Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas <p>EJAS is to provide readers with original scientific research, both basic and applied, with far reaching implications of Ethiopian agriculture. Thus, EJAS seeks to publish those papers that are most influential in Ethiopian agriculture and that will significantly advance scientific understanding of agriculture.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals" href="http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals</a></p> en-US Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 0257-2605 ©EIAR Rapid Generation Advance in Chickpea for Accelerated Breeding Gain in Ethiopia: https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203251 <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ሽምብራ</em> <em>በሀገራችን</em> <em>በተለያዩ</em> <em>ስነ</em><em>-</em><em>ምህዳራትና</em> <em>የአዘማመር</em> <em>ስርዓት</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>የሚመረት</em> <em>ሰብል</em> <em>ነው፡፡</em><em> የ</em><em>ሰብሉ</em> <em>የመድረሻ</em> <em>ተለያይነት</em> <em>በዓለም</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ከ</em><em>80 </em><em>አስከ</em><em> 180 </em><em>ቀናት</em> <em>ይደርሳል፡፡ እያደገ</em> <em>ያለውን</em> <em>ህዝብ<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">ና</span></em><em> የ</em><em>ተለያዩ</em> <em>ፍላጎቶችን</em> <em>ለመመለስ</em> <em>የሰብል</em> <em>ማሻሻያ</em> <em>ስርዓቱ</em> <em>ጊዜን</em> <em>በቆጠበ</em> <em>ሁኔታ</em> <em>መከወን</em> <em>የሚያስችሉ</em> <em>ዘዴዎችን</em> <em>መጠቀሙ</em> <em>አንዱ</em><em> የ</em><em>ችግሩ</em> <em>መፍቻ</em> <em>መንገድ</em> <em>ነው፡፡</em> <em>በዚህ</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>የሰብሉን</em> <em>ማሻሻያ</em> <em>ለማፍጠን</em> <em>እንዴት</em> <em>በርካታ</em> <em>ትውልዶቸን</em> <em>በአንድ</em> <em>ዓመት</em><em> ማግኘት </em><em>እንደሚቻል</em> <em>ቀርቧል፡፡</em> <em>አስር</em> <em>የሚሆኑ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ያሉ</em><em> የ</em><em>ሽምብራ</em> <em>ዝርያዎችን</em> <em>ከሌሎች</em> <em>ዘጠኝ</em> <em>በዘመናዊ</em> <em>ላብራቶሪ</em> <em>ልየታ</em> <em>ድርቅን</em> <em>የሚቋቋም</em> <em>ባህሪ</em> <em>ያላቸውን</em> <em>ቤተሰቦቸ</em> <em>በማዳቀል</em> <em>ሂደት</em> <em>ወደ</em><em> 46 </em><em>ግንኙነቶችን</em> <em>መፍጠር</em> <em>የተቻለበትንና</em> <em>ትውልዶችን</em> <em>ማፍጠንንና</em> <em>ማግኘትን</em> <em>በትኩረት</em> <em>ተከናውኗል፡፡</em> <em>ዓላማውም</em> <em>ድርቅን</em><em> የሚ</em><em>ቋቋሙና</em> <em>ምርታማ</em> <em>ትውልዶችን</em> <em>ፍተሻ</em> <em>ማድረግ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>ይህንንም</em> <em>ባጭር</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>ለመከወን</em> <em>አዲስ</em> <em>የነጠላ</em> <em>ዘር</em> <em>ትውልድ</em> <em>ማሻገሪያ</em> <em>ስርዓትን</em> <em>ከቀድሞ</em> <em>ደራሽ</em> <em>እምቡጦች</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>በማቀናጀት</em> <em>አራት</em> <em>ትውልዶችን</em> <em>በዓመት</em> <em>ማግኘት</em> <em>የተቻለበትን</em> <em>ሁኔታ</em> <em>ማረጋገጥ</em> <em>ተችሏል፡፡</em> <em>ይህ</em> <em>ትውልዶችን</em> <em>የማስኬድ</em> <em>ሁኔታ</em> <em>በአንድ</em> አመት ጊዜ ውስጥ በወረርና<em> የ</em><em>ደብረዘይት</em><em> ማእከላት የ</em><em>ሙከራ</em> <em>ማሳዎችን</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>የተሰራ</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>በውጤቱም</em> <em>ቀድሞ</em> <em>ደራሽ</em> <em>እምቡጦችን</em> <em>ለማግኘት</em> <em>ከ</em><em>80-85 </em><em>ቀናት</em> <em>ብቻ</em> <em>የፈጀ</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>ትውልዶቹ</em> <em>የመካከለኛ</em> <em>መድረሻ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>ያለው</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>የሚመደቡ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>በዚህ</em> <em>ስሌት</em> <em>የዝርያ</em> <em>መልቀቂያ</em> <em>ጊዜውን</em> <em>ከተለመደው</em><em> 10-12 </em><em>ዓመታት</em><em> 50 በመቶ </em><em>በመቀነስ</em> <em>የአማራጭ</em> <em>ቴክኖሎጂ</em> <em>አቅርቦትና</em> <em>ምርታማነት</em> <em>እንዲሁም</em> <em>አዋጭነት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>አስተዋፅዖ</em> <em>ያለው</em> <em>ውጤት</em> <em>አመላክቷል፡፡</em> <em>ይህ</em> <em>ቴክኒክ</em> <em>በቶሎ</em> <em>የመድረሻ</em><em> ዕ</em><em>ድሜ</em> <em>ያላቸው</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ተፅዕኖው</em> <em>አስከ</em> <em>ስድስት</em> <em>ትውልድ</em> <em>በዓመት</em> <em>ማስገኘት</em> <em>እንደሚያስችል</em> <em>የተሰላ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>በቀላሉ</em> <em>የሚለመድ፣</em> <em>በጥቂት</em> <em>የመዋዕለ</em> <em>ነዋይ፣</em> <em>ፋሲሊቲና</em> <em>ክህሎት</em> <em>በትሮፒካል</em> <em>ንፍቀ</em><em>-</em><em>ክበብ</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>አገልግሎት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ሊውል</em> <em>የሚችልና</em> <em>ቴክኖሎጂ</em> <em>ለቀቃን</em> <em>ብሎም</em> <em>መተካካትን</em> <em>የሚያፋጥን፤</em> <em>በዚህም</em> <em>ረገድ</em> <em>የምርታማነት</em> <em>እመርታን</em> <em>የሚያስገኝ</em> <em>የተሻሻለ</em> <em>ዘዴ</em> <em>እንደሆነ</em> <em>መገንዘብ</em> <em>ተችሏል፡፡</em></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>Chickpea (</em><strong>Cicer arietinum</strong><em> L.) is grown in a wide range of environments and cropping systems and its maturity ranges from 80 to 180</em><em> days</em><em>. Time-saving breeding is key to responding to the dynamics of demands and environmental changes. The study employed the Single Seed Descent (SSD) technique in advancing the generation, supported by the independent observation of chickpea seed germination and seedling establishment in the seed lab. The filial generation nursery was derived from 46 initial crosses with the aim of enhancing drought and yield response of otherwise commercial 10 cultivars. Between 5 December 2017 and 20 December 2018 we were able to obtain four rounds of working chickpea seeds (F<sub>2</sub>-F<sub>5</sub>) using two research locations. The average time required to obtain early matured pods varied from 80 to 85 days. Harvesting four generations in an annual cycle enables a saving of at least 50% time in variety release, which has the potential to double the rate of genetic gain and variety replacement. As long as measures are taken to reduce risk associated with extreme weather events or animal damage, this low-cost rapid cycling approach could be adapted for large-scale breeding programs to fast track the development of more productive varieties. </em></p> Asnake Fikre Tulu Degefu Tesfaye Geleta Mahendar Thudi Pooran Gaur Chris Ojiewo Lee Hickey Rajeev K. Varshney Copyright (c) http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 1 10 Coffee Quality Profile Mapping of BenchMaji and Sheka Zones in Southwestern Ethiopia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203254 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>አህፅሮት </strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ የአረቢካ ቡና መገኛና ከፍተኛ የሆነ የቡና ብዝሃ-ሕይወት እንደሚገኝበት ይታወቃል፡፡ ጥራት የቡናን ዋጋ እንዲሁም በቡናው ምርት ላይ ያለውን ጠቀሜታ ይወስናል፡፡ በቤንችማጂና ሸካ ዞን አካባቢ ያለውን የቡና ጥራት ጣዕም ለመገምገምና ከአፈርና ከአካባቢያዊ የአየር ሁኔታ ጋር ያለውን ተዛምዶ ለማጥናት ይህ ሙከራ ተከናውኗል፡፡ ጥናቱ የተከናወነው ነስትድ (</em><em>Nested</em><em>) በተባለ ዲዛይን በሶስት ድግግሞሽ ነበር፡፡ ቀበሌዎቹ በወረዳ ውስጥ ነስትድ (</em><em>Nested</em><em>) ሆነው የተለያዩ ሶስት የቡና ማሳዎች በአንድ ቀበሌ ውስጥ ለድግግሞሽ ውለዋል፡፡ በአጠቃላይ </em><em>162</em><em> የቡና ናሙናዎች ተሰብስበው በጅማ የግብርና ምርምር ማዕከል የቡና ጥራት ባለሙያዎች የጥሬና የጣዕም ትንተና ተከናውኗል፡፡ በአብዛኛው የቡናው የጥሬና የጣዕም ባህሪያት በናሙናዎቹ መካከል ከፍተኛ የሆነ ተለያይነት እንዳለ ታውቋል፡፡ የየኪ ወረዳ ቡና የወንፊት መጠኑ ከፍተኛ (</em><em>97.67</em><em>) ሲሆን ሜኒትጎልዲያ ወረዳ አነስተኛ (</em><em>95.33</em><em>) መሆኑ ተለይቷል፡፡ የመቶ ቡና ፍሬ ክብደትን በሚመለከት የአንድራቻ ወረዳ ከፍተኛ (</em><em>18.81</em><em> gm) እንዲሁም የሸኮ ወረዳ ዝቅተኛ ክብደት (</em><em>16.20</em><em> gm) አሳይቷል፡፡ በጥሬ ቡና ግምገማ ውጤት ሜኒትሻሻ ወረዳ ከፍተኛ (</em><em>36.53</em><em>) ሲያገኝ ደቡብ ቤንች አነስተኛ (</em><em>35.28</em><em>) ውጤት አግኝቷል፡፡ ከፍተኛ (</em><em>49.81</em><em>) የቡና ጣዕም ውጤት በአንድራቻ ወረዳ ሲገኝ በየኪ ወረዳ አነስተኛ (</em><em>43.33</em><em>) የሆነ ውጤት ተገኝቷል፡፡ በአጠቃላይ የጥሬና ጣዕም ትንተና አንድራቻ ወረዳ ከፍተኛ ውጤት </em><em>(86.23)</em><em> ሲያስመዘግብ የኪ ወረዳ አነስተኛ (</em><em>78.83</em><em>) የሆነ ውጤት አግኝቷል፡፡ ከ</em><em>85.00</em><em> በላይ የቡና ናሙናዎች</em><em> 80.00 </em><em>ከመቶ በላይ የሆነ አጠቃላይ ጥራትና ጣዕም ውጤት ያገኙት ስለሆነ ስፔሻሊቲ ቡና መሆን እንደሚችሉ ጥናቱ አሳይቷል፡፡ በአጠቃላይ በጥናት የቡና ጣዕም ባህሪያት ያገኙት ከተለያዩ የአፈር ከአካባቢው የአየር ጠባይ ጋር ከፍተኛ ቁርኝት እንዳላቸው ታውቋል፡፡ በተጨማሪ አዲስ የቡና ጣዕም የማር ቃና ያለው ቡና በቤንችማጂና ሸካ ዞን ተገኝቷል፡፡ </em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>The Southwestern part of Ethiopia is believed to be the origin of Arabica coffee which possesses the country to have the largest diversity in coffee genetic resources. Coffee quality determines the relative price as well as the usefulness of a given quantity of coffee. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to </em><em>evaluate the coffee quality </em><em>of BenchMaji and Sheka zones (BMSZs) coffee producing areas and their correlation with soil and environmental variables. The experiment was laid out in Nested design with three replications. Kebeles were nested in each</em><em> district and three farms in each Kebele were used as </em><em>replication. One hundred sixty two coffee samples were collected and evaluated for green bean physical and cup quality traits by professional certified coffee tasters at the Jimma Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Coffee physical quality (screen size, </em><em>hundred bean weight,</em><em> shape &amp; make the color, and total raw quality); cup quality attributes (aromatic intensity, aromatic quality, acidity, astringency, bitterness, body, flavor, and overall cup quality</em><em>) and total cup and total coffee quality were </em><em>highly significant (P ≤ 0.01)</em><em>. </em><em>The Maximum mean value for screen size was recorded for Yeki (97.67) and the minimum was recorded for Menitgoldiya (95.33). The maximum mean value for the hundred bean weight was recorded for Anderacha (18.81gm) and the minimum (16.20 gm) was recorded for the Sheko district. Similarly, the maximum total raw quality was recorded at Menitshasha (36.53) whereas the minimum was scored in SouthBench (35.28). Anderacha district had got maximum value (49.81) of total cup quality and minimum value (43.33) was achieved at Yeki district. Based on the total coffee quality result Anderacha revealed a maximum value (</em><em>86.23</em><em>) and a minimum value of 78.83 recorded at Yeki district. More than Eighty-five percent (85%) evaluated coffee samples scored 80 points and above the mean value of total coffee quality qualifying them as specialty coffee. Generally, this study showed the presence of variation for coffee quality attributes and statistically significant correlations of coffee quality with soil and environmental factors. In addition, the results revealed that the existence of a unique honey flavor. </em></p> Abrar Sualeh Kassaye Tolessa Ali Mohammed Dawit Alemu Copyright (c) http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 11 30 Exploring Optimum Crop Management Practices for Closing Yield Gaps using Crop Modeling https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203268 <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>የአየር</em> <em>ንብረት፣</em> <em>የአፈር</em> <em>መረጃንና</em> <em>የሰብል</em> <em>ዕድገት</em> <em>ሞዴልን</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>የሰብል</em> <em>አያያዝን</em> <em>መወሰን</em> <em>በኢትዮጵያ</em><em> አነስተኛ &nbsp;</em><em>ነው።</em> <em>የጥናቱ</em> <em>ዓላማ</em><em> CROPGRO </em><em>የተባለውን</em> <em>የሰብል</em> <em>ዕድገት</em> <em>ሞዴል</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>በተለያዩ</em> <em>ቦታዎች</em> <em>የሰብል</em> <em>አያያዝን</em> <em>መወሰንና</em> <em>የምርት</em> <em>ልዩነትን</em> <em>በአርሶ</em> <em>አደሩና</em> <em>በምርምር</em> <em>መካከል</em> <em>ማቀራረብ</em> <em>ነው፡፡</em> <em>በአጠቃላይ</em><em> 432 </em><em>ተጠኝዎችን</em> <em>አራት</em> <em>የባቄላ</em> <em>ዝርያ፣</em> <em>ስድስት</em> <em>የዘር</em> <em>ወቅት፣</em> <em>ሦስት</em> <em>የዘር</em> <em>መጠንና</em> <em>ስድስት</em> <em>የናይትሮጅን</em> <em>ማዳበሪያ</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>ባካተተ</em> <em>በ</em><em>RCBD </em><em>ዲዛይን</em> <em>በፋክቶሪያል</em> <em>አደራደር</em> <em>ዓመትን</em> <em>እንደ</em> <em>ድግግሞሽ</em> <em>በመውሰድ</em> <em>ሙከራው</em> <em>ተተንብዮል።</em> <em>የባቄላ</em> <em>ዝርያ</em> <em>ከዘር</em> <em>ወቅት</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ሲቆራኝ</em> <em>የተሻለ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ይገኛል፡፡ ሰኔ</em> <em>አጋማሽ</em> <em>እስከ</em> <em>ሐምሌ</em> <em>መጀመሪያ</em> <em>ሳምንት</em> <em>ጎራ</em> <em>የተባለውን</em><em> የባቄላ </em><em>ዝርያ</em> <em>መዝራት</em> <em>በሆሳዕና፣</em> <em>በቁሉምሳ፣</em> <em>በመራሮና</em> <em>በሲናና</em> <em>ቦታዎች</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>የእህል</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ያስገኛል።</em><em> 450000 </em><em>ተክል</em> <em>በሔክታር</em> <em>አንደ</em> <em>ቦታው</em> <em>የዘር</em> <em>ወቅት</em> <em>የተሻለ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ይሰጣል።</em> <em>በአብዛኛው</em> <em>ቦታዎች</em><em> 45 </em><em>ኪሎ</em> <em>ግራም</em> <em>ናይትሮጅን</em><em> የ</em><em>ማዳበሪያ</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>መጠቀም</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>የእህል</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ይሰጣል።</em> <em>የጥናቱ</em> <em>ውጤት</em> <em>የሚያመላክተው</em> <em>የሰብል</em> <em>ዕድገት</em> <em>ሞዴል፣</em> <em>የሰብል</em> <em>አያያዝና</em> <em>የሰብል</em> <em>ማሻሻያ</em> <em>ምርምርን</em> <em>በማጣመር</em> <em>ለግብርና</em> <em>ልማት</em> <em>ኢክስቴንሽን</em><em> አስፈላጊውን መረጃ </em>በ<em>መሥጠት &nbsp;ምርትን ባለው የሰብል ማሳ ላይ መጨመር </em><em>ይቻላል።</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em>Abstract</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>The use of crop models as decision support tools for exploring the consequences of various management decision options that interact with weather and soil factors are limited in Ethiopia. This study aimed to apply crop simulation CROPGRO-faba bean model in determining site-specific crop management practices to close the yield gaps. A total of 432 treatments consisted of four faba bean varieties with six sowing dates, three plant populations, and six nitrogen fertilizer rates were considered in the study. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with the factorial arrangement was used considering</em> years as replications. <em>There was significant variety by sowing date interactions in</em><em> all locations. Grain yield was significantly affected by variety and sowing date. Sowing on late June to early July gave the highest grain yield with variety Gora at Hosana, Kulumsa, Meraro, and Sinana nitisols sites A plant population of 45 plants m<sup>-2</sup> was found to be optimal depending on the sowing date and sites. The highest seed yield was obtained by applying 45kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>nitrogen fertilizer in most of the locations. The result showed the application of crop models in agronomic research, crop improvement, and incorporation of the findings provides important information to prepare extension material and increase production on the existing crop land.</em></p> Wondafrash Mulugeta Kindie Tesfaye Mezegebu Getnet Seid Ahmed Amsalu Nebiyu Fasil Mekuanint Copyright (c) 2021 http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 31 52 Farmers’ Maize Variety Ranking as a Food-Feed Crop and the Influence of the Feed Attribute on Variety Preference in Selected Mixed Crop-Livestock Production Areas of Ethiopia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203271 <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>የሕዝብ ቁጥር መጨመር በግጦሽ መሬት ይዞታ ላይ በሚያሳድረው አሉታዊ ተፅዕኖ ምክንያት እንስሳት ለመኖ ምንጭነት በሰብል ተረፈ ምርቶች ላይ የበለጠ ጥገኛ እንዲሆኑ ያደርጋቸዋል:: በቅይጥ ሰብል ምርትና እንስሳት ርባታ ስራ ላይ የተሰማሩ አርሶ አደሮች የበቆሎ ዝርያን የመኖነት ጠቀሜታ ከዝርያ ምርጫ መመዘኛዎች አንዱ አድርገው እንደሚወስዱ የሚሰጥ መላምት አለ፡፡ የአሁኑ ጥናት ዓላማ የአርሶ አደሩን የበቆሎ ዝርያ ምርጫ ከሰብል ምርት በተጨማሪ የመኖነት ጠቀሜታን (ፖቴንሻል ዩቲሊቲ ኢንዴክስን) እንደመመዘኛ ይወስዳሉ የሚለውን መላምት ለመመርመር ነው፡፡ የዝርያ ምርጫ መረጃዎች በሞዴል (መልቲኖሚያል ሎጂት) በመታገዝ የተተነተኑ ሲሆን በውጤቱም </em><em>BH 660 የተባለው የበቆሎ ዝርያ በሰብል ምርታማነቱ፣ በገለባ ምርቱና በገለባ የመኖነት ጠቀሜታው በአርሶ አደሮች የላቀ ደረጃ ተሰጥቶታል፡፡ በተያያዘ የአባወራው/የእማወራዋ</em><em> የትምህርት ደረጃ፣ የግብርና ስራ ልምድ፣ የቤተሰብ ብዛት፣ የእርሻ መሬት ይዞታ፣ የእንስሳት ባለቤትነት፣ የብድር አቅርቦት፣ የግብርና ስርፀት አገልግሎት እና ፖቴንሻል ዩቲሊቲ ኢንዴክስ በአርሶ አደሮች የበቆሎ ዝርያ ምርጫ ላይ ተፅዕኖ እንዳላቸው ታውቋል፡፡ የዚህ ጥናት ውጤት በጥቅሉ በቅይጥ ሰብል ምርትና እንስሳት ርባታ የግብርና ስርዓት ውስጥ የሚገኙ አርሶ አደሮች የተሻሻሉ የበቆሎ ዝርያዎችን ሲመርጡ የመኖነት ጠቀሜታቸውንም ከግምት ውስጥ ያስገባሉ የሚለውን መላምት የሚደግፍ ሆኖ ተገኝቷል፡፡ በተጨማሪም ውጤቱ እንስሳት የሚያረቡ በቆሎ አምራች አርሶ አደሮች የተሻሉ የመኖነት ባህሪያትን ከሰብል ምርታማነት ጋር አዳቅለው የያዙ የበቆሎ ዝርያዎችን እንደሚመርጡ በተጨባጭ አሳይቷል፡፡&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Abstract</p> <p><em>The ever increasing population pressure with subsequent dwindling grazing land area pushes greater dependence of livestock on crop byproducts as feed source. There is a hypothesis that maize producers in the mixed farming system value the feed attribute of maize varieties for adoption. This study was conducted to investigate farmers’ rankings of maize varieties as a food-feed crop and analyze the influence of the feed attribute as described by the potential utility index in addition to grain production. The preference data generated from the study were fitted to a multinomial logit model. Results of the ranking exercise showed that BH660 was the highest in grain, stover and digestible stover yields whereas it was least in terms of palatability followed by BH540. Socio-economic variables which included education level of the household head, farming experience, family size, farm size, livestock ownership, access to credit and access to extension service, and the variety attribute - potential utility index (PUI) - influenced farmers’ maize variety preference. The results generally support the hypotheses set regarding factors that influence farmers’ preference to improved maize varieties. Moreover, strong indications that livestock owning farmers do show preference to maize varieties that are with desirable stover characteristics for feeding livestock in addition to grain yield were evident. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ashenafi Mengistu Copyright (c) 2021 http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 53 64 Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes for Forage Biomass Yield and Nutritional Quality https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203272 <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>ይህ</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>በሆለታ</em> <em>ግብርና</em> <em>ምርምር</em> <em>ማዕከል</em> <em>በሆለታና</em> <em>አዳበርጋ</em> <em>የመኖ</em> <em>ምርምር</em> <em>ጣቢያዎች</em> <em>የበቆሎ</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>ያላቸውን</em> <em>የደረቅ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የመኖ</em> <em>ንጥረ</em><em>-</em><em>ነገር</em> <em>ይዘታቸዉን</em> <em>ለመገምገም</em> <em>የተካሄደ</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>ጥናቱም</em> <em>በሁለት</em> <em>የማጨጃ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>የተካሄደ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>የመጀመሪያው</em> <em>በሳይሌጅ</em><em> (</em><em>ገፈራ</em><em>) </em><em>ደረጃ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>ሁለተኛው</em> <em>በአረንጓዴ</em> <em>ቆረቆንዳ</em><em> (</em><em>ኮብ</em><em>) </em><em>ደረጃ</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>የደረቅ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>ምርት፣</em> <em>የዕፅዋት</em> <em>ቁመት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በአንድ</em> <em>ተክል</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>የሚገኙ</em> <em>ቆረቆንዳዎች</em><em> (</em><em>ኮብ</em><em>) </em><em>ብዛት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የመኖ</em> <em>ጥራት</em> <em>መረጃዎች</em> <em>ተሰብስበዋል፡፡</em> <em>በሁለቱም</em> <em>የማጨጃ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>በዕፅዋት</em> <em>ቁመት፣</em> <em>በደረቅ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>ምርት፣</em> <em>በሚፈጭ</em><em> (Digestible) </em><em>የደረቅ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በፕሮቲን</em> <em>የደረቅ</em> <em>መኖ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em><em> (P&lt;0.001) </em><em>የሆነ</em> <em>ልዩነት</em> <em>ጥናቱ</em> <em>በተካሄደባቸው</em> <em>ሁለት</em> <em>ቦታዎች</em><em> ላይ </em><em>ታይቷል፡፡</em> <em>የተቀናጀ</em><em> የ</em><em>ትንታኔ</em> <em>ውጤት</em> <em>እንደሚያመለክተው</em> <em>በገፈራ</em> <em>የማጨጃ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>ኩሌኒ</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>የዕፅዋት</em> <em>ቁመት</em> <em>የነበረው</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>ተከትሎም</em><em> AMH-854 </em><em>እና</em> <em>ጅባት</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em><em> (P&lt;0.05) </em><em>ቁመት</em> <em>ነበራቸው፡፡</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>በሁለቱም</em> <em>የማጨጃ</em> <em>ደረጃዎች</em> <em>በዝርያዎች</em> <em>መካከል</em> <em>ከፍተኛ</em> <em>የሆነ</em> <em>ልዩነት</em> <em>በድራይ</em> <em>ማተር</em><em> (DM) </em><em>ላይ</em> <em>እንደነበር</em> <em>የተቀናጀ</em><em> የ</em><em>ትንተና</em> <em>ውጤት</em> <em>አመልክቷል፡፡</em> <em>ከ</em><em>ADF </em><em>ዉጭ</em> <em>ለሁሉም</em> <em>ንጥረ</em> <em>ይዘቶች</em> <em>በጂኖታይፖች</em> <em>መከከል</em><em> (P&lt;0.05) </em><em>ልዩነት</em> <em>አልነበረም፡፡</em> <em>በአረንጓዴ</em> <em>ቆረቆንዳ</em><em> (</em><em>ኮብ</em><em>) </em><em>የማጨጃ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>ጂኖታይፖች</em> <em>መካከል</em><em> &nbsp;</em><em>ከፍተኛ</em><em> (P&lt;0.01) </em><em>የሆነ</em> <em>ልዩነት</em> <em>በድራይ</em> <em>ማተር</em><em> (DM)</em><em>፣</em> <em>አመድ</em><em> (Ash)</em><em>፣</em><em> ADF </em><em>እና</em><em> ADL </em><em>ላይ</em> <em>እንደነበር</em> <em>ያሳያል፡፡</em> <em>በሁለቱም</em> <em>የማጨጃ</em> <em>ጊዜ</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>በተወሰደው</em> <em>በደረቅ</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>መኖ</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>በዕፅዋት</em> <em>ቁመት</em> <em>መረጃ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>በመመርኮዝ</em> <em>ኩለኒ፣</em><em> AMH-853 </em><em>እና</em> <em>ጅባት</em> <em>የበቆሎ</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>ለጥናቱ</em> <em>አካባቢዎች</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ለተመሳሳይ</em> <em>የግብርና</em> <em>ስነ-ምህዳሮች</em> <em>እንደ</em> <em>አረንጓዴ</em> <em>መኖነት</em> <em>እንዲጠቀሙበት</em> <em>ጥናቱ</em> <em>ይመክራል፡፡</em> <em>ነገር</em> <em>ግን</em> <em>ጠቅለል</em> <em>ያለ</em> <em>ድምዳሜ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ለመድረስ</em> <em>በተሞከሩት</em> <em>ዝርያዎች</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>የገፈራ</em> <em>ጥራት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የእንስሳት</em> <em>ምርታማነት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ተጨማሪ</em> <em>ሥራዎች</em> <em>መሰራት</em> <em>አለባቸው፡፡</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>A study was conducted to evaluate maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for their forage dry matter yield and nutritive value at Holetta and Adaberga forage research stations of Holetta Agricultural Research Centre. Genotypes were tested in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The study was conducted in two sets, the first set consisted of genotypes harvested at the silage harvesting stage and the second set included genotypes harvested at the green cob stage. The data collected consisted of dry matter yield, plant height and a number of cobs per plant, and the nutritional quality of the maize genotypes. All data were subjected to analysis of variance, with significance tested at P&lt;0.05. The location had a significant (P&lt;0.001) effect on plant height, dry matter yield, digestible dry matter, and crude protein yield at both stages of harvest. In both stages of harvest, plant height was significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected by genotype. The result of the combined analysis showed that Kuleni had the highest plant height followed by AMH-854 and Jibat at the silage harvesting stage (P &lt; 0.05). The result of a combined analysis indicated that DM was significantly different among genotypes at both harvesting stages. Non-significant (P&lt;0.05) differences were found among the genotypes in all the nutrient contents, excluding ADF. For genotypes harvested at the green cob stage, dry matter, Ash, acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin were significantly (P&lt;0.01) influenced by genotype. In conclusion, based on dry matter yield and plant height data taken at both harvesting stages, Kuleni, AMH-853, and Jibat maize genotypes were recommended as a green feed for the study areas and similar agro-ecologies. But, to reach exhaustive conclusions further works shall be done on the silage quality of the recommended genotypes and their effect on animal performance.</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Mulisa Faji Gezahagn Kebede Aschelew Tsegahun Kedir Mohammed Muluneh Minta Fekede Feyissa Solomon Mengistu Copyright (c) 2021 http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 65 81 Effect of Maize Stover Silage based Total Mixed Ration on Milk Yield and Composition of Cross Breed (Boran X Friesian) Dairy Cow https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203273 <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ይህ ጥናት የተካሄደው በ2011 ዓ.ም በሆለታ ግብርና ምርምር ማዕከል ነበር፡፡ የጥናቱ ዋና ዓላማ የበቆሎ ገፈራን ከተለያዩ የኢንዱስትሪ ተረፈ ምርቶች ማለትም ፋግሎ፣ ፉርሽካ፣ ጥጥ ፍሬ፣ ሞላሰስ እና ጨውን በማዋሀድ በታላቢ የወተት ላሞች የወተት ምርት </em><em>እና </em><em>ተዋፅዖ</em><em>ዎች (ለምሳሌ የቅባት፣ የገንቢ እና የማዕድናት ንጥረ-ነገሮች)</em><em> ላይ የሚያሳድረውን ተፅዕኖ ማጥናት ነበር፡፡ ለዚህ ሙከራም በቆሎን በመዝራትና በእሸት ደረጃው በማጭድ፡ በቆሎውን እና አገዳውን በመለያየት በቆሎውን በፀሀይ በማድረቅ እና ርጥብ የበቆሎ አገዳውን በመፍጭት (ከ5-10 ሳ.ሜ) ሙከራው ተጀመረ፡፡ አንድ እጅ የተፈጨ የበቆሎ አገዳን (ከ5-10 ሳ.ሜ) ከሶስት እጅ ሞላሰስ እና ውሃ ጋር በማዋሀድ ለተከታታይ 45 ቀናት በጉድጓድ በመቅበር የበቆሎ አገዳ ገፈራ ተዘጋጀ፡፡ ከዚህም በመቀጠል የተለያየ መጠን ያለው የበቆሎ አገዳ ገፈራ እና ኢንዱስትሪ ተረፈ ምርቶች በማዋሀድ ውህድ የእንስሳት መኖ ተዘጋጅቷል፡፡ ለዚህ ምርምር 1ኛ፡ የተፈጥሮ ድርቆሽ እና የኢንዱስትሪ ተረፈ ምርቶች(0.5 ኪ.ግ ለ1 ሊትር ወተት ምርት) ` 2ኛ፡- 70 እጅ የበቆሎ አገዳ ገፈራን ከ30 እጅ የኢንዱስትሪ ተረፈ ምርቶች&nbsp; 3ኛ፡ 60 እጅ የበቆሎ አገዳ ገፈራን ከ40 እጅ ከኢንዱስትሪ ተረፈ ምርቶች እና 4ኛ፡ 50 እጅ የበቆሎ አገዳ ገፈራን ከ50 እጅ ከኢንዱስትሪ ተረፈ ምርቶች ጋር በማዋሀድ ለታላቢ ላሞች ለተከታታይ አንድ መቶ (100) ቀናት በመመገብ በወተት ምርት </em><em>እና</em><em> ተዋፅዖ</em><em>ዎች </em><em>&nbsp;ላይ ያለውን ተፅዕኖ ማየት የተቻለ ሲሆን አራተኛው አማራጭ (50 እጅ የበቆሎ አገዳ ገፈራን ከ50 እጅ ከኢንዱስትሪ ተረፈ ምርቶች ጋር በማዋሀድ ለታላቢ ላሞች መመገብ) የተሻለ የወተት ምርት ማግኘት የተቻለ ሲሆን በሶስቱም የአመጋገብ አማራጮች ላይ</em><em> የተጋነነ </em><em>የወተት ተዋፅዖ</em><em>ዎች ልዩነት አልታየም</em><em>፡፡</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>This study was conducted at Holetta agricultural research center, Ethiopia with the major objectives to evaluate the effect of silage made from late maturing dual purpose maize crop on intake digestibility, milk yield and composition of dairy cows.</em><em> A total of eight mid lactating F1 (Boran X Friesian) dairy cows with similar milk yield (9.1 </em><em>± </em><em>0.91 kg/d) but differing in parity (ranges one to four) were selected and randomly assigned into one of the four dietary treatments (T1=Natural pasture hay ad libitum + 0.5 kg concentrate mixture (CM) per liter of milk production; T2=TMR-1 (70% MSS: 30% CM) ;T3=TMR -2(60% MSS: 40% CM) and T4=TMR-3 (50% MSS: 50% CM) in a double 4X4 Latin square design. The cows fed T1 and T4 diet had similar DM, OM and NDF intakes (P&gt;0.05) which is significantly higher over cows receiving the remaining treatments (P&lt;0.05). On the other hand CP was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) inT4 while the ADF intake was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) in T1 compared to the other treatments. In addition to this, dietary treatments varied (P&lt;0.001) in terms of their apparent DM, OM and CP digestibility, with cows on T3 showed considerably higher (P&lt;0.05) digestibility for DM, OM and CP than cows on the control diet. Similarly, T4 had shown higher CP digestibility (P&lt;0.05) compared to the control group. However, the NDF and ADF digestibility were not affected by dietary treatments. Silage based total mixed ration improved daily milk yield with the higher (P&lt;0.01) milk being recorded for cows receiving T4 (10.2 litter/day). Dietary treatment had no effect (P&gt;0.05) on milk composition. Feeding maize stover silage harvested at late maturity to crossbred cows resulted better daily milk yield; however, further study is required on the economics aspect before the diet is recommended for wider use under field conditions in Ethiopia.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Geberemariyam Terefe Mulugeta Walelgne Getu Kitaw Dereje Fekadu Mesfin Dejene Aemiro Kihalew Bethlehem Mekonnen Mola Shumye Copyright (c) 2021 http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 83 91 Growth Performance of Jersey Calves fed Maize Stover Silage based Total Mixed Ration compared to Calves fed Hay and Concentrate Separately https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203275 <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ይህ</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>የተካሄደው</em> <em>በ</em><em>2011 </em><em>ዓ</em><em>.</em><em>ም.</em> <em>በአዳበረጋ</em> <em>ንዑስ</em><em> &nbsp;</em><em>ምርምር</em> <em>ማዕከል</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>የጥናቱ</em> <em>ዋና</em> <em>ዓላማ</em> <em>የተፈጨ የቆሎ አገዳ ገፈራ </em><em>ከተለያዩ</em> <em>የኢንዱስትሪ</em> <em>ተረፈ</em> <em>ምርቶች</em> <em>ማለትም</em> <em>ፋጉሎ፣ ፉርሽካ፣ ጥጥ</em> <em>ፍሬ፣ ሞላስስ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ጨውን</em><em> &nbsp;እና </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>በማዋሀድ</em> <em>በታዳጊ</em> <em>የወተት</em> <em>ጥጆች</em> <em>የዕድገት</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>የሚያሳድረውን</em> <em>ተፅዕኖ</em> <em>ማጥናት</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>ለዚህ</em> <em>ሙከራም</em> <em>በቆሎን</em> <em>በመዝራትና</em> <em>በእሸት</em> <em>ደረጃው</em> <em>በማጨድ፣</em> <em>በቆሎውን</em> <em>እና</em> <em>አገዳውን</em> <em>በመለያየት</em> <em>በቆሎውን</em> <em>በፀሀይ</em> <em>በማድረቅ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ርጥብ</em> <em>የበቆሎ</em> <em>አገዳውን</em> <em>በመፍጭት</em><em> (</em><em>ከ</em><em>5-10 </em><em>ሳ</em><em>.</em><em>ሜ</em><em>) </em><em>ሙከራው</em> <em>ተጀመረ፡፡</em> <em>አንድ</em> <em>እጅ</em> <em>የተፈጨ</em> <em>የበቆሎ</em> <em>አገዳን</em><em> (</em><em>ከ</em><em>5-10 </em><em>ሳ</em><em>.</em><em>ሜ</em><em>) </em><em>ከሶስት</em> <em>እጅ</em> <em>ሞላሰስ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ውኃ</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>በማዋሀድ</em> <em>ለተከታታይ</em><em> 45 </em><em>ቀናት</em> <em>በጉድጓድ</em> <em>በመቅበር</em> <em>የበቆሎ</em> <em>አገዳ</em> <em>ገፈራ</em> <em>ተዘጋጀ፡፡</em> <em>ለዚህም</em><em> 1</em><em>ኛው</em> <em>አማራጭ</em><em> 50 </em><em>እጅ</em> <em>ያልተፈጨ</em> <em>የሳር</em> <em>ድርቆሽ</em> <em>እና</em><em> 50 </em><em>እጅ</em> <em>የኢንዱስትሪ</em> <em>ተረፈ</em> <em>ምርቶች</em> <em>ሳይቀላቀል</em> <em>መመገብ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>ሁለተኛው</em> <em>አማራጭ</em> <em>ደግሞ</em><em> 50 </em><em>እጅ</em> <em>የበቆሎ</em> <em>አገዳ</em> <em>ገፈራን</em> <em>ከ</em><em>50 </em><em>እጅ</em> <em>የኢንዱስትሪ</em> <em>ተረፈ</em> <em>ምርቶች</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>በማዋሀድ</em> <em>ውህዱን</em> <em>ለተከታታይ</em> <em>አንድ</em> <em>መቶ</em><em> ሰማኒያ (180) </em><em>ቀናት</em> <em>መመገብ</em> <em>ነበር፡፡</em> <em>በ</em><em>ሁለኛው</em> <em>አማራጭ</em> <em>የተሻለ</em> <em>ዕለታዊ</em> <em>የጥጃ</em> <em>እድገት</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>የተመዘገበ</em> <em>ስለሆነ</em> <em>አርሶ</em> <em>አደሮች</em> <em>ይህን</em> <em>ዘዴ</em> <em>ቢጠቀሙ</em> <em>ምርታቸውን</em> <em>ማሳደግ</em> <em>ይችላሉ፡፡</em><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>The study was conducted in 2019 at Ada’abrega sub-centre of Holetta Agricultural Research. A total of eighteen posts weaned female Jersey calves (weighing, 72 ± 1.33 kg, mean ± SE) were selected and randomly assigned in two sample T-test each having nine calves. The treatments were control diet consisting of natural pasture hay (50%) basal diet and concentrate mixture (50%) separately (T1) and dual purpose green maize stover silage (50%) and concentrate mixture (50%) based total mixed ration (TMR) (T2). The experiment took 180 days of feeding trial and 7 days of a digestibility trial. The daily dry matter intake of calves fed T2 (5.41 kg) was higher (p&lt;0.05) than those calves receiving T1 (4.64 kg). Daily nutrient intake of calves receiving the intervention diet (T2) followed a similar trend as for DM intake. &nbsp;Feed digestibility was significantly affected (p&lt;0.05) by diets and calves fed T2 showed higher (p&lt;0.05) apparent dry matter digestibility than calves fed T1 diets. A feed conversion ratio of the calves was not affected (p&gt;0.05) by diets but the average daily weight gain of calves in the T2 group (530g) was higher (p&lt;0.05) than those calves in a group (450g). In conclusion, the growth performance of calves fed the dual purpose green maize stover silage based total mixed ration diet was superior to calves fed natural pasture hay and concentrate mixture following the conventional feeding practice. A follow up research is needed to investigate comparative advantages of using maize crop for dual purposes (food &amp; feed) than as a food for human alone considering both biological responses and economic returns that arise thereof. &nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong></em></p> Geberemariyam Terefe Getu Kitaw Mulugeta Walelegne Dereje Fekadu Aeimro Kehaliew Mesfin Dejene Bethlehem Mekonnen Endale Yadesssa Copyright (c) 2021 http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 93 100 Isolation, Evaluation and Characterization of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Associated with Soybean in Major Growing Agroecologies of Ethiopia Daniel Muleta1*, Maarten H Ryder2 and Matthew D Denton2 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203276 <p><strong>አህፅሮት </strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ፎስፈረስ</em> <em>የተባለው</em> <em>ንጥረ</em><em>-</em><em>ነገር</em> <em>በብዛት</em> <em>በአፈር</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>የሚገኙ</em><em> ዕፅ</em><em>ዋቶች</em> <em>በቀላሉ</em> <em>መጥጠው</em> <em>ሊጠቀሙበት</em> <em>በማይችሉት</em> <em>ጠጣር</em> <em>መልክ</em><em> የሚገኝ </em><em>ነው፡፡</em> <em>ይሄም</em> <em>የሚሆነው</em> <em>በአፈር</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>ከሚገኙ</em> <em>ሌሎች</em> <em>ንጥረ</em><em>-</em><em>ነገሮች</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ጠንካራ</em> <em>ጥምረት</em> <em>በመፍጠር</em> <em>በቀላሉ</em> <em>በዉኃ</em> <em>የማይሟሟ</em> <em>ውህድ</em> <em>ስለሚፈጥር</em> <em>ነው፡፡</em> <em>ከዚህም</em> <em>የተነሳ</em> <em>ተክሎች</em> <em>የሚገጥማቸውን</em> <em>የፎስፈረስ</em> <em>ንጥረ</em><em>-</em><em>ነገር</em> <em>እጥረት</em> <em>ለማሻሻል</em> <em>ከሚወሰዱ</em> <em>አማራጭ</em> <em>መፍትሄዎች</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>የፎስፈረስ</em> <em>ውሁድ</em> <em>አሟሚ</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላት</em> <em>ለረጅም</em> <em>ጊዜ</em> <em>ትኩረት</em> <em>ተሰጥቶባቸው</em> <em>በመጠናት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ይገኛሉ፡፡</em> <em>ይሄም</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ያተኮረው</em> <em>እነዚህን</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላት</em> <em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>በኢትዮጵያ</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>ሰፊ</em> <em>ኮምጣጣ</em> <em>አፈር</em> <em>ከመኖሩ</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ተያይዞ</em> <em>ያለውን</em> <em>ለዕፅዋቶች</em> <em>በቀላሉ</em> <em>ሊመጠጥ</em> <em>የማይችለውን</em> <em>የፎስፈረስ</em> <em>ንጥረ-</em> <em>ነገር</em> <em>በማሟት</em> <em>ለዕፅዋቶች</em> <em>እንዲቀርብ</em> <em>በማስቻል</em> <em>በአኩሪ</em> <em>አተር</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ያለውን</em> <em>ውጤታማነት</em> <em>ለመገምገም</em> <em>ነው፡፡</em> <em>ለዚህም</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ከአኩሪ</em> <em>አተር</em> <em>ስር</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ከተያያዘ</em> <em>አፈር</em> <em>አምስት</em> <em>የፎስፈረስ</em> <em>ውሁድ</em> <em>አሟሚ</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላት</em> <em>በቤተ</em> <em>ሙከራ</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>ተለይተዋል፡፡</em> <em>የነዚህም</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላት</em> <em>ከካልሼም፣ ከብረት</em> <em>እና</em> <em>ከአልሙኒየም</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ውሁድ</em> <em>የፈጠረን</em> <em>ፎስፈረስ</em> <em>የማሟሟት</em> <em>ብቃታቸው</em> <em>ተጠንቷል፡፡</em> <em>በተጨማሪም</em> <em>የተወሰነ</em> <em>የዘረ-መላቸውን</em> <em>አካል</em><em> (16S-23S rRNA region) </em><em>በመጠቀም</em> <em>የደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላቱ</em> <em>የዝርያ</em><em> ዓ</em><em>ይነት</em> <em>ተለይቷል፡፡</em> <em>ብሎም</em> <em>የእነዚህ</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላት</em> <em>በምርት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ሊያመጡት</em> <em>የሚችሉት</em> <em>ጭማሪ</em> <em>በመስክ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>በስድስት</em> <em>ቦታዎች</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>ተግምግሟል፡፡</em> <em>በጥናቱም</em> <em>መሠረት</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላቱ</em> <em>ፎስፈረስን</em> <em>ከካልሺየም፣ ከብረትና</em> <em>ከአልሙኒየም</em> <em>ውሁድ</em> <em>ውስጥ</em> <em>የማሟት</em> <em>ባህሪ</em> <em>እንዳላቸው</em> <em>ተረጋግጧል፡፡</em> <em>እንዲሁም</em> <em>የደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላቱ</em> <em>ዘረመል</em> <em>ሲጠና</em> <em>አንዱ</em> <em>ሲዶሞናሰ</em> <em>ከሚባለው</em> <em>የደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላት</em> <em>ዝርያ</em> <em>የሚመደብ</em> <em>ሲሆን</em> <em>አራቱ</em> <em>ደግሞ</em> <em>ባሲለስ</em> <em>ተብለው</em> <em>ከሚጠሩት</em> <em>የዝርያ</em><em> ዓ</em><em>ይነቶች</em> <em>የሚመደቡ</em> <em>መሆናቸው</em> <em>ተለይቷል፡፡</em> <em>የመስክ</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>የምርት</em> <em>ግምገማ</em> <em>ጥናቱ</em> <em>እንዳሳየው</em> <em>ከተለዩት</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላት</em> <em>መካከል</em> <em>የሲዶሞናስ</em> <em>ምድብ</em> <em>የሆነው</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካል</em><em> (EPS1 </em><em>የሚል</em> <em>ስያሜ</em> <em>የተሰጠው</em><em>) </em><em>ናይትሮጅንን</em> <em>ከሚያክር</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካል</em><em> (Bradyrhizobium, MAR 1495) </em><em>ጋር</em> <em>በመሆን</em> <em>በአማካይ</em><em> 17.2 </em><em>በመቶ</em> <em>የአኩሪ</em> <em>አተር</em> <em>ምርት</em> <em>ጭማሪ</em> <em>አሳይቷል፡፡</em> <em>ይህም</em> <em>የምርት</em> <em>ጭማሪ</em> <em>አካባቢው</em> <em>እንዲጠቀም</em> <em>ከተሰጠው</em> <em>የፎስፈረስ</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>ምክረ</em><em>-</em><em>ሃሳብ</em> <em>ግማሹን</em> <em>ከላይ</em> <em>ከተጠቀሰው</em> <em>ናይትሮጅን</em> <em>ከሚያክር</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካል</em> <em>ጋር</em> <em>ቀላቅለን</em> <em>ብንጠቀም</em> <em>ከምናገኘው</em> <em>የምርታማነት</em> <em>መጠን</em> <em>በላይ</em> <em>ነው፡፡</em> <em>ይሄም</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>የፎስፈረስ</em> <em>አሟሚ</em> <em>ደቂቅ</em> <em>አካላት</em> <em>የዕፅዋቶችን</em><em>&nbsp; </em><em>የፎስፈረስ</em> <em>አጠቃቀምን</em> <em>ለማሻሻል</em> <em>እንደምርጫ</em> <em>ተወስደው</em> <em>በቂ</em> <em>ጥናት</em> <em>ሊደረግባቸው</em> <em>እንደሚገባ</em> <em>ጠቋሚ</em> <em>ነው፡፡</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong>Abstract</p> <p><em>Phosphorus (P) is often found in forms that are inaccessible to plants, as it forms precipitates with cations or is locked in phosphorylated organic compounds. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms have been considered as options to alleviate a deficiency of plant-available P in soils, and this experiment is conducted to make use of this microbial potential in Ethiopia where acid soils are rampant. Five phosphate solubilizing bacteria associated with soybean rhizosphere were isolated on culture media and their P dissolution efficiencies were quantified on solid and liquid media containing insoluble Ca, Fe, and Al. The isolates were genetically characterized using their 16S-23S rRNA region. Three of the best P dissolving strains were field evaluated in six different areas of Ethiopia. The isolates demonstrated P dissolving capacities. One of the isolates was from Pseudomonas genera while the rest were from Bacillus. Inoculation with EPS1, Pseudomonas fluorescens, in combination with Bradyrhizobium (MAR 1495), led to an average of 17.2% yield increase across 6 test locations. This was greater than the yield obtained with the application of half of the recommended inorganic phosphorus fertilizer rate plus Bradyrhizobium, MAR 1495 (average 10.4% yield increase). Phosphorus solubilizing microbes appear to provide an option for improving plant P uptake.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Daniel Muleta Maarten H Ryder Matthew D Denton Copyright (c) 2021 http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 101 114 Effect of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Fungi, Mineral Phosphate and Vermicompost Application on Major Soil Chemical Characteristics, Mineral Uptake and Growth of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Seedlings under Nursery Condition https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203301 <p><strong>አህፅሮት</strong></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>ይህ ጥናት የተዘጋጀው የባክቴሪያ እና የፈንገሶች ፎስፌት ማዳበሪያ ቀማሪነትና የአሟሚነት ብቃታቸውን መገምገም፣ የቡናን ምርታማነት አመላካች ባህርይ በሆነው የቡና ችግኝ ዕድገት ላይ በቡና ችግኝ ማፊያ ጣቢያ ደረጃ መፈተሽና አጅግ በጣም ጥሩ ብቃት ያሳዩትን መምረጥ ነበር። ጥናቱ የተከናወነው ከየካቲት እስከ ነሐሴ ወር</em> <em>2011</em><em> ዓ.ም. በጅማ ግብርና ምርምር ማዕከል የቡና ችግኝ ማፍያ ፕላስቲክ በመጠቀም ነበር። ይህ ሙከራ የተከናወነው ፍፁም በዘፈቀደ አሠራር እያንዳንዱን ተጠኝ በሶስት ቅጅ በመደጋገም ነበር። ሙከራው 4 ስብስቦች ነበሩት፣ 1ኛው ስብስብ ሁለት ምድብ ያለው ፎስፌት ማዳበሪያ አሟሚ ባክቴሪያና ፈንገሶች ምድብ እና ፎስፌት ማዳበሪያ ከፎስፌት አሟሚ &nbsp;ባክቴሪያና ፈንገሶች ጋር የተጣመረ ምድብ፣ 2ኛው ስብስብ 3ባክቴሪያዎችና 3ፈንገሶች እና ሁለት ደረጃ ያለው ፎስፌት የተጣመረበት፣ 3ኛው ስብስብ በነጠላ 6ቱ ፎስፌት ቀማሪ ባክቴሪያና ፈንገሶች 1.5 ኪ.ግ አፈር ከ300ግራም ቨርሚኮምፖስት ጋር የተደባለቀ፤</em> <em>3</em><em>ኛው</em> <em>ስብስብ ባለ2 ፋክቶሪያል ሙከራ ሆኖ (3 ደረጃ ያላቸው ፎስፌት ቀማሪ ባክቴሪያና ፈንገሶች እና 3 ደረጃ ያላቸው ፎስፌት ቀማሪ ባክቴሪያና ፈንገሶች ከቨርሚ ኮምፖስት ጋር የተጣመረበት) ነበር።</em><em> ሁሉም የሙከራ ስብስቦች ነጋቲቭ እና ፖዘቲቭ ማነፃፀሪያ የነበራቸው ሲሆን ስብስብ 3 እና 4 በተጨማሪ ቨርሚኮምፖስት ብቻውን እንደማነፃፀሪያ &nbsp;ነበራቸው። </em><em>ባክቴሪያና</em> <em>ፈንገሶች</em><em> ከ</em><em>ፎስፈት ማዳበሪያ ጋር ሲጣመሩ የላቀ ትርጉም ያለው በተክሎች ዕድገት ላይ አሳይቷል።</em><em> በተጨማሪም </em><em>RSCF1.19 ከ3ቱ ባክቴሪያዎች</em> <em>(RCHVCB<sub>1</sub>, RScB1.19, RMaB2.11</em><em>) ጋር ተዋህደው በአንድ ላይ ፎስፌት ማዳበሪያ ጋር ሲዘሩ በቡና ችግኝ ዕድገት ላይ እጅግ የላቀ ውጤት ተመዝቧል</em><em>።</em><em> በአጠቃላይ አብላጫ ያለው የተክሎች ዕድገት ባህሪይ መለኪያ የሆኑ ነገሮች በነጠላና በጥምረት አጨማመር ጊዜ ከቨርሚኮምፖስት ጋር በመጣመሩ ምክንያት ከነገቲቭና ፖዘቲቭ ማነፃፀሪያ ጋር ሲወዳደር ጭማሪ ዕድገት አሳይቷል</em><em>።</em><em> በጥቅሉ ትርጉም አዘል ውጤት ያልሆነ ነገር ግን ከፍተኛ የሆነ</em><em> N,P </em><em>እና</em><em> K </em><em>አጠቃቀም በተፈጥሮ ማዳበሪያ ቀማሪ ባክቴሪያ፣ ፈንገሶችና ሰው ሰራሽ </em><em>ፎስፌት</em> <em>ማዳበሪያ</em><em> ጥምረት ጊዜ ከነገቲቭና ፖዘቲቭ ማነፃፀሪያ ጋር ሲወዳደር ብልጫ ያለው ውጤት ተመዝግቧል</em><em>።</em> <em>ቨርሚኮምፖስት </em><em>ከ</em><em>RSCF1.19 </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>እና</em> <em>RLVCF2 </em><em>ፈንገሶች ጋር ሲጣመሩ እጅግ የገዘፈና ጤናማ የሆነ የአረቢካ ቡና ችግኝ በደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ አፈር ላይ ለማሳደግና ለማምረት የተመረጠ ሆኖ ተገኝቷል።</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency, select the best performing bacteria and fungi isolates for phosphate solubilization, and yield attributes of coffee seedlings under nursery conditions.</em> <em>The study was conducted at Jimma Agricultural Research Center </em><em>from February to August 2019, in plastic pots</em><em>.</em> <em>This study was carried out in </em><em>CRD in three replications per treatment. The experiment has 4 sets where set 1 had the bio-inoculant factors and phosphate factor combined factorially. Set 2 had 3 factors (3PSF, 3PSB, and 2 p levels) in factorial combinations. Set 3 has a single factor (the 6 inoculants under basal VC (300g/1.5kg soil). Set 4 was a two factor trial: PSF (3 levels) and PSB (3 levels) combined factorially under basal VC. All sets had negative and positive (rec. NP) controls, and set 3 and 4 had sole VC as the additional control unit. Bio-inoculant and phosphate combination were significantly responded to all growth attributes<strong>.</strong> Moreover, co-inoculation of RSCF1.19 with three bacterial isolates (RCHVCB<sub>1</sub>, RScB1.19, and RMaB2.11) in combination with phosphate led to significantly higher tested growth parameters. A similar increase in growth attributes was observed in both single and dual inoculation due to VC used when compared with both positive and negative control. Non-significant but higher NPK-uptake was observed in a combination of bio-inoculants and phosphate fertilizer compared to the positive and negative control. The combination of VC with RSCF1.19 and RLVCF<sub>2</sub> fungal isolates </em><em>can be recommended as bio-inoculants for solubilizing inorganic phosphate and </em><em>to obtain vigor and healthier coffee seedlings in the southwest soil of Ethiopia for coffee Arabica cultivation. </em></p> Reshid Abafita Fasil Asefa Diriba Muleta Copyright (c) 2021 http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 115 143 Effect of Furrow Method and Mulch on Bulb Yield and Water Productivity of Irrigated Onion under Central Highland Vertisol of Ethiopia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejas/article/view/203307 <h1>አህፅሮት</h1> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>ይህ</em> <em>የምርምር</em> <em>ሥራ</em> <em>በመስኖ</em><em> በ</em><em>ሚመረት</em> <em>ሽንኩርት</em> <em>ላይ</em> <em>በጣም</em> <em>ውጤታማ</em> <em>የውኃ</em> <em>ቆጣቢ</em> <em>ቴክኖሎጂዎችን</em> <em>ለመምረጥ</em> <em>እና</em> <em>የውኃ</em> <em>ምርታማነትን ለማሻሻል በደብረ ዘይት የግብርና ምርምር ማዕከል የተካሄደ ነው፡፡ ሙከራው የተካሄደው በሶስት የቦይ መስኖ ውኃ አሰጣጥ ዘዴዎች እና በሶስት አፈር የመሸፈን ዘዴዎች በተከፋፈለ መደብ ውስጥ ነው፡፡ ከጥናቱ ውጤት እንደተገኘው የተለያዩ የቦይ መስኖ ዘዴዎች በሽንኩርት ምርትና ውኃ አጠቃቀም ላይ ከፍተኛ ተፅዕኖ አሳድሯል፡፡ በተጨማሪም፣ የሽንኩርት ዕድገት፣ የምርት እና ምርታማነትን ከማሻሻል አንፃር የተለያዩ የትነት መከላከያ ልባስ ዘዴዎች መካከል የታየው ተፅዕኖ&nbsp; ከፍተኛ እንዳልሆነ ውጤቱ አሳይቷል፡፡ ይሁንና በጣም ከፍተኛ የሆነ የሽንኩርት ምርት</em><em> (39.5 </em><em>ቶን በሄክታር) በተለመደው መደበኛ የመስኖ ዘዴ የተመዘገበ ሲሆን ተለዋጭ የቦይ መስኖ ውኃ አሰጣጥ (34.3 ቶን በሄክታር) ምርት በማስገኘት በሁለተኛነት ተመዝግቧል፡፡ ሆኖም ከፍተኛ የውኃ አጠቃቀም ውጤታማነት (9.7 ኪ.ግ/ኩዩቢክ ሜትር) የተገኘው በተለዋጭው የመስኖ ዘዴ ምክንያት ሲሆን ይህም ከተለመደው የመስኖ ውኃ አሰጣጥ የውኃ ፍጆታ (5.7 ኪግ/ኩዩቢክ ሜትር) ጋር ሲነፃፀር በጣም ከፍተኛ ነው፡፡ ስለሆነም የሽንኩርት ምርት እና የውኃ ምርታማነት ከተለምዶ የመስኖ ውኃ አሰጣጥ ዘዴ ከ18 እስከ 22 በመቶ ጭማሪ አሳይቷል፡፡ ተለዋጭ የቦይ መስኖ ውኃ አሰጣጥ ዘዴ ደግሞ ከተለመደው እስከ 42 በመቶ የውሃ አጠቃቀምን ምርታማነትን አሳይቷል፡፡ ስለዚህ የመስኖ ውሃ እጥረት ባለባቸው አከባቢዎች ተለዋጭ የቦይ መስኖ ውኃ አሰጣጥ ዘዴ የአፈርን በፕላስቲክ የመሸፈን ዘዴን በማቀናጀት በተለያየ ምክንያት የሚባክነውን የመስኖ ውኃ በከፍተኛ ሁኔታ መቀነስ እንደሚቻል የተገኘው</em> <em>ውጤት</em> <em>ያሳያል፡፡</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>Abstract</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>The aim of this study was to select the most effective water-saving techniques and improve the water use efficiency of irrigated onions under limited agricultural water availability. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three types of furrow irrigation methods and mulch types in three replications. The result revealed that different types of furrow method and mulch type are significantly affected (p&lt;0.01) marketable yield of onion. It has been observed that the significantly highest marketable yield (39.5 t/ha) of onion was recorded due to CFI and followed by AFI method (34.3 t/ha). However, the highest WUE (9.7 kg/m3) was obtained due to AFI method when compared with the CFI method of 5.7 kg/m3. Hence, there was 18 to 22% increment of marketable yield and WUE of the onion by applying mulching over the non-mulching condition and also 42% improvement of WUE by using AFI over the conventional furrow method. Therefore, for maximizing the marketable yield of onion under limiting irrigation water resource, irrigation of onion could be done with AFI method with plastic mulch application to minimize evaporation loss and maximize water productivity of onion for similar agro-ecology and soil type.</em></p> Ashebir Haile Solomon Gezie Gebeyehu Tegenu Copyright (c) 2021 http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals http://www.eiar.gov.et/index.php/journals 2021-01-30 2021-01-30 31 1 145 157