebekele98@gmail.com Yazachew Genet abatebekele98@gmail.com Kebebew Assefa kebebew.assefa@yahoo.com Demeke Nigussie demekena@gmail.com Dominik Klauser abatebekele98@gmail.com Zerihun Tadele abatebekele98@gmail.com <p>አህፅሮት</p> <p><em>ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ጤፍ (</em><strong>Eragrostis tef</strong><strong><em>)</em></strong><em> ከ6.5 ሚሊዮን በሚበልጡ አነስተኛ አርሶ አደሮች ይመረታል፡፡ ሆኖም ግን የተሻሻሉ ቴክኖሎጂዎችና የምርጥ ዘር ተጠቃሚነት ውስን በመሆኑ የሰብሉ ምርታማነት ዝቅተኛ እንደሆነ ቀጥሏል፡፡ ስለሆነም አነስተኛ አርሶ አደሮች ጥራቱ</em><em>ን</em><em> ለጠበቀ የጤፍ አራቢ ዘር ያላቸውን ተደራሽነት ለመጨመር ዓላማ ያደረገ ጥናት በ254 መሪ</em> <em>አርሶ አደሮች ማሳ ላይ ተካሂዷል፡፡ በጥናቱም በቅርብ ጊዜ የተለቀቁ ሦስት አዳዲስ ዝርያዎች እና አንድ ቀደም ብሎ የተለቀቀ ዝርያ (ቦሰት) ተካተው ተገምግመዋል፡፡ ለእያንዳንዱ መሪ-አርሶ አደር የአራቱም ዝርያዎች ማለትም የኮራ፣ የተስፋ፣ የዳግም እና የቦሰት አራቢ ዘር&nbsp; ተሰጥቷል፡፡ </em><em>የአራቱ ዝርያዎች የዘር ምርት ተቀራራቢ (ኮራ = 1.94፣ ተስፋ = 2.31፣ ዳግም = 2.24 እና ቦሰት = 2.36 ቶን በሄክታር) ነበር፡፡ ጥናቱ በተካሄደባቸው ወረዳዎች ያለው</em><em>ን</em> <em>የግብዓት ዋጋ እና የምርት ዋጋ እሳቤ ውስጥ ሲገባ የተገኘው አማካይ ያልተጣራ ገቢ 65,355.90 ብር በሄክታር ሲሆን አማካይ የማምረቻ ወጪው ደግሞ 26,355.52 ብር በሄክታር ነበር፡፡ ከማምረቻ ወጪዎች መካከል ለጉልበት የወጣው ወጪ ትልቁን ድርሻ ሲይዝ ከጠቅላላው ወጪ 58 በመቶ ድርሻ ነበረው፡፡ በአጠቃላይ የገቢ-ወጪ ምጣኔ 1.5 በመሆኑ የተሻሻለ የጤፍ ዝርያ ቴክኖሎጂ መጠቀም በጣም ትርፋማ እንደሆነ </em><em>ጥናቱ </em><em>ያ</em><em>መልክታል</em><em>፡፡ ይህም በመሆኑ አዳዲስ የሚወጡ የጤፍ ዝርያዎችን ዘር</em><em> አባዝቶ</em> <em>ለገብያ ማቅረብን ትኩረት ያደረገ የሰርቶ</em> <em>ማሳያ ስራ ቢሰራ ለአርሶ አደሮች ሳቢ</em><em>ና አዋጭ</em> <em>ሆኖ ተገኝትዋል</em><em>፡፡</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ጠቋሚ ቃላት</strong>፡ መሪ አርሶ አደሮች፤ የጤፍ ዝርያዎች፤ የምርጥ ዘር ምርት፤ የጤፍ ጭድ፤ የምርት ዋጋ &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>Tef (</em><strong>Eragrostis tef)</strong><em> is extensively cultivated by over 6.5 million smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. However, the productivity of the crop remains low mainly due to the limited use of improved technologies including seeds. In this study, three recently released and one old (as a check) tef varieties were evaluated on 254 lead farmers’ fields with the main aim of increasing farmers’ access to quality breed seeds.Each lead farmer was provided with breeder seeds of four improved tef varieties, namely Kora, Tesfa, Dagim, and Boset.The seed yield from the four tef varieties were comparable (Kora = 1.94, Tesfa = 2.31, Dagim =2.24 and Boset = 2.36 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Given the input and output prices that prevail in the selected districts, the mean revenue was 65,355.90 Birr ha<sup>-1</sup> while the mean production cost was 26,355.52 Birr ha<sup>-1</sup>. Among production costs, labor took for the lion’s share as it contributed to 58% of the total cost.&nbsp;&nbsp; In general, with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.5, our technology is highly profitable and attractive to farmers if newly released tef varieties are disseminated in the seed-business-oriented method.</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2022-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)