https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/issue/feed Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2021-05-07T05:27:59+00:00 Sofia Kassa (PhD) sofkass28@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>EJAS is to provide readers with original scientific research, both basic and applied, with far reaching implications of Ethiopian agriculture. Thus, EJAS seeks to publish those papers that are most influential in Ethiopian agriculture and that will significantly advance scientific understanding of agriculture.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals" href="http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals</a></p> https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/206693 Why Has a Single Rice Cultivar Dominated the Lowland Rice Production Portfolio of Ethiopia for so Long? 2021-05-07T05:27:59+00:00 Mulugeta Atnaf atnafmulugeta@gmail.com Abebaw Dessie atnafmulugeta@gmail.com Fisseha Worede atnafmulugeta@gmail.com Zelalem Zewdu atnafmulugeta@gmail.com Assaye Berie atnafmulugeta@gmail.com Taddesse Lakew atnafmulugeta@gmail.com <h1>አህፅሮት</h1> <p><em>&nbsp;</em>ሩዝ በኢትዮጵያ የእርሻ ስርዓት ውስጥ ተመራጭ እየሆነ የመጣ ሰብል ነው፡፡ የፎገራ አካባቢ የአገሪቱን 68 ፐርሰንት የሩዝ መሬት ሽፋንና 71 ፐርሰንት ምርት ይሸፍናል፡፡ የዚህ ጥናት አላማዎች ለምን አንድ ኤክስ-ጅግና የተባለ የሩዝ ዝርያ በፎገራ አካባቢ ሳይተካ ለረጅም ጊዜ (ከ30 ዓመታት በላይ)&nbsp; በምርት ሂደት ሊቆይ እንደ ቻለ እና ከዚህ ሁኔታ የሚገኙት አስተመህሮቶች ለብሔራዊ ሩዝ ምርምር ፕሮገራም የሚጠቅሙበትን ሁኔታ መሻት የሚሉ ናቸው፡፡ ኤክስ-ጅግና ከሰሜን ኮሪያ ወደ ኢትዮጵያ በ1980ዎቹ አጋማሽ የገባና በኮሪያዉያን ሳይንቲሰቶች ለፎገራ አካባቢ ተላማጅነቱ ተረጋግጦ &nbsp;ወደ ማማረት ሂደት እዲገባ የተደረገ የሩዝ ዝርያ ነው፡፡ በ2009 እና 2010 ዓ.ም የተደረገ የሩዝ ዝርያ ስርፀት ጥናት አንዳመለከተው የፎገራ አካባቢ ሩዝ ልማት 81 ፐርሰንት የተሸፈነው በኤክስ-ጅግና ነው፡፡ ዝርያው ምንም እንኳን ለረጅም ጊዜ በማምረት ሂደት የቆዬ ቢሆንም ከፍተኛ ምርታማነት፤ ጥሩ የበሽታ መከላከል አቅም፤ በከፍተኛ ደረጃ በተጠቃሚዎች ተወዳጅነት (በተለይም ደግሞ ነጭ የፍሬ ቀለሙ) ባህሪያትን &nbsp;እያሳዬ ይገኛል፡፡ ከዚህ በተጨማሪ አርሶ አደሮች የኤክስ-ጅግና&nbsp; ዱቆቱ ወሃ ያነሳል እንጀራውም ቶሎ እይደርቅም ብለው ይገልፁታል፡፡ በአጠቃላይ አርሶ አደሮች ኤክስ-ጅግናን አብዛኛውን ተፈላጊ ባህሪያት የያዘ ዝርያ &nbsp;ነው ይላሉ፡፡ የሩዝ ብሔራዊ ምርምር ፕሮገራም ከስድስት የሚበልጡ ለፎገራ አካባቢ ተስማሚና ምርታማ የተሻሻሉ የሩዝ ዝርያዎችን ለቋል፡፡ ይሁን እንጅ ከዝርያ የስርፀት ጥናት እነደምንረዳው አንዳቸውም ዝርያ ኤክስ-ጅግናን ሙሉ በሙሉ መተካት አልቻሉም፡፡ ብሔራዊ የምርምር ፕሮግራሙ ይህ ለምን እንደ ሆነ ቆም ብሎ ማሰብ ይኖርበታል፡፡ ፕሮግራሙ ከተከተለው መንገድና የተለቀቁት&nbsp; ዝርያዎ አነስተኛ ስርፀጽ ከሚያመላክቱት ክፍተቶች አንዱና ዋነኛው የዝርያዎችን ነጠላ ባህሪ ማሻሻልን እንደ ስልት መከተሉ ነው፡፡ ለወደፊቱ ፕሮገራሙ ፍላጎት ተኮር እንዲሁም አብዛኛዉን ተፈላጊ ባህሪያት የሚያሟላ ዝርያ ለማውጣት በሚያስችል መልኩ መቃኘት ይኖርበታል፡፡</p> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <h1>Abstract</h1> <p><em>&nbsp;</em>Rice is becoming an enterprise of choice in the Ethiopian farming system. The Fogera plain accounts for 68% of the area and 71% of the production of rice in the country. &nbsp;This paper attempts to explain why a single cultivar called ‘X-Jigna’ has dominated the lowland rice production portfolio of the Fogera plain in the country for more than 30 years and pinpoints the lessons that these inform to the national rice breeding program. &nbsp;X-Jigna was introduced from North Korea and adopted and recommended by Korean scientists in mid-1980s. Rice adoption study (2016-2017) in the Fogera plain showed more than 81% X-Jigna cultivation. Despite its long time deployment into the production, it has been showing good performance in terms of grain yield, biomass yield with good palatability, good disease reaction, phenotypic acceptability, good tillering capacity, and white caryopsis color. Furthermore, the cultivar has a long and well-exerted panicle, uniform stand, good physical quality, acceptability, and wider utilization. In addition, farmers describe its quality in terms of high flour density ‘wuha yanesal’ and softness stay of the enjera. Generally, farmers describe X-Jigna as a variety that fulfills most of their important traits. The national breeding program developed at least six lowland rice improved varieties for the Fogera plain to replace X-Jigna. However, the replacement rate of the old varieties is quite low as evidenced by the high adoption rate and longtime cultivation of X-Jigna. The breeding program needs to stop by and question why this happened and the journey undergone to come here. One of the critical issues that can be learned from the over years of engagement of the breeding program is that it has followed a trait-based improvement approach to deploy new varieties, which led to the low adoption of new varieties. As a way forward, the breeding program has to be demand-driven and product-oriented.</p> 2021-05-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/206703 Evaluation of Different Agricultural Lime Sources for their Agronomic Effectiveness, Yield of Food Barley and Faba Bean and Acid Soil Properties in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia 2021-05-06T11:02:36+00:00 Fekadu Mosissa fekadu.mosisa@yahoo.com Geremew Taye fekadu.mosisa@yahoo.com Mihiretu Bedasa fekadu.mosisa@yahoo.com Kebede Dinkecha fekadu.mosisa@yahoo.com Tolosa Debele tolessadebele@yahoo.com Temesgen Desalegn temesgen2015@gmail.com Matiyas Dejene fekadu.mosisa@yahoo.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p>አሲዳማ አፈርን በኖራ ማከም የአፈርን ጤናማነትና ለምነት ቀጣይ ለማድረግ&nbsp; ምርጥ የአፈር አያያዝ ዘዴ ሆኖ ተገኝቷል፡፡ ይሁን እንጂ የኖራ ፍቱን ውጤታማነት የሚለካው በምንጩ/የተገኘበት ቦታ፣ ስርቱ/ኬሚካላዊ ይዘቱ፣ የንፁህነትና የድቀት ደረጃውን ግምት ውስጥ በማስገባት ነው፡፡ የዚህ ጥናት ዓላማ በአገርቷ የተለያዩ ቦታዎች&nbsp; የሚመረቱ ለእርሻ ግብዓት የሚዉሉ ኖራዎችን ብቃት ለመገምገም ነው፡፡ የኖራዎቹም የብቃት ማረጋገጫ የተሠራው በሆለታ ግብርና ምርምር ማዕከል የአፈር ላቦራቶሪ ነው፡፡ ከብቃት ማረጋገጫ ሥራው በኋላ በማዕከሉ የሙከራ ማሣና በሮብ-ገበያ የአርሶአደር ማሣ ላይ የኖራዎቹ ውጤት በአፈሩ ባህርይና በሰብል ምርት ላይ የሚያመጣው ለውጥ ተገምግሟል፡፡ ትርቲመንቶቹ አራት የኖራ ዓይነቶችና አንድ ኮንትሮል (ምንም ዓይነት ኖራ የሌለው) ሲሆኑ በራንደማይዝድ ኮምፕልት ብሎክ ዲዛይን በሦስት ድግግሞሽ ተሞክሯል፡፡ የጥናቱ ውጤት የሚያሳየው አራቱም ኖራዎች ለእርሻ ግብዓት የሚዉሉ መሆናቸው ነው፡፡ የጥናቱ ውጤት በተጨማሪ የሚያሳየው ስታቲስትካል ልዩነት ባለው መልኩ በኖራዎቹ መካከል በአፈር ባህርይና በሰብል ምርት ላይ ከፍተኛ ውጤት ባይገኝም፣ ከኮንትሮል (ምንም ዓይነት ኖራ ከሌለው) ጋር ስነፃፀር ከፍተኛ ውጤት ተገኝቷል፡፡ይህ ግኝት የሚያሣየው በአገርቷ የሚመረቱ የእርሻ ኖራዎች የአገርቷን አስዳማ አፈር ለማከም ምቹ እንደሆኑና ምርታማነትን እንደሚጨምሩ ታውቋል፡፡ ስለዚህ በምዕራብ፣ሰሜን ምዕራብ እና መካከለኛ የአገርቷ ክፍል የሚኖሩ የገንዘብ ውስንነት ያለባቸውና ከሩቅ ሥፍራ ኖራዎችን ለማጓጓዝ የማይችሉ አርሶአደሮች ከቅርባቸው ያለውን በመጠቀም አስዳማ አፈራቸውን ማከም እንደሚችሉ ነው፡፡</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>T</em>he potentials of lime to restore soil health and fertility of the acidic soils is one of the best options of sustainable soil fertility management practices. However, the liming effects depend on its source, composition, purity, and fineness. The study initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of different lime materials produced in Ethiopia. Lime samples collected from different producing factories and were characterized at Holeta Agricultural Research Centre. Following characterization on station and on-farm experiments were conducted to evaluate crop and soil response for the different lime sources. The treatments comprised of four different lime materials and control laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The result showed that all lime sources fulfill the standards of agricultural lime. The result also showed that there were significant differences between and among lime sources on soil properties as well as crop yield but highly significant between the control treatments. This implies that the lime materials can be suitably used nationally to ameliorate soil acidity and increase crop productivity. Thus, the resource-poor farmers dwelling in western, northwestern, and central highlands who cannot afford to transport the lime sources from far distances can make use of the lime sources near to areas as there is no significant difference.</p> 2021-05-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/206708 Evaluation of NPSZn Blended Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Traits of Bread Wheat (Tritcum aestivum L.) on Cambisols and Vertisols in Southern Tigray, Ethiopia 2021-05-06T11:04:00+00:00 Sofonyas Dargie sofifidel97@gmail.com Fisseha Hadgu sofifidel97@gmail.com Hagos Brhane sofifidel97@gmail.com Tsigabu Mehari sofifidel97@gmail.com Molla Hadis sofifidel97@gmail.com Girmay Hailu sofifidel97@gmail.com Daniel Berhe sofifidel97@gmail.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>የ</em>ግብርና ምርትና ምርታማነት ለማሳደግ የተለያዩ ዓይነት ምጥን ማዳበርያዎች፣ ዳፕ እና ዩርያን በመተካት ወደ ሃገራችን &nbsp;ለሙከራ የገቡት በቅርቡ ነው፤ NPSZn ምጥን ማዳበርያም አንዱ ነው፡፡ የተለያየ መጠን NPSZn (0፣ 50፣ 100፣ 150፣ 200፣ 250፣ 300 ኪ.ግ በሄክታር) እና የተለመደው ዩርያና ዳፕ ማዳበርያ እንደ መወዳደርያነት በማካታት በራንደማይዝድ ኮምፕሊት ብሎክ ዲዛይን (RCBD) በሶስት ድግግሞሽ በ2009ዓ.ም እና 2010ዓ.ም በትግራይ በኦፍላ እና እምባ አላጀ ወረዳዎች ተሞክሯል፡፡ የቅድመ ተከላ የአፈር ናሙና እንደሚያመለክተው የናይትሮጅን መጠን በአብዛኛው የምርምር ሳይቶች ዝቅተኛ ሲሆን የፎስፎረስ መጠን ደግሞ መካከለኛ ነበር፡፡ በተለያየ የምርት መለኪያ መንገዶች እና በኢኮኖሚያዊ አዋጭነት መሰረት 200ኪ.ግ NPSZn ምጥን ማዳበርያ ከ62 ኪ.ግ ዩርያ በኦፍላ እንዲሁም 100ኪ.ግ NPSZn ምጥን ማዳበርያ ከ100ኪ.ግ ዩርያ በእምባ አላጀ ከሌሎች የማዳበርያ መጠኖች በተሻለ በስንዴ ምርት ላይ የተሻሉ እንደሆኑ ተረጋግጧል፡፡</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>A field experiment was carried out in 2017 and 2018 main cropping seasons in Ofla and Emba Alaje Woredas in Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia. The experiment has seven levels of NPSZn (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) adjusted for N from urea to the recommended N level (64 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) and the recommended P fertilizers (46 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>ha<sup>-1</sup>). The treatments were also arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and executed on two farmers' fields. Soil samples were collected before planting and analyzed for selected physicochemical properties. As a result, the application of different rates of NPSZn blended fertilizer significantly influenced the yield and yield components of wheat at both sites. At Ofla, the highest grain and straw yields were obtained from plots that received 200 kg NPSZn ha<sup>-1 </sup>. At Emba Alaje, the highest grain and straw yields were harvested from the application of 200 kg NPSZn ha<sup>-1</sup> and 100 kg NPSZn ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Application of Zn in the blended fertilizer had no significant effect on grain Zn concentration of bread wheat at both sites. Partial budget analysis revealed that the optimum marginal rate of return was 22.25ETB and 16.06ETB at Emba Alaje and Ofla, respectively. Both biological and economic analysis showed that applications of 200kg NPSZn with 28.6 kg N (62 kg urea) at Ofla and 100 kg NPSZn with 46 kg N (100 kg urea) at Emba Alaje were optimum for wheat production and these rates could be recommended for areas where the rainfall distribution and soil types are similar with the study locations. Further study should be done on the effects of NPSZn on grain quality and a single nutrient-based experiment should be carried out to evaluate the effect of each nutrient in the blended fertilizer for crop production.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-05-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/206712 Productivity and Land Use Efficiency of Wheat-Lentil Inter-cropping under Two Tillage Practices 2021-05-06T11:05:16+00:00 Almaz Meseret almimeseret@gmail.com Bizuwork Tafes almimeseret@gmail.com Abuhay Takele kidumet94@gmail.com Sisay Eshetu almimeseret@gmail.com <p><strong>አህ</strong><strong>ፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em>ከጊዜ ወደ ጊዜ እየጨመረ የመጣውን ህዝብ ለመመገብ በአንድ የእርሻ ማሳ ላይ ምርታማነትን ማሳደግ በጣም አስፈለጊ ነው፡፡ ስለሆነም ሰብልን አሰባጥሮ መዝራት ምርትን ለማሳደግ ተስፋ ሰጪ ሥርዓት ተደርጎ ይወሰዳል በተጨማሪም ምርታማነትን እና የመሬት አጠቃቀምን ውጤታማ ያደርጋል፡፡ የስንዴ እና ምስር የተለያዩ የሰብል ስብጥር በስንዴ እና በምስር ምርታማነት እና የመሬት አጠቃቀም ውጤታማነት በሁለት የእርሻ አስተራረስ ዘዴ &nbsp;ለመገምገም በምንጃር ወረዳ&nbsp; እ.ኤ.አ. ከ 2015-2017 ባለው የሰብል ምርት ወቅት የመስክ ጥናት ተካሂዷል፡፡ ምርምሩ የተካሄደዉ እስፕሊት ፕሎት በተባለ ዲዘይን ሲሆን እያንዳንዱ ትሪትመንት ሶስት ጊዜ ተደጋግሟል፡፡ ትሪትመንቶቹ ያካተቱት ሁለት የአስተራረስ ዘዴ (ባህላዊ እና ዝቅተኛ) በዋና ፕሎት ላይ ሲዉሉ አምስት የስንዴ እና ምስር ስብጥር አዘራር ዘዴ(1፡0፤1፡1፤2፡1፤1፡2 እና 0፡1) ደግሞ በንዑስ ፕሎት ላይ በማድረግ ነዉ፡፡ የሙከራዉ ዉጤት እንዳሳየዉ በስንዴ እና ምስር የእድገት መለኪያዎች ላይ ጉልህ ተፅኖ አልነበረዉም፡፡ የአስተራረስ ዘዴዎችም በስንዴ ምርታማነት ላይ የጎላ ተፅኖ አልነበረዉም ነገር ግን በምስር ምርታማነት ላይ የጎላ ተፅኖ ነበረዉ፡፡ ከፍተኛ የምስር ምርት (1546 ኪ.ግ/ሄ.ክ) የተገኘዉ ከዝቅተኛ የአስተራረስ ዘዴ ሲነፃፀር የባሕላዊ አስተራረስ ዘዴ የተሸለ ምርት አስገኝቷል፡፡ በስብጥር አዘራር ዘዴ በሁለቱም ሰብሎች ላይ የጎላ ተፅኖ ነበረዉ፡፡ ከፍተኛ የስንዴ ምርት (2932 እና 2982 ኪ.ግ/ሄ.ር) የተገኘዉ ስንዴ ብቻውን ሲዘራ (1፡0) እና 2፡1 ስንዴ እና ምስር ስብጥር ነዉ፡፡ ይሁን እንጂ አሰባጥሮ መዝራት የምስር ምርት እንደሚቀንሰው ጥናቶ ያሳያል፡፡ ከስብጥር አዘራር ዘዴ መካከል 2፡1 ስንዴ-ምስር ስብጥር ከፍተኛ የመሬት አጠቃቀም፤የመሬትና የጊዜ አጠቃቀም እንዲሁም የገንዘብ ጥቅም አስገኝቷል፡፡ ስለሆነም 2፡1 ስንዴ-ምስር ስብጥር ለስንዴ እና ምስር በስብጥር የማምረት ዘዴ ምቹ መሆኑን ጥናቱ አረጋግጧል፡፡</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong></p> <p>To feed the ever-increasing population, increase productivity per unit area is one of the most attractive strategies. Intercropping is considered a promising system for increasing crop productivity and land-use efficiency. A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different crop combinations of wheat-lentil on the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris) and land-use efficiency under two tillage practices in Minjar district during 2015-2017 cropping seasons. The experiment was carried out using split-plot design with three replications. The treatments consisted of two tillage practices (conventional and minimum tillage) assigned as the main plot and five wheat-lentil intercropping combinations (1:0, 1:1, 2:1, 1:2 and 0:1) assigned as the subplot. The tillage practices and intercropping had a significant effect on the growth parameters of wheat and lentil. Minimum tillage increased growth parameters for wheat, but reduced growth parameters for lentil. The yield of wheat was non-significantly affected by tillage practices, but the yield of lentils was significantly affected by tillage systems. A higher yield of lentil (1546 kgha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained in conventional tillage as compared to minimum tillage practices. Intercropping combination had a significant effect on both the growth and yield parameters of both crops. The highest yield of wheat (2932 and 2982 kgha<sup>-1</sup>) was recorded in sole wheat (1:0) and 2:1 wheat-lentil combination, while the highest yield of lentil (1575 kgha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained in sole lentil (0:1). Among intercropping combinations, 2:1 wheat-lentil gave the highest LER, ATER, and MAI values. Therefore, 2:1 wheat-lentil intercropping combinations were found suitable for higher productivity and production of component crops, and the intercropping system of wheat-lentil in any of the combinations found to be more profitable and productive compared to sole wheat and lentil.</p> 2021-05-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/206713 Performance Evaluation of Engine Operated Potato Grader 2021-05-06T11:06:26+00:00 Dereje Alemu drjalemu@gmail.com Abebe Fanta drjalemu@gmail.com Bisrat Getnet bisrat.get@gmail.com <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p>ድንችን በባህላዊ መንገድ በመጠን የመለየት ስራ ብዙ ሰዓትና የሰው ጉልበት የሚፈልግ በጣም አድካሚና አነስተኛ ውጤት የሚያስገኝ ስራ ነው። ስለሆነም ድንችን ወደ ተለያየ መጠን የሚለይ በሞተር ኃይል የሚሰራ ማሽን ፍተሻ እና የመገምገም ስራ ተሰርቷል። የመለያ ማሽኑ በተለያየ መጠን የሚለየውን ድንች ማስገቢያ፣መለያ ሲሊንደር፣ኃይል ማስተላለፊያ ዘንግና መቀበያ አሉት። ሙከራው በተለያየ ጡዘት (10፣15 እና 20 ጡዘት በደቂቃ)፣ ዘዌ (5፣10 እና 15 ዲግሪ) እና በተለያየ የድንች አጨማመር በደቂቃ (20፣ 30 እና 40ኪ.ግ) በስፕሊት ስፕሊት ፕሎት የሙከራ ዲዛይን (split split plot design)ተከናውኗል። የማሽኑን የድንች የመለየት አቅም፣ የመለየት ስርዓት ውጤታማነት፣የነዳጅ ፍጆታ እና መካኒካዊ ጉዳት ከግምት ውስጥ በማስገባት የመገምገም ስራ ተከናውኗል። የፍተሻ ውጤቶቹ እንደሚያሳዩት የማሽኑ የመለየት አቅም እና የነዳጅ ፍጆታው የመለያ ሲሊንደሩ ፍጥነት እና የሚለየው የድንች መጠን ሲጨምር አብሮ የሚጨምር ሲሆን የድንች ሜካኒካዊ ጉዳት እና የመለየት ስርዓት ውጤታማነት ደግሞ የዘዌ መጠን ሲጨምር እየቀነሰ ይሔዳል። ከፍተኛው የማሽኑ የመለየት ስርዓት ውጤታማነት የተገኘው ማሽኑ በ15 ጡዘት በደቂቃ እና በ5 ዲግሪ ዘዌ፤ 20 እና 30 ኪ.ግ. በደቂቃ ድንችን በተለያየ ጊዜ በመጨመር በሚለይበት ጊዜ 97.57 እና 97.67% በቅደም ተከተል ሆኖ ተመዝግቧል። ይህ የድንች መለያ ማሽን የኢኮኖሚ አዋጭነቱ ተጠንቶ በሀገር ውስጥ አምራቾች ተባዝቶ ለተጠቃሚዎች ቢቅርብ የድንች አምራቾችና በምርት እሴት ሰንሰለት ላይ የተሰማሩ ባለድርሻ አካላትን ውጤታማነትን ያሳድጋል።</p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em>Traditional methods of grading potato tubers require high labor-hour, cause fatigue to workers, and have low output. Hence, an engine-driven machine capable of grading potato tubers into different size classes was evaluated. The grader prototype consisted of a feeding table, grading cylinder, and catchment tray. Grading capacity, grading system efficiency, mechanical damage, and fuel consumption were used to determine the performance of the machine. Split-split-plot experimental design where grading cylinder speeds (10, 15, 20 rpm) were the main plots, angle of inclinations (5, 10, and 15°) as sub-plots, and feeding rates (20, 30, 40 Kg.min<sup>-1</sup>)as sub-sub-plots with three replications were used. The results indicated that grading capacity and fuel consumption increased with increasing cylinder speed and feed rate while percentage mechanical damage and grading system efficiency decreased with increasing angle of inclination. The maximum grading system efficiency of 97.57% and 97.67 % was observed when the machine was operated at speed of 15rpm, angle of inclination of 5°, and feed rate of 20 and 30 kg.min<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. From the performance indices, it can be concluded that the performance of the machine is very much acceptable with a high prospect for extending the technology for small and medium-scale farmers and potato whole sellers along the value chain.</p> 2021-05-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/206714 On-Farm Management, Processing and Post-Harvest Handling of the Indigenous Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw) Cheesman) in Gedeo Zone, Southern Ethiopia 2021-05-06T10:58:41+00:00 Tafesse Kibatu tafesse.kibatu@aau.edu.et Berhanu Tigabu tafesse.kibatu@aau.edu.et Meseret Mamo tafesse.kibatu@aau.edu.et Shiferaw Tolosa tafesse.kibatu@aau.edu.et Fekede Girma tafesse.kibatu@aau.edu.et Nigusu Debebe tafesse.kibatu@aau.edu.et Meshu Shewarega tafesse.kibatu@aau.edu.et <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p>እንሰት አመቱን ሙሉ አረንጓዴ የሚሆንና ድርቅን የሚቋቋም ዕፅዋት ሲሆን ለምግብነት፣ ለመኖ፣ ለቃጫ፣ ለማገዶ፣ ለመድሀኒትነት እና ለተለያዩ ባህላዊ ክንውኖች ይጠቅማል፡፡ የጌዶኦ ዞን እንሰት አመራረት ከሰው ልጆችና ከሌሎች ህይወት ካላቸው ፍጥረቶች ጋር በቁርኝት የሚገኝ ነው፡፡ አብዛኛው የእንሰት ምርምር ስራዎች በደጋማና ከፍታ ባላቸው አካባቢዎች በማተኮር የሚሰሩ ሲሆን እነዚህም አካባቢዎች በእንሰት ምርታማነት የሚታወቁ ናቸው፡፡ ይህም ሁኔታ ዝቅተኛ ከፍታ ባላቸው አካባቢዎች ላይ የእንሰትን ጥቅምና አገልግሎት እንዲያንስ አድርጎታል፡፡ በመሆኑም የዚህ የምርምር ዋና አላማ ሁሉንም ስነ-ምህዳር ባገናዘበና ባካተተ ሁኔታ የእንስሳት አመራረትንና አዘገጃጀት በጌዲኦ ያለውን ገጽታ ለማሳየት የተደረገ ጥናት ነው፡፡ ይህንንም ተግባራው ለማድረግ ሶስት ስነ-ምህዳርን የሚወክሉ ሰባት ቀበሌዎች ከሶስት ወረዳዎች ተመርጠዋል፡፡ በመቀጠልም ስለ እንሰት ከፍተኛ ግንዛቤ ያላቸውንና ፍቃደኛ የሆኑ የማህበረሰቡን አካላት ጋር ዘርዘር ባለ ሁኔታ ጥልቅ ውይይት ተደርጓል፡፡ ለውይይት መነሻነትም መጠይቅ ተዘጋጅቷል፡፡ በመጠይቁ ከአምራቾች አስተሳሰብና ትግበራ አንጻር የእንሰት የስነ-ምህዳር ፍላጎት፣ የአረባብ ሁኔታ፣ የአፈር አጠባበቅ፣ የአተካከል ሁኔታ፣ የበሽታና የተባይ ሁኔታ፣ የምርት አሰባሰብ፣ እንዲሁም የምርት አዘገጃጀትና አቀማመጥ ሁኔታ መረጃ በ230 መጠይቅ በመጠቀም ተሰብስቧል፡፡ ከመረጃውም ብዙዎቹ የእርሻ ሥራዎች በባህላዊ መንገድ እንደሚሰሩ ለመረዳት የተቻለ ሲሆን ተጨማሪም አንዳንድ በዘር የማራባት ዘዴ ዓይነት ወሳኝ የእርሻ ተግባራት የተዘነጉበት ሁኔታም እንዳለ ለመረዳት ተችሏል፡፡</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h1>Abstract</h1> <p>Enset is a perennial, drought-tolerant, banana-like plant that used for food, fodder, fiber production, fuel, traditional medicine, and for other different cultural practices. The enset production system of Gedeo expresses complex interrelationships between humans and biological diversity. The majority of research studies focused on higher altitudes, where enset production was established successfully for a long time. However, enset can grow in a wide range of environments including lower altitudes, where the potential use of the crop might be further exploited. Hence, the objective of this research was to provide information on on-farm management and processing of enset across the different agroecology of Gedeo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. From the three agroecological representative woredas, a total of seven sample kebeles were selected. Detailed information from volunteer key informants on the crop agroecological preferences, crop calendar, propagation techniques, planting methods, soil management, disease, and pest management, harvesting, processing, and storage methods were collected. This information was organized and developed into a structured questionnaire. A total of 230 randomly selected farmer households were included in the data. In the study area, enset crop-management and processing activities performed using traditional methods. Some alternative techniques and approaches, such as the seed propagation method overlooked.</p> 2021-05-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/206716 Physicochemical Changes of Apple (Malus domestica) Fruit Cultivars as Influenced by Maturity Stages and Postharvest Management Practices 2021-05-04T13:55:14+00:00 Tadesse Fikre tadessefikre@gmail.com Abadi Gebre tadessefikre@hu.edu.et Eden Leka tadessefikre@hu.edu.et <h1>አህፅሮት</h1> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>ይህ</em> <em>ምርምር</em> <em>የተካሄደው</em> <em>በጨንቻ</em><em> (</em><em>ኢትዮጵያ</em><em>) </em><em>የበቀሉ</em> <em>ሦስት</em> <em>የአፕል</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>ከተመረቱ</em> <em>በ</em><em>3 </em><em>ሳምንታት</em> <em>ክምችት</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>የሚያሳዩትን</em> <em>ለውጦች</em> <em>ለማወቅ</em> <em>ነው።</em> <em>ሁሉም</em> <em>የተለኩ</em> <em>የጥራት</em> <em>አመላካቾች</em> <em>በሦስቱ</em> <em>ዝርያዎች፣</em> <em>በብስለት</em> <em>ደረጃቸውና</em> <em>በማሸጊያ</em><em> (</em><em>መያዣ</em><em>) </em><em>ዓይነቶች</em> <em>ትርጉም</em> <em>ባለው</em> <em>ደረጃ</em> <em>ልዩነት</em> <em>አሳይቷል።</em> <em>በብዙ</em> <em>አምራቾች</em> <em>ገበያ</em> <em>ለመሻማት</em> <em>የሚደረገውን</em> <em>ለመወከል</em> <em>ከትክክለኛው</em> <em>የመሰብሰቢያ</em> <em>ጊዜው</em> <em>በ</em><em>2 </em><em>ሳምንታት</em> <em>ቀድመው</em> <em>የተለቀሙት</em> <em>ናሙናዎች</em> <em>ከፍ</em> <em>ያለ</em> <em>ጠጣርነት</em><em> (</em><em>ጥንካሬ</em><em>) </em><em>አስመዝግበዋል።</em> <em>እንደዚሁም</em> <em>አነስተኛ</em> <em>ጥቅል</em> <em>ሟሚ</em> <em>ጥጥሮችም</em><em> (total soluble solids) </em><em>ለነዚሁ</em> <em>ቀድመው</em> <em>ለተለቀሙ</em> <em>ናሙናዎች</em><em> (</em><em>በዝርያ</em> <em>ሳይለይ</em><em>) </em><em>ተመዝግቧል።</em> <em>ጠጣርነቱ</em><em> (</em><em>ጥንካሬው</em><em>) </em><em>በክምችቱ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>እየቀነሰ</em> <em>ሲሄድ</em> <em>ጥቅል</em> <em>ሟሚ</em> <em>ጥጥሮቹ</em><em> (</em><em>በብዛት</em> <em>ስኳር</em><em>) </em><em>ግን</em> <em>መጠናቸው</em> <em>እየጨመረ</em> <em>መሄዱ</em> <em>በተወሰነ</em> <em>ደረጃ</em> <em>የተስተዋለ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>ይህም</em> <em>የአፕል</em> <em>ፍሬዎቹ</em> <em>ለመብል</em> <em>ተፈላጊነታቸው</em><em> (</em><em>ልስላሴና</em> <em>ጥፍጥናቸው</em><em>) </em><em>እየጨመረ</em> <em>መምጣቱን</em> <em>ያሳይ</em> <em>ይሆናል።</em> <em>ይሁንና</em> <em>በእሼትነታቸው</em> <em>የሚበሉ</em> <em>እንደ</em> <em>አፕል</em> <em>ያሉ</em> <em>ፍራፍሬዎች</em> <em>መሰብሰብና</em> <em>ለገበያ</em> <em>መቅረብ</em> <em>ያለባቸው</em> <em>እድገታቸውን</em> <em>ጨርሰው</em> <em>በትክክለኛው</em> <em>የብስለት</em> <em>ጊዜያቸው</em> <em>እንደሆነ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በዚህ</em> <em>መንገድም</em> <em>የተሻለ</em> <em>ዋጋ</em> <em>እንደሚያወጡ</em> <em>ለአምራቾቹ</em> <em>የግንዛቤ</em> <em>መፍጠሪያ</em> <em>ስልጠናዎችና</em> <em>የኤክስቴንሽን</em> <em>ሥራዎች</em> <em>እንደሚያስፈልጋቸው</em> <em>ማስገንዘብ</em> <em>ተገቢ</em> <em>ነው።</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>This research was conducted to understand changes of physicochemical properties of fruits of three apple cultivars as influenced by the stage of maturity and packaging types over a storage period of three weeks. The research was designed to replicate practices by the producers and along the value chains and to assess the fruit quality under the conditions of the major markets in the region. All the measured physicochemical parameters significantly varied with the cultivars, maturity stage at harvest, and packaging types. Higher firmness was recorded for the samples harvested about two weeks before the optimal maturity, usually practiced by a significant number of producers to gain market advantage. Lower total soluble solids corresponded to the early harvested samples regardless of cultivars and packaging types. The firmness was observed decreasing over the storage periods whereas the total soluble solids increased, which is associated with improving sensorial quality for the early harvested cultivars as the soluble solids are mainly sugars. The early harvesting resulted in fruits of inferior desirability including extreme hardness, firmness, and low total soluble solids that may have high sourness and less sweet taste. Awareness creation for the producers on the quality and advantages of harvesting their produces at optimal maturity and practicing good postharvest management is required. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-05-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/206718 Participatory Evaluation and Demonstration of Onion Spacing in Irrigated Agriculture at Kencho Kebele in Uba Debre Tsehay Woreda, Southern Ethiopia 2021-05-06T11:08:22+00:00 Markos Habtewold markokam@yahoo.com Chanako Dane markokam@yahoo.com Alemnesh Ayza markokam@yahoo.com <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em>ይህ ምርምር ጥናት ሥራ ለሁለት ተከታታይ ዓመታት በተሳትፏዊ ተከላ ርቀት ለተሻላ ሽንኩርት ምርት በአነስተኛ መስኖ በሚል በአርባምንጭ ግብርና ምርምር ማዕከል የተሰራ ነዉ፡፡ ሙከራዉ የተካሄደዉ በአራት ተከላ ርቀት ማለትም በ8 ሳ.ሜ፣ በ10 ሳ.ሜ፣ በ12 ሳ.ሜ እና አርሶ አደሩ በለመደዉ ወይም እራሱ በሚተክለዉ ነዉ፡፡ የሌሎች ግብአቶች አሰጣጥ ማለትም ማደበሪያ፣ ዩሪያ፣ ዉሃ፣ ኬሚካልና አረም ቁጥጥር ሥራ ለሁሉም ተከላ ርቀት ተመሳሳይ ናቸዉ፡፡ ከአራቱም ሽንኩርት ተከላ ርቀቶች የተሻለ ምርት ዉጤት የተገኘዉ በ10 ሳ.ሜ (17.178 ቶን በሄክታር) እና 12 ሳ.ሜ (17.740 ቶን በሄክታር) ነዉ፡፡ በዚህ ጥናት አርሶ አደር በእራሱ ልምድ በአማካይ ተከላ ርቀት 7.3 ሳ.ሜ የተገኘዉ ምርት ዝቅተኛ ዉጤት (11.464 ቶን በሄክታር) ሆኖ ተገኝቷል፡፡ እንደ ኮምፕዩተር ፕሮግራም ትንተና ከአርሶ አደር ተከላ ርቀት ዉጭ፤ በሌሎቹ ተከላ ርቀቶች ምንም ዓይነት ልዩነት አልታየም፡፡ ምንም እንኳን የተገኘዉ ምርት ዉጤት በአማካይ አነስተኛ ቢሆንም፤ በወቅታዊ ገበያ አንፃር በአንድ ኪሎ ግራም 34 ብርና በሄክታር 532,831ብር በመሸጥ አርሶ አደሩ ከሌሎቹ ጊዜያት የተሻለ ገቢ ያገኘበት ጥናት ነዉ፡፡ ይህ ዋጋ ጭማሬ የታየዉ፣ በወቅቱ ከተመረተዉ አነስተኛ ምርት መጠን መሆኑ ታዉቋል፡፡ ከዚህ ጥናት መነሻ፤ ተሳትፏዊ አነስተኛ መስኖ ሥራ ላልተጠበቀዉ አየር ንብረት ለዉጥም ሆነ ምግብ ዋስትናን ለማረጋገጥ ጉልህ አስተዋፅኦ እንዳለዉ ታይቷል፡፡ ስለዚህ በተሳትፏዊ አነስተኛ መስኖ ሥራ ሽንኩርት በጥሩ ሁኔታ በተዘጋጀ ማሳ በ10 ሳ.ሜ ተከላ ርቀት ቢተከል፤ ምረትና ምርታማነትን ሳይቀንስ አርሶ አደሩን ይበልጥ ዉጠታማ ያደርገዋል፡፡</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em>This study was conducted for two consecutive years to find optimum onion spacing under full irrigation, which allows the maximum yield of onion at Kencho kebele of Uba debretsehay woreda Gofa Zone Southern, Ethiopia through the support of the Participatory Small-scale Irrigation Development Program(PASID II). The experiment has four levels of onion planting spacing (8cm, 10cm, 12cm, and Farmer's practice or planting with own practice), laid down in Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD) with four Replications. The same amount of irrigation water (416.56mm) which is 100%ETc was applied for all treatments in the five-day intervals during the study. There was no significant difference among treatment spacing 8cm,10cm, and 12cm on the total yield of onion (16.304 t/ha,17.178 t/ha, and 17.740 t/ha), respectively. The only statistical difference was observed between the three treatments and farmer practice which is 7.3cm (11.464t/ha) on average spacing. Accordingly, farmers’ (FREG) were very profitable from the study in both years. Of course, the yield obtained from the study was very low as compared to the potential yield of Red Creole variety in Ethiopia. As a result, farmers were earned a seasonal income of 34ETB/kg which was very costly, and 532,831ETB/ha on average from seasonal production. This implies that low production potential, but makes high profitable for the farmers during the season. So the PASIDP has vital economic values on the livelihood of farmers and even good training for neighborhood farmers. Therefore it was recommended that application appropriate onion spacing of 10cm with a properly managed field irrigation system makes it highly profitable with marketable yield under full irrigation (100%ETc).</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> 2021-05-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)