https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/issue/feed Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2021-11-10T13:09:05+00:00 Sofia Kassa (PhD) sofkass28@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>EJAS is to provide readers with original scientific research, both basic and applied, with far reaching implications of Ethiopian agriculture. Thus, EJAS seeks to publish those papers that are most influential in Ethiopian agriculture and that will significantly advance scientific understanding of agriculture.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals" href="http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals</a></p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/217055 Genotype by Environment Interactions and Yield of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Varieties Across the Diverse Agro-ecologies of Ethiopia 2021-11-08T08:31:46+00:00 Tewodros Tesfaye tesfaye.tewodros@yahoo.com Kassahun Tesfaye tesfaye.tewodros@yahoo.com Gemechu Keneni gemechukeneni@yahoo.com Tesfahun Alemu tesfaye.tewodros@yahoo.com <h2><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></h2> <p><em>ሰ</em><em>ሊጥ</em> <em>በኢትዮጵያ</em> <em>በስፋትና</em> <em>በብዛት</em> <em>ከሚመረቱ </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>እና </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ለውጭ ገበያ ከሚቀርቡ የቅባት</em> <em>እህሎች</em> <em>አንዱ</em> <em>ነው፡፡</em> <em>ይሁንና</em> <em>በሰሊጥ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ስለ ዝርያ</em> <em>ሁኔታ፣</em> <em>በሚመረትበት</em> <em>አካባቢ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>በተለያዩ</em> <em>አካባቢዎች</em> <em>ሲዘሩ</em> <em>የሚያሳዩትን</em> <em>ፀባይ</em> <em>የሚያሳይ</em> <em>ሙሉ</em> <em>መረጃ</em> <em>ባለመኖሩ</em> <em>ምርታማነቱ</em> <em>በጣም</em> <em>ዝቅተኛ</em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>ይህን</em> <em>ጥናት ለማካሄድ</em> <em>በ</em><em>16</em> <em>የሰሊጥ</em> <em>ዝርያዎችና</em> <em>በ</em><em>19</em><em> የተለያዩ</em> <em>የሀገሪቱ</em> <em>ሰሊጥ</em> <em>አምራች</em> <em>አካባቢዎች</em> <em>ለሁለት</em> <em>የምርት</em> <em>ዓመታት</em> <em>ተገምግማውል፡፡</em> <em>በተጨማሪም</em> <em>ለጥናቱ</em> <em>አስፈላጊ</em> <em>የሆኑ</em> <em>መረጃዎች</em> <em>ተሰብስበዋል። ጥናቱ</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>እንደሚያሳየው</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>ሙከራ</em> <em>የተከናወነባቸው</em> <em>ቦታዎች</em> <em>በስድስት</em> <em>ምድብ</em> <em>የተመደቡ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>አካባቢ</em> <em>7, 13,</em> <em>እና</em> <em>14</em> <em>በምድብ</em> <em>አንድ፣ በምድብ</em> <em>ሁለት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ሶስት</em> <em>በተከታታይ</em> <em>የተመደቡ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>በተጨማሪ</em> <em>በየምድቡ</em> <em>እንደ</em> <em>ዋና</em> <em>የመፈተሻ</em> <em>ቦታ</em> <em>ሆነው</em> <em>ያገለግላሉ።</em> <em>በዚህም</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>ምርታማነት</em> <em>ያላቸውን</em> <em>የሰሊጥ</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>በአነስተኛ</em> <em>ወጭ</em> <em>ለመምረጥ</em> <em>ያስችላል።</em> <em>በተያይዥነት</em> <em>አካባቢ</em> <em>1,18</em> <em>እና</em> <em>19</em> <em>ለምድብ</em> <em>አራት፣</em> <em>አምስት፣</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ስድስትን</em><em> በብቸኝነት የተመደቡ እና </em><em>የሚወክሉ</em> <em>የመፈተሻ</em> <em>ቦታ</em> <em>ሁነው</em> <em>በተከታታይ</em> <em>ተመርጠዋል።</em> <em>ሙከራው</em> <em>ከተከናዎነባቸው</em> <em>አካባቢዎች</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>አካባቢ</em> <em>16</em> <em>እና</em> <em>አካባቢ</em> <em>17</em> <em>ለሰሊጥ</em> <em>ምርምር</em> <em>ማከናዎኛ</em> <em>ተመራጭ</em> <em>ቦታ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>በእነዚህ</em> <em>አካባቢዎች</em> <em>የተዘሩ</em> <em>የሰሊጥ</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>የተሻለ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ይሰጣሉ።</em> <em>በሙከራው</em> <em>ከተፈተሹ ዝርያዎች</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>ሰቲት</em> <em>1</em> <em>በምርታማነት</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>እና</em> <em>በተለያዩ</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>አካባቢዎች</em> <em>ባለው</em> <em>ተስማሚነት</em> <em>ተመራጭ</em> <em>የሆነ</em> <em>ዝርያ</em> <em>ሲሆን </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ይህ</em> <em>ዝርያ</em> <em>በቀጥታ</em> <em>ለተጠቃሚ</em> <em>እንዲሰራጭ</em> <em>ማድረግና</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በማዳቀል</em> <em>ስራው</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>ውስጥ</em> <em>ለተለያዩ</em> <em>ባህርያት</em> <em>ምንጭነት</em> <em>መጠቀም</em> <em>ይቻላል።</em></p> <h2>&nbsp;</h2> <h2>Abstract</h2> <p><em>Sesame is an important oil crop both in area coverage and production in Ethiopia, serving one of the major export crops. However, productivity is low because of a lack of detailed information about genotypes, environment, and their interaction. Sixteen sesame varieties were evaluated at nineteen environments and grain yield and yield components were analyzed. Analysis of variance was computed and GGE-biplot and AMMI approaches were used. Environments were divided into six groups. E7, E13, and E14 were highly discriminating and representative in the first, second and third groups, respectively, and identified as a core test site in that group, which would be used to facilitate the identification of superior sesame varieties and reduce testing costs While E1, E18, and E19 were identified as the only test site in groups four, five, and six. Among all Ethiopian representative sesame sites, E16 and E17 were close to the ideal environment, which is suitable to select widely adapted genotypes. Setit-1 as the ideal variety in terms of yield and stability across variable environments, which could serve the most desirable genotype to be directly recommended for farmers’ use and to be used as source material for breeding that targets high-yielding and stable genotypes. </em></p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/217057 Heterosis, Combining Ability and Heritability for Resistance to Coffee Wilt Disease in Arabica Coffee 2021-11-10T06:46:08+00:00 Admikew Getaneh adamget21@gmail.com Girma Adugna adamget21@gmail.com Sentayehu Alamerew adamget21@gmail.com <p>አህፅሮት</p> <p>የቡና ምርትና ምርታማነት ከሚቀንሱ የቡና በሽታዎች መካከል የቡና ግንድ አድርቅ በሽታ ከፍተኛውን ድርሻ ይይዛል፡፡ ይህን በሽታ በተለያየ መጠን የመቌቌም ችሎታ ያላቸው የቡና ጀኖታይፖች በመጠቀም የዘር ውርስ ሂደቱን &nbsp;ወይም የመቌቌም ስነባህሪውን በማጥናት በሽታውን ለመከላከል የሚያስችል የመሻሻያ መንገዶችን ለመቀየስ ጥናት ማድረግ &nbsp;አስፈላጊ በመሆኑ የምርምር ስራው ተካሂዷል፡፡ ይህ ጥናት ሰምንት የእናት ቡና ጀኖታይፖችንና ከነዚህ የተገኙ&nbsp; 28 የመጀመሪያ ድቃዮችን&nbsp; እንዲሁም አንድ በበሽታው የሚጠቃ ማነፃፀሪያ በመጠቀም ተካሂዷል፡፡ በ2007/8 ዓ.ም&nbsp; በጥናቱ ላይ የተካተቱት &nbsp;የቡና ጀኖታይፖች ለበሽታው ያላቸውን አቌም በጅማ ግብርና ምርምር የእፅዋት ጥበቃ ግሪን ሃውስና ላብራቶሪ ውስጥ በመከተብ &nbsp;ተገምግመዋል፡፡ በሽታውን በተከተቡ ችግኞች ላይ የደረቁ የቡና ችግኖች ብዛት በፐርሰንት፤ የበሽታ ምልክት የሚታይበት የጊዜ ርዝመት፤በበሽታው የረገፉና ወደ ቢጫነት የተለወጡ የቅጠል ብዛት መረጃዎችን በመውሰድ የተለያዩ ስታስቲካዊ ዘዴዎችንና ፓኬጆችን በመጠቀም የመረጃ ትንተና ተደርጓል፡፡ በዚህ ጥናት መሰረት የደረቁ ችግኖች ብዛት በመቀነስ፤ የበሽታ ምልክት የሚታይበት የጊዜ ርዝመት በማሳጠርና በበሽታው የሚረገፉ የቅጠል ብዛት በመቀነስ ረገድ ያላቸው የሃይለድቅል መጠን በሽታውን ሊቌቌም በሚየስችል ሁኔታ ወይም በሚፈለገው ደረጃ መሻሻል አላሳየም፡፡ እናት ቡናዎች <em>P2 (971)፤ P7 (974)፤ P8 (370 እና P5</em>(79233)<em> በሽታ የመቌቌም ባህሪያቸውን ለድቃዮቻቸው በማስተላለፍ ከፍተኛ የሆነ ድርሻ እንዳላቸው ታውቌል፡፡ በተመሳሳይ ሁኔታ P7 x P8 (974 x 370) እና&nbsp; P4 x P8 (8136 x 370) ድቃዮች በጥሩ ሁኔታ&nbsp; በሽታውን የመቌቌም አቅም አሳይተዋል፡፡ በተጨማሪም ይህን በሽታ የሚቌቌሙ የቡና ጀኖታይፖች የመቌቌም ስነባህሪያቸው እስከ 68.61% የመሻሻልና የመተላለፍ አቅም ከፍተኛ&nbsp; መሆኑ በጥናቱ ተረጋግጧል፡፡ </em>በአጠቃላይ በዚህ ጥናት መሰረት የቡና ግንድ አድርቅ በሽታን የመቌቌም ስነባህሪን በመረጣና ከድቀላ በኋላ የዘርሀረግን መሰረት አድርጎ መረጣ በማካሄድ ማሻሻል እንደሚቻል ታውቌል፡፡</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h1>Abstract</h1> <p><em>Combining ability, heterosis, and heritability studies can provide valuable information for designing appropriate breeding programs for resistance to coffee wilt disease (CWD) caused by Gibberella xylarioides. The objective of this study was conducted to determine heterosis, combining ability, and heritability for resistance to CWD using an eight-parent half diallel cross (eight parents and 28 F1 hybrids). A susceptible control was used as a reference. All entities were artificially inoculated by the pathogen in a greenhouse and evaluated for CWD at Jimma Agricultural Research Center (JARC), Ethiopia in 2015/16. The reactions of inoculated genotypes were measured as a percent of wilted seedling, incubation period, and a number of yellow and defoliated leaves. Combined analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for the characters measured. &nbsp;Better-parent heterosis (BPH) and mid-parent heterosis (MPH) for percent of wilted seedlings and the number of defoliated leaves showed negligible heterosis in a desirable direction. However, considerable MPH was noticed for an extended</em> <em>incubation period. Both additive and non-additive gene actions were involved in controlling the inheritance of CWD resistance and incubation period; the additive gene effects being predominant. Parents P2 (971), P7 (974), P8 (370), and P5 (79233) showed highly significant negative general combining ability (gca) effects and were found to be good general </em>combiners<em> for resistance to CWD. Moreover, specific combining ability (sca) effects of hybrids P7 x P8 (974 x 370) and P4 x P8 (8136 x 370) revealed that they are good combinations for resistance (low mean wilted seedlings percentage) and incubation period. Percent wilted seedlings showed high broad (88.27%) and narrow (75.41%) sense heritability coupled with 68.61% genetic advance. Generally, both pure line selection and pedigree selection after hybridization could be an effective resistance breeding approach. </em></p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/217060 Farmer Preferred and Financially Feasible Onion Varieties for Scaling: Evidence from the Central Rift Valley in Ethiopia 2021-11-09T07:25:13+00:00 Fistum Miruts fitsummiruts@gmail.com Bedru Beshir bedrubeshir2009@gmail.com Gadissa Ejersa bedrubeshir2009@gmail.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>ሽንኩርት</em> <em>በኢትዮጵያ</em> <em>በዋነኛነት</em> <em>በሞቃት</em> <em>ወራት፣</em><em> በቆላና በወይና ደጋ </em><em>የሚመረት</em> <em>አትክልት</em> <em>ነው፡፡</em> <em>የሰብሉን</em> <em>ምርታማነት</em> <em>በተመለከተ</em> <em>አርሶ</em> <em>አደሩ</em> <em>በአማካይ</em><em> ከአንድ ሄክታር </em><em>የሚያገኘው</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>በምርምር</em> <em>ማሳ ላይ ከተመዘገበው</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ሲነፃፀር</em> <em>ዝቅተኛ</em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>በመሆኑም</em> <em>የተሻሻሉ</em> <em>የሽንኩርት</em> <em>ዝርያዎችን</em> <em>በሰርቶ</em> <em>ማሳያ</em> <em>ማስተዋወቅና</em> <em>ተሳትፏዊ ግምገማ በማድረግ</em> <em>በአዳማ፣</em> <em>በሉሜ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በአዳሚቱሉ</em> <em>ጂዶኮምቦልቻ</em> <em>ወረዳዎች</em> <em>ከአርሶ</em> <em>አደሮች</em><em> ጋር በ</em><em>ማሳቸው</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ተካሂዷል።</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>ሰላሳ</em> <em>ሰባት</em> <em>የሽንኩርት</em> <em>አምራች</em> <em>አርሶ</em> <em>አደሮች</em> <em>በ</em><em>9.25 </em><em>ሄክታር</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>የሰርቶ</em> <em>ማሳያ</em> <em>ተሳታፊ</em> <em>የነበሩ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>ናፊስና</em> <em>ናሲክ</em> <em>ሬድ</em><em> የ</em><em>ሽንኩርት</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>ከቦምቤይ</em> <em>ሬድ</em><em> (</em><em>ማነፃፀርያ</em><em>) </em><em>ጋር</em> <em>ለማወዳደር</em> <em>ተችሏል፡፡</em> <em>በዚህም</em> <em>በአማካይ</em> <em>ናፊስና</em><em> 29757 </em><em>ኪ</em><em>.</em><em>ግ</em><em>/</em><em>ሄ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ናሲክ</em> <em>ሬድ</em><em> 27676</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ኪ</em><em>.</em><em>ግ</em><em>/</em><em>ሄ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ተመዝግቧል፡፡</em> <em>ይህ</em> <em>የምርት ዉጤት</em> <em>ከማነፃፀሪያው</em> <em>ዝርያ</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ሲወዳደር</em><em> 924 </em><em>ኪ</em><em>.</em><em>ግ</em><em>/</em><em>ሄ</em> <em>እና</em><em> 693 </em><em>ኪ</em><em>.</em><em>ግ</em><em>/</em><em>ሄ</em><em> ጭማሪ </em><em>አለው፡፡</em><em> የገንዘብ </em><em>ትርፋማነትን</em> <em>ስንመለከትም</em> <em>ናፊስ</em> <em>ዝርያን</em> <em>ማምረት</em> <em>የበለጠ</em> <em>አዋጭ</em> <em>ይሆናል፡፡</em> <em>በተመሳሳይ</em> <em>ናፊስ</em> <em>በአርሶ</em> <em>አደሩ</em> <em>ዘንድ</em> <em>ተቀባይነት ያገኘ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>ለዚህም</em> <em>መመዘኛው</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>ምርት፣</em> <em>ደማቅ</em> <em>ቀይ</em> <em>ቀለም፣</em> <em>መካከለኛ</em> <em>ኮረት፣</em> <em>ከፍያለ</em> <em>የበሽታ</em> <em>መቋቋም</em> <em>አቅም፣</em> <em>ጥሩ</em> <em>መዓዛ</em> <em>፣</em> <em>በገበያ</em> <em>ተመራጭነት</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>እና</em> <em>ረዘም</em> <em>ላለ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>መቆየት</em> <em>ከናሲክ</em> <em>ሬድ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ቦምቤይ</em> <em>ሬድ</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ሲወዳደር</em> <em>በጣም</em> <em>ጥሩ</em> <em>የሽንኩርት</em> <em>ዝርያ</em> <em>ሆኖ</em> <em>ተመርጧል፡፡</em> <em>በመሆኑም</em> <em>የሽንኩርት</em> <em>ምርትና</em> <em>ምርታማነት</em> <em>ለማሳደግ</em> <em>ናፊስና</em> <em>ናሲክ</em> <em>ሬድ</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em><em> ይህ </em><em>ጥናት</em> <em>በተካሄደባቸው</em> <em>ቦታዎች</em> <em>እንዲሁም</em><em> ከዚህ ጋር </em><em>ተመሳሳይ</em><em> የግብርና ስነ-ምህዳር ያላቸው </em><em>አካባቢዎች</em> <em>የሚመለከታቸው የግብርና ልማት ባለድርሻ አካላት በቅንጅት በማስፋፋት የሽንኩርትን ምርትና ምርታማነትን መጨመር እንደሚቻል እንመክራለን፡፡ </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><em>Onion is a warm-season vegetable crop grown in Ethiopia. The productivity, however, is low on farmers' fields as compared to its recorded potential yield on the research station. So, participatory on-farm demonstration and evaluation of improved onion varieties with their associated production practices were conducted in Adama, Lume, and Adamitulu-Jidokombolcha (AJ) districts in the Central Rift Valley area.&nbsp; Nafis and Nasik Red were compared with Bombay Red, the check. Thirty-seven onion grower farmers were purposely selected and hosted the demonstrations on 9.25 hectares. Nafis and Nasik Red performed higher than the check yielding 29,757 kg/ha and 27,676 kg/ha on average respectively. The farmer-based practices yield gap was found to be 9,238 kg/ha and 6,931 kg/ha for Nafis and Nasik Red respectively. Given, equal investments per unit area to produce the onion varieties, Nafis gave higher profit. Similarly, Nafis was the most preferred onion variety compared to Nasik Red and Bombay Red because of its higher yield, deep red color, mediu</em><em>m bulb size, tolerance to disease, pungency, market preference, and longer shelf life. Nafis and Nasik Red produced higher financial returns and were preferred by farmers. Hence, the varieties need wider scaling through concerted efforts of agricultural development partmets in the study area and in similar agro-ecologies to enhance onion production and productivity in Ethiopia. </em></p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/217072 Growth and Fattening Performances of Friesian-Boran Crossbred Bull Calves Fed on Different Protein Supplements 2021-11-08T12:04:13+00:00 Molla Shumye mollabrkt@gmail.com Zewdie Wondatir mollabrkt@gmail.com Getu Kitaw mollabrkt@gmail.com Aemiro Kahaliw mollabrkt@gmail.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>50 እና 75 በመቶ የሆልስቴን ፍሬዥያን ዝርያ ደም ያላቸው&nbsp; ወተት መመገብ ያቆሙ የዲቃላ ወንድ ጥጆችን የዕድገት ብቃትንና በወይፈንነት ዕድሜያቸው የማደለብ ኢኮኖሚያዊ አዋጪነትን ለመገምገም በሆለታ ግብርና ምርምር ማዕከል ለ 626 ቀናት ያህል ጥናት ተካሂዷል፡፡ ለዚሁ ጥናትም ሃያ አራት 50 በመቶ እና ሌሎች ሃያ አራት 75 በመቶ የሆልስቴን ፍሬዥያን ደም ያላቸውን ጥጆች በስድስት የአመጋገብ ስርዓት (Treatments) እንዲመደቡ ተደርጓል፡፡ የአመጋገብ ስርዓቶቹም፣ 1ኛ. 25 በመቶ የኑግ ፋጉሎ +74 በመቶ የስንዴ ፉርሽካ +1 በመቶ የጨው ቅልቅል ሆኖ 18 በመቶ፣ 2ኛ. 38.5በመቶ የኑግ ፋጉሎ +60.5 በመቶ የስንዴ ፉርሽካ +1 በመቶ የጨው ቅልቅል ሆኖ 20 በመቶ፣ 3ኛ. 29 በመቶ የተልባ ፋጉሎ +70 በመቶ የስንዴ ፉርሽካ +1 በመቶ የጨው ቅልቅል ሆኖ 18 በመቶ፣ 4ኛ<sub>. </sub>43 በመቶ የተልባ ፋጉሎ +56 በመቶ የስንዴ ፉርሽካ + 1 በመቶ የጨው ቅልቅል ሆኖ 20 በመቶ፣ 5ኛ. 27 በመቶ የጥጥ ፋጉሎ +72 በመቶ የስንዴ ፉርሽካ + 1 በመቶ የጨው ቅልቅል ሆኖ 18 በመቶ፣ 6ኛ. 40 በመቶ የጥጥ ፋጉሎ +59 በመቶ የስንዴ ፉርሽካ +1 በመቶ የጨው ቅልቅል ሆኖ 20 በመቶ የሰውነት ገንቢ ንጥረ ነገር (ክሩድ ፕሮቲን) ይዘት ያላቸው ነበሩ፡፡ 20በመቶ ክሩድ ፕሮቲን &nbsp;ይዘት ያለው የጥጥ ፋጉሎ የተካተተበትን የድጎማ መኖ የተመገቡት ወይፈኖች በ1 ዓመት ዕድሜያቸው በአማካይ 196.50 ኪ.ግ፣ በ2 ዓመታቸው ደግሞ 404.88 ኪ.ግ መመዘን ችለዋል፡፡ በሌላ መልኩ 18 በመቶ ክሩድ ፕሮቲን ይዘት ያለው የተልባና የጥጥ ፋጉሎ የተካተተበትን የድጎማ መኖ የተመገቡት ወይፈኖች በ1 ዓመታቸው 162.50 ኪ.ግ፤በ2 ዓመታቸው ደግሞ 314.25 ኪ.ግ መመዘን ችለዋል፡፡ እንዲሁም 20 በመቶ ክሩድ ፕሮቲን&nbsp; ይዘት ያለው የጥጥ ፋጉሎ የተካተተበትን የድጎማ መኖ የተመገቡ 50 በመቶ የሆልስቴን ፍሬዥያን ደም ያላቸው ወይፈኖች 75በመቶ የሆልስቴን ፍሬዥያን ደም ካላቸው ወይፈኖች የተሻለ የቁም ክብደትና የቀን ዕድገት ያሳዩ መሆኑን ጥናቱ ጠቁሟል፡፡ ቀደም ብሎ የተጠቀሰውን የድጎማ መኖ ተመግበው የደለቡ 50በመቶ የሆልስቴን ፍሬዥያን ደም መጠን ያላቸው ወይፈኖች በአማካይ 10792.70 ብር፣ ተመሳሳይ የፕሮቲን ይዘት ያለው የተልባ ፋጉሎ የተካተተበትን የድጎማ መኖ ተመግበው የደለቡ ተመሳሳይ የደም መጠን ያላቸው ወይፈኖች ደግሞ 5772.60 ብር በከብት የተጣራ ገቢ የሚያሰገኙ መሆኑን ጥናቱ አረጋግጧል፡፡ በአጠቃላይ የወተት ከብት አርቢዎች በዕርባታቸው የሚወለዱ ወይፈኖችን፤ በተለይም 50 በመቶ የሆልስቴን ፍሬዥያን ደም ያላቸውን ወይፈኖች 20 በመቶ የፕሮቲን ይዘት ያላቸውን የጥጥና የተልባ ፋጉሎዎች የተካተቱባቸውን የድጎማ መኖዎች እየመገቡ በማደለብ ተጠቃሚ መሆን ይችላሉ፡፡</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>The study was conducted at Holetta Research Center to evaluate growth performance and economic feasibility of fattening 50 and 75% Friesian-Boran growing crossbred bull calves for the </em>period of 626 days<em>. Twenty-four </em><em>50% Frisian-Boran crossbred weaned male calves and another twenty- four 75% Frisian-Boran crossbred growing weaned calves reared at Holetta Research Center were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments; T<sub>1</sub>=Noug seed cake based supplement with &nbsp;18% CP level, T<sub>2</sub>=Noug seed cake based supplement with 20% CP level, T<sub>3</sub>= Linseed cake based supplement with 18% CP level, T<sub>4</sub>= Linseed cake based supplement with &nbsp;20% CP Level, T<sub>5</sub>=Cottonseed cake based supplement with 18% CP and T<sub>6</sub>=Cottonseed cake based supplement with 20% CP Level. The interaction effect between feed supplements and calf genotypes was not significant. In this study higher (p&lt;0.05) body weight of 196.50±7.78 and 404.88±17.96 kg was attained for 12 and 24-months growing bull calves that were supplemented with cotton seed cake at 20% crude protein level, respectively than calves supplemented with 18% CP level. Crossbred bull calves supplemented with cotton seed cake at 20% CP had also higher (p&lt;0.05) final body weight, live weight change, daily weight gains and feed conversion efficiencies of 404.88±17.96, 334.25±17.62, 0.558±0.03 kg and 9.46±0.87 kg DMI/kg gain, respectively than those fed on noug seed cake at 18% CP level (314.25±17.96, 244.25±17.62, 0.407±0.03 kg and 13.60±0.88 DMI/kg gain), respectively. Except for initial weight, i.e., weaning weight and feed conversion efficiencies, Friesian-Boran (50% FB) crossbred growing bull calves had better (p&lt;0.05) final body weight, live weight change and daily weight gain of 378.04±17.96, 308.79±10.17 and 0.518± 0.02, respectively compared to those with 75% exotic blood level (346.25±10.37, 275.38±10.17, and 0.463.02) respectively. Friesian Boran (50% FB) crossbred growing bull calves fed on cotton seed cake-based supplement with 20% CP level (T<sub>6</sub>) had better net income of 10792.7 ETB/head followed by those supplemented with linseed cake with 20% CP level (T<sub>4</sub>) which was 5772.6 ETB/head. Generally, dairy producers (farmers) can benefit from fattening of their crossbred dairy bull calves; especially 50% Friesian-Boran crosses using Cotton and linseed cakes-based concentrates formulated with 20% crude protein.</em></p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/217080 Characterization of the Indigenous Goat Populations of South Gonder Based on their Morphometric Traits and Body Indices 2021-11-08T13:24:41+00:00 Birara Tade a_melesse@uni-hohenheim.de Aberra Melesse a_melesse@uni-hohenheim.de Simret Betsha a_melesse@uni-hohenheim.de <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>አህፅሮት </strong></p> <p><em>በዳሰሳ ላይ የተደገፈ ጥናት በደቡብ ጎንደር ዞን የሞርፎሜትሪክ ባህሪያት እና የአካል መረጃ ጠቋሚዎች መሠረት በማድረግ በአገር በቀል ፍየል የምርት አቅም ላይ የምርምር ሥራ ተካሂዷል፡፡ የፍየሎችን የርባታ ባህሪያትን በተመለከተ ከ153 አባወራዎች በመጠይቅ የተደገፈ መረጃ የተሰበሰበ ሲሆን፤ የሞርፎሜትሪክ ባህሪያት መለኪያዎች ከፋርጣ ወረዳ 152፤ ከፎገራ ወረዳ 154፤ እና ከሊቦ ከምከም ወረዳ 204 በአጠቃላይ ከሁለቱም ፆታዎች በ510 ፍየሎች ላይ መረጃ ተወስዷል፡፡ በዚሁ መሠረት 19 የፍየል አካላት መለኪያ ኢንዴክሶች የሞሮፎሞትሪክ ባህሪያትን መሠረት በማድረግ ተሰልቷል፡፡ በጥናቱ በተገኘው ውጤት መሠረት የሴት ፍየሎች ለመጀሪያ ጊዜ የወለዱበት ዕድሜ 13.6 ወር ሲሆን በሁለት ወሊዶች መካከል ያለው ልዩነት 8.39 ወራት ነበር፡፡ ባንድ ጊዜ የተወለዱት የፍየል ግልገሎች መጠን 1.54 እንደሆነ ታውቋል፡፡ የፍየሎች ፆታ ከጀሮ ርዝመት፤ ከዳሌ ስፋት እና ከእግር አገዳ ቅልጥም ክብ ዙሪያ በሰተቀር በሌሎች ባህሪት ላይ ጉልህ ተፅዕኖ ነበረው (p&lt;0.001)፡፡ በተጨማሪም ከጀሮ ርዝመት በሰተቀር የፍየሎች ዕድሜ በሁሉም የሞርፎሜትሪክ ባህሪያት ላይ የነበረው ተፅዕኖ ከፍተኛ ነበር (p&lt;0.001)፡፡ የፎገራ ወረዳ ፍየሎች በክብደት፤ በደረት ክብ ዙሪያ፤ ከፊት እግር ጀርባ ቁመት፤ በአካል ርዝመት፤ በደርት ስፋት፤ ከኋላ እግር ፊት ቁመት፤ በዳሌ ርዝመት እና በጡት ርዝመት ከሊቦ ከምከም ወረዳ ፍየሎች የበለጡ ነበሩ፡፡ የሊቦ ከምከም ፍየሎች ከፎገራና ፋርጣ ፍየሎች ጋር ሲነፃፀሩ ጥናት በተደረገባቸው በአብዛኛዎቹ የሞርፎሜትሪክ ባህሪያት ዝቀተኛ እንደነበሩ ከጥናቱ የተገኘው ውጤት ያመላክታል፡፡ የደረት ክብ ዙሪያ እና የፊት እግር ጀርባ ቁመት ልኬቶች የሴት እና የወንድ ፍየሎችን የክብደት መጠን ለመተንበይ ቀዳማይ ባህሪያት እንደሆኑ ተለይተው ታውቀዋል፡፡ በተገኘው የፍየል አካላት መለኪያ ኢንዴክሶች መሠረት፤ የደቡብ ጎንደር ፍየሎች አጭር እግር ያላቸው እና ለወይና ደጋ አየር ንብረት የሚስማሙ ሲሆኑ ለስጋ ምርት አቅም እንዳላቸው ታውቋል፡፡ በማጠቃለያም፤ በደቡብ ጎንደር ዞን የሚገኙ አገር በቀል ፍየሎች ለስጋ ምርት እምቅ አቅም ሊኖራቻው እንደሚችል የጥናቱ ውጤት በጉልህ አመላክቷል፡፡</em></p> <h1><strong>&nbsp;</strong></h1> <h1><strong>Abstract</strong></h1> <p><em>A survey-based study was undertaken to explore the potentials of indigenous goat populations of the South Gondar zone based on morphometric traits and body indices. Reproductive traits were obtained from 153 households through a questionnaire while morphometric measurements were taken from 510 goats of both sexes drawn from Farta (n=152), Fogera (n=154), and Libokemkem (n=204) districts.</em><em> Nineteen structural and functional indices were computed from morphometric measurements. In this study, age at first kidding and kidding intervals was 13.6 and 8.39 months, respectively with an average litter size of 1.54. Sex had a significant (p&lt;0.001) effect on all quantitative traits except ear length (EL), rump width, and canon circumference. Except for EL, the age effect was significant (p&lt;0.001) for all morphometric traits. Goats at Fogera district had higher live weight (LW), heart girth (HG), height at withers (HW), body length, chest width, rump height, rump length, and teat length than those at Libokemkem. Goats from Libokemkem district were inferior for most of the studied morphometric traits as compared to those at Fogera and Farta. Both HG and HW were identified as best predictors of LW in both sexes. Based on the values of structural indices, the goat populations could be characterized as meat phenotype with short legs being well adapted to midland altitudes. In conclusion, goats reared in the South Gondar zone could have the genetic potential for meat production with high prolificacy. </em></p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/217081 Growth Performance of Arsi-Bale Sheep Fed Desho Grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) Hay Supplemented with Different Concentrate Levels 2021-11-08T13:32:11+00:00 Worknesh Seid wudetsega@gmail.com Wude Tsega wudetsega@gmail.com Ejegayehu Demisse wudetsega@gmail.com <p><strong>አህ</strong><strong>ፅ</strong><strong>ሮት</strong></p> <p><em>የዴሾ ሳር በዋናነት ከደቡብ ክልል ተገኝቶ በተለያዮ የኢትዮ</em><em>ጵ</em><em>ያ ክፍል እየተስፋፋ ያለ አገር በቀል የተሻለ የሳር ዝርያ በመሆኑ ከዚህ ሳር ጋር የበግ </em><em>ዕ</em><em>ድገትና የስጋ ምርት ሊያሻሽል የሚችል አዋጭ የሆነ የድጎማ መኖ መጠን ለመለየት ይህ ሙከራ ተካሂዶ ነበር፡፡</em> <em>የድጎማ</em> <em>መኖው</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>0, 200, 300</em><em> እና</em><em> 400 </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ግራም</em> <em>በቅደም</em> <em>ተከተል</em> <em>ለተጠኚ</em><em> 1</em><em>፣</em><em> 2</em><em>፣</em><em> 3 </em><em>እና</em><em> 4 </em><em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>በጎቹ</em> <em>በነበራቸው</em> <em>የመነሻ</em> <em>ከብደት</em> <em>ልዩነት</em> <em>መሰረት</em> <em>እያንዳንዳቸው</em> <em>ቡድኖች</em> <em>አራት</em> <em>በጎች</em> <em>ያሉት</em> <em>በ</em><em>6 </em><em>ድግግ</em><em>ሞ</em><em>ሽ</em> <em>ተጠኝዎቹ</em> <em>ሁሉም</em> <em>ዓይነት</em> <em>የበግ</em> <em>ክብደት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>በ</em><em>እ</em><em>ኩል</em> <em>ዕ</em><em>ድል</em> <em>እንዲያርፉ</em> <em>ተደርጎ</em> <em>ለ</em><em>8</em><em>4</em> <em>ቀኖች</em> <em>ሙከራው</em> <em>ተሰራ፡፡</em> <em>በዚሁ</em> <em>መሰረት</em> <em>በተካሄደው</em> <em>ጥናት</em><em> 400 </em><em>ግራም</em> <em>የድጎማ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>የተሰጣቸው</em> <em>በጎች</em> <em>ያሳዩት</em> <em>የሰውነት</em> <em>ክብደትና</em> <em>የስጋ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ከሌሎቸ</em> <em>የተሻ</em><em>ለ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>ለአንድ</em> <em>ኪ</em><em>/</em><em>ግ</em> <em>ክብደት</em> <em>የወጣው</em> <em>የመኖ</em> <em>ዋጋም</em> <em>ዝቅተኛ</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>በመሆኑም በዚህ ጥናት መሰረት</em> <em>የዴሾ ሳርን ከ</em><em>400 </em><em>ግራም</em> <em>የድጎማ</em> <em>መኖ</em><em> ጋር </em><em>በማብላት</em> <em>የአርሲ</em><em>-</em><em>ባሌ</em> <em>በጎችን</em> <em>ዕ</em><em>ድገትና የስጋ ምርት ማሻሻል አዋጭ</em> <em>ሊሆን</em> <em>ይችላል፡፡</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>An experiment was carried out at Debre-Zeit Agricultural Research Center to evaluate the performance of yearling Arsi-Bale lambs fed desho grass hay as a basal diet ad-libitum with and without supplementing concentrate mixture. The growth performance of the lambs was evaluated using desho grass hay ad libtum alone (T1) and supplemented with different concentrate mixtures; 200 (T2), 300 (T3) and 400g (T4) head<sup>-1</sup>. Twenty-four yearling intact lambs with an initial body weight of </em><em>20.7±1.50</em><em> (mean ± SE) were randomly allotted into six groups of 4 animals per group and assigned to four treatments in randomized complete block design. Dry matter intake of lambs recorded in T<sub>4</sub> (825 g) was higher (P≤ 0.001) than in T<sub>3</sub> (732 g), T<sub>2 </sub>(681 g), and T<sub>1</sub> (456 g) groups. Animals in 400g concentrate supplementation (T<sub>4</sub>) had higher (P≤ 0.001) daily average weight gain (97 g), carcass yield (11.7 kg), dressing percentage (42%), and lower feed conversion ratio (8 g feed /g gain) than in T1 and other supplemented groups. It could be concluded that supplementation with 400 g concentrate (T<sub>4</sub>) h<sup>-1</sup>, d<sup>-1</sup> was found to be an optimum level of concentrate diet to support greater weight gain, carcass yield, and lower feed conversion ratio.</em></p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/217082 Performances of Arsi-Bale Sheep Fed on Lentil Straw with Various Levels of Concentrate Supplementation 2021-11-09T07:28:58+00:00 Worknesh Seid wudetsega@gmail.com Wude Tsega wudetsega@gmail.com <p>አህፅሮት</p> <p><em>የምስር</em> <em>ገለባን</em> <em>ያለገደብ</em> <em>ከተለያየ</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>የድጎማ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>የአርሲ</em><em>-</em><em>ባሌ</em> <em>በጎችን</em> <em>በመመገብ</em> <em>በ</em><em>ዕ</em><em>ድገታቸውና</em> <em>በስጋ</em> <em>ምርታቸው</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>በሚያመጣው</em> <em>ለውጥ</em> <em>መሰረት</em> <em>አዋጭ</em> <em>የሆነዉን</em> <em>የድጎማ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>ለመለየት</em> <em>&nbsp;</em><em>ይህ</em> <em>ሙከራ</em> <em>ተሰርቶ</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>የድጎማ</em> <em>መኖው</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>250, 300, 350, 400 </em><em>እና</em> <em>450</em><em>ግራም</em><em>, </em><em>በቅደም</em> <em>ተከተል</em> <em>ለተጠኚ</em><em> 1</em><em>፣</em><em> 2</em><em>፣</em><em> 3 </em><em>፣</em><em> 4 </em><em>እና</em><em> 5 </em><em>ነበር፡፡በጎቹ</em> <em>በነበራቸው</em> <em>የመነሻ</em> <em>ከብደት</em> <em>ልዩነት</em> <em>መሰረት</em> <em>እያንዳንዳቸው</em> <em>ቡድኖች</em> <em>አምስት</em> <em>በጎች</em> <em>ያሉት</em> <em>በ</em><em>7 </em><em>ድግግ</em><em>ሞ</em><em>ሽ</em> <em>ተጠኝዎቹ</em> <em>ሁሉም</em> <em>ዓይነት</em> <em>የበግ</em> <em>ክብደት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>በ</em><em>እ</em><em>ኩል</em> <em>ዕ</em><em>ድል</em> <em>እንዲያርፉ</em> <em>ተደርጎ</em> <em>ለ</em><em>8</em><em>4</em> <em>ቀኖች</em> <em>ሙከራው</em> <em>ተሰራ፡፡</em> <em>በዚሁ</em> <em>መሰረት</em> <em>በተካሄደው</em> <em>ጥናት</em><em> 400 </em><em>እና</em><em> 450 </em><em>ግራም</em> <em>የድጎማ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>የተሰጣቸው</em> <em>በጎች</em> <em>ያሳዩት</em> <em>የሰውነት</em> <em>ክብደትና</em> <em>የስጋ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ከሌሎቸ</em> <em>የተሻል</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>ለአንድ</em> <em>ኪ</em><em>/</em><em>ግ</em> <em>ክብደት</em> <em>የወጣው</em> <em>የመኖ</em> <em>ዋጋም</em> <em>ዝቅተኛ</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>በመሆኑም</em> <em>የምስር</em> <em>ገለባንና</em> <em>400-450 </em><em>ግራም</em> <em>የድጎማ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>በማብላት</em> <em>የአርሲ</em><em>-</em><em>ባሌ</em> <em>በጎችን</em> <em>&nbsp;</em><em>ማድልብ</em> <em>አዋጭ</em> <em>ሊሆን</em> <em>ይችላል፡፡</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>This experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and carcass yield of Arsi-Bale sheep fed on lentil straw with concentrate supplementation. The dietary treatments were: lentil straw with concentrate supplement at 250 (T1), 300 (T2), 350 (T3), 400(T4) and 450 (T<sub>5</sub>) g lamb/day. Thirty-five yearlings Arsi-Bale lambs with the initial body weight of 20.8±1.5 kg (mean ± SE) were randomly allotted to the treatments in randomized complete block design. The concentrate levels had a significant (P&lt; 0.05) effect on total DM intake with higher values in T3 (</em><em>791.1</em><em>), T4 (</em><em>782.6</em><em>), and T<sub>5</sub> (</em><em>826 g</em><em>) than T<sub>1</sub> (</em><em>720.2)</em><em> and T<sub>2</sub> (735g) groups. The highest (</em><em>P&lt; 0.001) average daily live weight gain was attained by lambs in T<sub>4</sub> (78 g) and T<sub>5 </sub>(84g). Feed conversion efficiency increased (P&lt; 0.001) with an increase in the concentrated amount. Lambs supplemented 350, 400 and 450g concentrate had higher (P&lt; 0.05) carcass weight (10.6-11.4 kg) than those supplemented 250 and 300g concentrate. The dressing percentage (42%) observed for T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>5 </sub>lambs was higher (P&lt; 0.05) than the other groups (37.9-40.1%). The feed cost (birr/kg gain) in T<sub>1 </sub>(111) and T<sub>2 </sub>(97)<sub>, </sub>was higher (P&lt; 0.001) than that of other treatments (67-80 birr/kg gain). It can be concluded that 400-450g of concentrate is the optimum level, for improved feed consumption, live weight gain, FCE, feed cost per unit of live weight gain, and carcass yield of Arsi-Bale sheep fed on lentil straw as a roughage source.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/217107 Role of Sugarcane Tops as Feed Resource in Two Sugar Estates of Central Ethiopia 2021-11-09T06:35:31+00:00 Getahun Kebede getkeb2000@yahoo.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>የዚህ ጥናት ዋና ዓላማ ከወንጂና መተሃራ ስኳር ፋብሪካዎች የሚገኘው የሸንኮራ አገዳ ጫፍ ለእንስሳት አርቢዎች ያለውን የመኖ ጠቀሜታ ዳሰሳን መሠረት ያደረገ ነበር፡፡ ጥናቱም በስኳር ፋብሪካዎች አከባቢ ባሉ ከተሞች፤ ካምፖችና ቀበሌ ገ/ማህበራት የሚገኙ 308 እንስሳት አርቢ አባወራዎችን ለቃለ መጠይቅ ያሳተፈና ከፋብሪካዎች የተገኘን መረጃ ያካትታል፡፡ በጥናቱ የሸንኮራ አገዳ ጫፍ የምርት መጠን ፤ የመኖ ጠቀሜታው፤ አያያዝና አመጋገብ ልምድ፣ ግብይት እና የአጠቃቀም ችግሮች ተዳሰ</em><em>ዋል፡፡ ከየፋብሪካው ማሳ በዓመት የሚገኛው የሸንኮራ አገዳ ጫፍ መጠን በዓመቱ ለስኳር ምርት ሲባል ታጭዶ ከሚፈጨደው የሸንኮራ አገዳ መጠን ጋር ቀጥተኛ ተዛማጅነት አለው፡፡</em><em> በዓመታዊ </em><em>የ</em><em>ምርት መጠን በእሳት የተለበለበው የአገዳ ጫፍ ካልተለበለበው የአገዳ ጫፍ ይበልጣል፡፡ ይህም የሆነበት ምክንያት ለስኳር ምርት የሚውለው ሸንኮራ አገዳ ከመቆረጡ በፊት ማሳው እሳት የምለቀቅበት በመሆኑና ያልተቃጠለው የአገዳ ጫፍ የሚገኘው በአገዳ ተከላ ወቅት ብቻ በመሆኑ ነው፡፡</em> <em>የሸንኮራ አገዳ ጫፍ በሁሉም አባወራዎች (100%) እንስሳት መኖነት ከመዋሉም በላይ ለማገዶና (50%) ለግንባታ ሥራዎች (37%) ያገለግላል፡፡ በአቅርቦትና በመኖ ተፈላጊነት ረገድ በእሳት የተለበለበ (የተቃጠለ) ሸንኮራ አገዳ ጫፍ በእሳት ካልተለበለበው የአገዳ ጫፍ ብልጫ ያለው ሲሆን ይህም የመኖ እጥረት በሚታይበት ደረቅ ወራት አማራጭ የመኖ ግብዓት ነው፡፡ የሸንኮራ አገዳ ጭፍ በከተማ ለሚገኙ ከብት አርቢዎች በግለሰቦች አመካኝነት በሽያጭ የሚቀርብ ሲሆን ዋጋውም በስኳር ፋብሪካው፤ በአገዳው ዓይነትና በቦታው (ማሳ) ርቀት ይለያያል፡፡ በእሳት ካልተለበለበው አገዳ ይልቅ የተለበለበው አገዳ እንደዚሁም ከወፍራም አገዳ ይልቅ ቀጫጭን አገዳ ያላቸው ዝሪያዎች ለእንስሳት መኖነት የበለጠ ተፈላጊ ናቸው፡፡ የሸንኮራ አገዳ ጫፍ በአብዛኛው ለእንስሳት የሚሰጠው ባለበት ሁኔታ ወይም በመጠኑ በመቀረጣጠፍ ሲሆን የተሰበሰበውም በበቂ ሁኔታ ሳይደርቅ በውጪ ይከማቻል፡፡ የሸንኮራ አገዳን ለእንስሳት መኖነት በይበልጥ ለመጠቀም የማያስችሉ ዋንኞቹ ማነቆዎች የመኖ ይዘቱ ደካማ መሆን (91.2%)፤ የቴክኒክ ድጋፍ እጦት (89%)፤ የማጓጓዣ እጥረት (26%)፤ በተመጋቢ እንስሳት ላይ የአፍ መቁሰል ችግር (16.2%) እና የሰው ጉልበትና ካፒታል እጥረት (11.7%) ናቸው፡፡ በመሆኑም በሸንኮራ አገዳ ጫፍ አጠቃቀም፣ ጥራት ማሻሻል፣አያያዝ፤አመጋገብ ዘዴዎችና ግብይት ላይ ለአርቢዎች በቂ ተግባር-ተኮር ሥልጠና መስጠት አስፈላጊ ነው፡፡ በተጨማሪም የ</em><em>ሸንኮራ አገዳ ጫፍን ለመቀርጠፍ የሚያግዝ ማሽን (</em><em>ቾፐር) በተመጣጣኝ ዋጋ ለአርቢዎች ማቅረብ ያስፈልጋል፡፡ </em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>This study aimed to assess the production and utilization of sugarcane tops (SCTs) by livestock farms in and around Wonji-Shoa and Metehara sugar estates. A total of 308 households were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, where data on household characteristics and acquisition, utilization, feeding practices, preserving, and marketing of SCTs were collected. Secondary data on sugarcane production were taken from the sugar factories. </em><em>The estimated production of SCT is proportional to the volume of sugarcane produced or milled and the area of sugarcane field harvested, which was higher in Metehara compared to Wonji-Shoa sugar estate. The volume of burnt SCTs surpassed that of green SCTs as the pre-harvest burning practice of sugarcane fields favors the abundant availability of the former. </em><em>Sugarcane tops were used as feedstuff by the entire surveyed households, primarily for ruminants feeding. Besides, a significant proportion of farmers reported using SCTs for other purposes viz. fuel source (50%) and construction (37%). </em><em>Availability and feed use of the burnt SCT surpassed that of green SCT, mainly during the dry season, or dearth period. Sugarcane tops were sold to urban livestock producers, their price being varied with the sugar estate, SCT type, and distance from the source (field). Farmers preferred the burnt to green SCTs, and thin-stem to thick-stem varieties for livestock feeding. Sugarcane tops were usually fed to animals intact or chopped. Farmers practiced preserving intact SCTs by sun-drying and stored in open-air. Limitations in the feed use of SCTs in the study area included its low quality (91.2%), lack of technical supports (89%), lack of transport (26%), mouth injury on animals associated with feeding unprocessed SCTs (16.2%) and lack of family labor and capital (11.7%). In conclusion, SCTs are available year-round and contribute significantly as livestock feed in the study areas. However, it was poorly utilized due to the harvesting method employed by the industry, poor handling by farmers, and lack of technical supports. Therefore, intervention in areas of SCTs processing, conservation, feeding, and marketing is important to enhance its feed use by livestock farms around sugar industries or beyond.</em></p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/217109 A Holistic Bioeconomic Assessment of the Lake Koka Fishery (Ethiopia): Implications for Management and Livelihood 2021-11-10T13:09:05+00:00 Gashaw Tesfaye gashawt@gmail.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>የቆቃ የዓሣ ሀብት በዙሪያው በሚገኙ የማህበረሰብ አባላት የምግብ እና ስነ-ምግብ ዋስትናን በማረጋገጥ እንዲሁም በመተዳደሪያ የገቢ ምንጭነት የሚሰጠው ጠቀሜታ ከፍተኛ ነው፡፡ ይህን ጠቀሜታ ከትውልድ ትውልድ ለማስቀጠል ዘለቂነት ያለው የዓሣ ሀብት አጠቃቀም መተግበር በጣም አስፈላጊ ነው፡፡ በአሁኑ ወቅት የቆቃ ሀይቅ የዓሣ ሀብት ያለበት ደረጃ በደንብ አይታወቅም፡፡ ስለዚህ የዚህ </em><em>ጥናት</em> <em>ዋና </em><em>ዓላማ</em> <em>የዓሣ</em><em> ሀብት </em><em>ምርት</em><em> መጠን </em><em>ግምገማ</em><em> ዘዴን</em> <em>ከኢኮኖሚዊ</em> <em>ትንተና</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>በማጣመር</em> <em>በቆቃ</em> <em>ሀ</em><em>ይቅ</em> <em>የሚገኙ</em><em> በ</em><em>አ</em><em>ጥማጆች</em><em> ተፈላጊ</em><em> የሆኑ የዓሣ </em><em>ዝርያዎች</em><em>&nbsp; የ</em><em>አጠቃቀም ሁኔታ</em> <em>ከሥነ</em><em>-ህይወታዊ </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>እና</em> <em>ኢኮኖሚያዊ</em><em> ጠቀሜታ አንፃር </em><em>ዘላቂነት</em><em> አላቸው ወይስ </em><em>ማስተካከያ</em> <em>የሚያስፈልጋቸው</em> <em>መሆኑን</em> <em>ማወቅ</em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>ዘለቂነት ያለው </em><em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>የዓሣ ምርት የሚሰጥ መጠን</em><em> (MSY)</em><em>፣</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>ኢኮኖሚያዊ</em> <em>ጠቀሜታ</em><em> የሚሰጥ የምርት መጠን</em><em> (MEY) </em><em>እና</em> <em>እነዚህን የምርት መጠኖች ለማምረት የሚያስፈልጉት የማጥመድ </em><em>ጥረቶች</em><em> (</em><em>f</em><em><sub>MSY</sub></em><em> &amp; </em><em>f</em><em><sub>MEY</sub></em><em>) </em><em>ጋር</em> <em>የተዛመዱ</em> <em>የዓሣ ሀብቱን በአግባቡ ለመጠቀምና ለመጠበቅ የሚያስችሉ </em><em>የማመሳከሪያ</em> <em>ጠቋሚ </em><em>ነጥቦችን</em> <em>(management reference points) </em><em>ለመገመት</em> <em>የባዮማስ</em> <em>ተለዋዋጭ</em> <em>ሞዴሎች</em><em> (</em><em>ሚዛናዊ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ሚዛናዊ</em> <em>ያልሆነ</em><em>)</em><em>፣</em> <em>የባዮኢኮኖሚክስ</em> <em>ሞዴል</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የቶምሰን</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ቤል</em><em> የዓሣ ምርት መተንበያ </em><em>ሞዴል</em> <em>ተጠቅሚያለሁ</em><em>።</em> <em>የቶምሰን</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ቤል</em> <em>ሞዴልን</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>የተገኙት</em> <em>የማመሳከሪያ</em> <em>ጠቋሚ </em><em>ነጥቦች</em> <em>(reference points</em><em>) </em><em>ሚዛናዊ</em> <em>ካልሆኑት</em> <em>ሞዴሎች</em> <em>በእጅጉ</em> <em>የተለዩ</em> <em>ባይሆኑም</em> <em>የቀድሞው</em> <em>ሞዴል</em> <em>ከሌሎቹ</em> <em>ሞዴሎች</em> <em>የተሻለ</em> <em>ተለዋዋጭ</em> <em>(flexible) </em><em>ግምት</em> <em>ሰጥቷል።</em> <em>ከተሞከሩት</em> <em>ሞዴሎች</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>አንዳቸውም</em> <em>&nbsp;በ</em><em>አ</em><em>ጥማጆች</em><em> ተፈላጊ</em><em> የሆኑ የዓሣ </em><em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>ከመጠን</em> <em>በላይ</em> <em>መመረታቸውን አላመላከቱም፡፡ በመሆኑም </em><em>የቆቃ</em> <em>ሀ</em><em>ይቅ</em> <em>ዓሣ</em> <em>ሀብት</em> <em>አጠቃላይ</em> <em>ሁኔታ</em> <em>ጤናማና</em> <em>የዓሣ ሀብቱ በተገቢው ሁኔታ እየተመረተ መሆኑን ጥናቱ ያመለክታል፡፡ &nbsp;</em><em>ነገር</em> <em>ግን</em> <em>በ</em><em>አሁን</em> <em>ወቅት </em><em>በአጥማጆች በመያዝ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ያለው</em> <em>ዝቅተኛ</em> <em>የዓሣ</em> <em>መጠን</em><em> (Lc) </em><em>ወደ</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>ኢኮኖሚያዊ</em> <em>ጠቀሜታና</em><em> የምርት መጠን</em><em> (MEY) ወደሚያስገኘው የዓሣ &nbsp;መጠን ወይም </em><em>ርዝመት</em><em> (</em><em>L</em><em><sub>MEY</sub></em><em>) </em><em>ቢጨምር</em> <em>ከማህበራዊ</em><em>ና</em> <em>ኢኮኖሚያዊ</em> <em>ጥቅሞች</em> <em>አንፃር</em> <em>የተሻለ</em> <em>እንደሚሆን ጥናቱ ያሳያል</em><em>፡፡</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>The fishery resource in Lake Koka is very important for food and nutrition security, and the livelihoods of many riparian communities. Proper resource utilization is very essential to sustain the benefits of this natural capital for the present and future generations. &nbsp;So far little is known about the state of the fishery in Lake Koka. Therefore, the study aims at combining stock assessment of fishery target species of Lake Koka with an economic analysis to find out if current exploitation levels are biologically and economically sustainable or need adjustment. Biomass dynamic models (equilibrium and non-equilibrium), bioeconomic model, and the Thompson and Bell model were applied to estimate reference points related to Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY), Maximum Economic Yield (MEY), and their corresponding efforts (</em><em>f<sub>MSY</sub></em><em> &amp; f<sub>MEY</sub>). While the reference points estimated using the length-based Thompson and Bell predictive model were not significantly different from the non-equilibrium model, the former model provided a more flexible estimate than the other models. As none of the models tested suggested overfishing of the target resources, I conclude that the general state of the Lake Koka fishery is healthy, but see scope for improvement in terms of socioeconomic benefits if the current minimum length of capture were increased toward the length of capture at MEY.</em></p> 2021-11-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)