Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p>EJAS is to provide readers with original scientific research, both basic and applied, with far reaching implications of Ethiopian agriculture. Thus, EJAS seeks to publish those papers that are most influential in Ethiopian agriculture and that will significantly advance scientific understanding of agriculture.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 0257-2605 ©EIAR Urban Crop Production and Natural Resource Management Practices, Challenges, and Intervention Options in Addis Ababa <p><em>The population of Addis Ababa is growing at rapid pace and currently reaches about 5 million. Food shortage, unemployment of youths and women, and increasing prices of major food items are critical constraints. In spite of the efforts to overcome the limitations, information is lacking on urban crop production and natural resource development and management practices to take informed decisions to enhance urban crop production and environmental sustainability. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Addis Ababa to identify and generate information on urban crop production and natural resource management practices, bottlenecks of the practices, and recommend possible intervention options to mitigate the challenges. Quantitative and qualitative secondary and primary data were collected through review of secondary sources and sample survey of urban producers and stakeholders using distinctive checklists. Data were collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and matrix rankings by multidisciplinary research team. </em><em>The collected data were analyzed using thematic and narrative analyses to achieve objectives of the study. Most of urban producers grow Swiss chard, lettuce, head cabbage, Ethiopian kale (gomen). These crops are selected due to their short life cycle (could be grown three to four times annually), ease of cultivation and low disease incidence. Carrots, beet roots, cauliflower, garlic, onion and potatoes were also grown by some producers. A few producers grew spices and high value crops such as leeks, chives, celery, zukuni, parsley, spinach and spices like coriander. Cereal crops and mushrooms were also produced by limited number of producers. Managing tree seedling nurseries, afforestation and reforestation, and agroforestry practices are carried out to develop and manage natural resources and keep ecological balance. However, shortage of improved technologies, land, and water supply were main constraints in the city. Environmental degradation, inadequate waste disposal and management, limited waste recycling and reuse, and food safety and quality were constraints in Addis Ababa. Overcoming the challenges need involvement of all stakeholders to jointly plan, formulate policy and strategy, and take coordinated and targeted actions. </em></p> Tolesa Alemu Solomon Endris Getachew Tabor Melkamu Demelash Samuel Diro Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 33 3 1 18 Performance of Andinet Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Variety <p><em>Several soybean genotypes that have been introduced in 2015 from the Institute of International Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria, by the Pawe Agricultural Research Center of the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research were evaluated for yield and other desirable agronomic traits, aiming to identify genotypes that have better yields than the existing varieties cultivated in the country. The combined mean square of genotype plus genotype × environment interaction (GEI) analysis showed highly significant (P &lt; 0.01) difference for grain yield among the tested genotypes. Genotype Tgx-1989-75F has showed best performance for grain yield, hundred seed weight, number of branches per plant and number of seed per pod based on the combined mean results. In addition, the genotype exceeded the standard check (Pawe-03) and local check (Gishama) varieties by 35.6% and 19.7%, respectively. And also, it has showed additional merits such as; resistance to frog eye leaf spot and tolerance to bacterial blight, brown leaf spot, red leaf blotch, and rust, and has been shown to be stable across test locations and seasons. Genotype Tgx-1989-75F has released as a variety with name “Andinet” and </em><em>can be widely used for commercial farming in </em><em>Pawe, Asosa, Bako, Sirinka, Areka, Jimma, Gonder</em><em>, and similar areas,</em><em> resulting in increased revenue for smallholder farmers.</em></p> Asmamaw Amogne Molla Malede Derese Hunde Gezahegn Tefera , Ermiyas Tefera Adane Arega Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 33 3 19 28 Crossbred Cows Conformation Traits and Milk Yield Correlations in Central Ethiopia <p><em>We </em><em>examined the effects of different genotypes and parities on linear conformation traits and assessed the phenotypic relationship between milk yield and linear conformation traits of crossbred dairy cows.</em> <em>We measured twelve linear conformation traits combined with body weight and body condition score of thirty-one 50% Friesian Boran and thirty-five 75% Friesian Boran crossbred cows from 2019 to 2022. F</em><em>eeding management practices that are usually used for Holeta research station dairy farms consisting of natural grazing, hay and concentrate supplements at the rate of 4 kg per day/cow were the recommended feeding practices in the farm. </em><em>The overall means of stature, wither height, heart girth, rump length, body length, body condition score and body weight of Friesian Borana crossbred cows were 134.20 cm, 133.31cm, 172.26 cm, 65.00 cm, 149.26 cm, 2.84 and 424.60 kg, respectively.</em> <em>Crossbred cows having 75% exotic gene inheritance had lower body condition score (2.6) than cows with 50% exotic gene inheritance (3.11). The 75% Friesian Borana crossbred cows had also wider udder circumference before and after milking (32.9 and 29.2 cm) than the 50% Friesian Borana crosses (30.4 and 28.4 cm), respectively. High phenotypic correlations (P&lt;0.01) were observed between milk yield with rump length (r<sub>p</sub>=0.91), body length (r<sub>p</sub>=0.68), front udder height (r<sub>p</sub>=0.92), rear udder height (r<sub>p</sub>=0.66), and udder circumference (r<sub>p</sub>=0.78). Hence, rump length, body length, front udder height and udder circumference can be taken as better predictors of milk yield of dairy cows and accounting for these traits in the dairy cattle breeding program aids in achieving additional information on selection of cows for milk production. </em></p> Molla Shumye Ulfina Galmessa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 33 3 29 40 Effects of Natural Pasture Hay and Concentrate-Based Total Mixed Ration on the Performance of Jersey Calves <p><em>The study aimed to compare the effect of natural pasture hay and concentrate-based total mixed ration (TMR) with separate feeding </em><em>on dry matter and nutrient intakes, apparent digestibility, feed efficiency, body weight gain and reproductive performances of dairy calves.</em> <em>A total of eighteen post-weaned Jersey calves (age was 6.20 ± 1.61 months, and weighing was 90.4 ± 5.48 kg, mean ± S.D) were randomly assigned into a completely randomized design. Treatments were separate feedings of natural pasture hay and concentrate (T1) and TMR (T2). The feeding trial was carried out for 10.23 months. </em><em>The calves in T2 group consumed more (P&lt;0.0) dry matter (8.71kg vs.7.86 kg), crude protein (1.62 kg vs.1.32 kg), neutral detergent fiber (4.63 kg vs.4.11kg) and acid detergent fiber (3.54 kg vs.3.12 kg) compared to the calves fed T1.</em><em> The calves in T2 showed higher (P&lt;0.05) organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber digestibility compared to the calves fed T1 </em><em>but similar (P&lt;0.05) in dry matter and crude protein digestibility. Calves in T2 group showed superior (P&lt;0.05) daily weight gain (600.55 g vs. 335.18 g) and reached their first service at an average weight and age of 263.9 kg&nbsp; and 13.61 months, compared to 199.30 kg and 15.63 months, respectively, &nbsp;for T1 groups. Heifers in T2 required fewer inseminations per conception (1.12 vs. 1.75) and generated lower (P&lt;0.05) total cost of production. Thus, the study recommends the TMR over separate feeding for weaned Jersey calves to increase the productive and reproductive efficiency at breeding.</em></p> Geberemariyam Terefe Ajebu Nurfeta Getu Kitaw Getnet Assefa Mulugeta Walelegne Mesfin Dejene Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 33 3 41 57 Effects of Lime and NPSB Fertilizer Rates on Yield Attributes and Yield of Wheat, and Soil Properties in Harbagona District of Sidama Region, Ethiopia <p><em>Wheat is a crucial global cereal crop, particularly vital for Ethiopian highlanders. However, its production is often influenced by various environmental factors, notably soil acidity. This field experiment was carried out in Harbagona, Sidama Region of Ethiopia, during the main cropping season of 2022, aimed to evaluate the effects of combined lime and NPSB fertilizer applications on wheat yield and soil properties. The experiment </em><em>was designed in a </em><em>randomized complete block with ten factorial combinations involving five rates of NPSB fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and two lime levels (with and without) replicated thrice. </em><em>Results showed that combining lime with NPSB fertilizer significantly increased wheat grain and biomass yields, with the highest yields achieved at 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB application rate. </em><em>Furthermore, </em><em>the integrated application of lime and NPSB improved soil pH, reduced exchangeable acidity, </em><em>and increased cation exchange capacity, thereby enhanced </em><em>nutrient availability. Economic analysis revealed that </em><em>lime integrated with 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB fertilizer</em><em> provided the highest net benefit and marginal rate of return. </em><em>Additionally</em><em>, lime application extended days to heading, but accelerated days to maturity, while NPSB fertilization reduced both heading and maturity durations. </em><em>Moreover, </em><em>the </em><em>combined application of lime and NPSB fertilizer </em><em>enhanced various yield attributes of wheat, including tiller count, plant height, spike length, seed weight, and harvest index. In conclusion, </em><em>the application of 100–150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> NPSB fertilizer combined with lime not only enhanced soil properties, but also optimized yield and economic benefits. </em><em>These findings emphasize the importance of nutrient management and soil amelioration practices in optimizing wheat yield and soil health in acidic soil conditions.</em></p> Hailu Hameso Tariku Tefera Tamirat Tadewos3 Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 33 3 58 77 Evaluation of Productive and Reproductive Performances of Gumuz, Felata and Agew Goat Breeds in Metekel Zone, Benishangul Gumuz Ethiopia <p><em>Goat production is one of the key practices of livestock farming mainly in the lowland of the country. This study was undertaken to evaluate the production and reproduction potential of the Agew, Felata and Gumuz goat breeds in Metekel zone of Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State. Thirty goats from each of the three breeds making a total flock size of 90 were purchased from the local markets and kept on-station under uniform management conditions for performance evaluation during the period of 2016 to 2022. The appropriate flock management and health care were employed throughout the study period. Growth and reproductive performance data were collected for six consecutive years and the data were subjected to analysis using the General Linear Model Procedures of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Average birth weights recorded for Felata, Gumuz and Agew were 2.22±0.03, 2.01±0.02 and 2.03±0.02kg, respectively. Breed, birth year, season of birth, birth type, and sex had significant effect (P&lt;0.001) on birth weight of kids. The overall least square means of birth weights of single, twins and triplets were 2.18±0.02, 2.01±0.02, and 1.78±0.05 kg, respectively. Breed, birth year, and season had significant effect on litter size of goats. The highest average weaning weight was attained by Felata goats (7.38±0.25 kg) and the lowest being for Agew goats (6.27±0.13 kg). The average yearling weight reached at 18.01±0.57 kg for Felata goats, 17.01±0.32 kg for Gumuz goats and 16.77±0.31 kg for Agew goats. The average age at first service for Felata, Gumuz, and Agew goats were 258.36±3.82, 231.05±2.11 and 240.20±2.70 days respectively. Similarly, the average age at first kidding was 413.84±10.63 days for Felata, 378.89±7.04 kg for Gumuz and 394.47±7.44 days for Agew goats. Thus, it can be concluded that under the same management condition in most performance parameters of Gumuz goat breeds was higher than Agew and Felata Goats. Therefore, Gumuz goats should be improved by establishing a community-based breeding program.</em></p> Habtie Arega Tilahun Debela Mezgebu Getnet Bainesagn Worku Anwar Seid Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 33 3 78 89 Determinants of Participation and Extent of Participation in Contract Farming Among Smallholder Malt Barley Farmers in Oromia Region, Ethiopia: A Double Hurdle Approach <p><em>The study examined contract farming participation intensity determinants among small-scale malt barley farmers in the Arsi Highlands, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Data was gathered from 384 sample respondents using a multistage sampling procedure. Age, livestock ownership, crop output, price, advice service, cooperative membership, and credit were found to be major determinants of probability of contract farming participation. However, total land size and farming experience negatively determined the likelihood of participation in contract farming. The contract participation intensity was defined by educational level, landholding size, production selling price, amount of fertilizer applied, and off-farm income. It is discovered that smallholder producers of malt barley are increasingly drawn to contract farming. It is anticipated that the trend will continue, bringing about more awareness of the advantages of contract farming as well as better access to and utilization of agricultural input supplies.</em></p> Addisu Bezabeh Fekadu Beyene Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 33 3 90 107