Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p>EJAS is to provide readers with original scientific research, both basic and applied, with far reaching implications of Ethiopian agriculture. Thus, EJAS seeks to publish those papers that are most influential in Ethiopian agriculture and that will significantly advance scientific understanding of agriculture.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> en-US ©EIAR (Kefena Effa (PhD)) (Elizabeth Baslyos) Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Assessment of Genetic Variability and Acid Soil Tolerance in Ethiopian Barley Landraces <p><em>Barley is an important food security and industrial crop in Ethiopia and its production is constrained by several factors including soil acidity stress. Thus, an experiment was conducted using&nbsp; 320 barley genotypes in alpha lattice design with two replications at Holeta, Jeldu and Midakegn testing sites during 2017 and 2018 to assess genetic variability among barley genotypes, to identify barley genotypes tolerant to acid soils using stress indices&nbsp; and to assess the association among stress indices as well as grain yield. Data analysis showed significant (P≤ 0.01) differences between the genotypes and the interactions. Estimates of heritability and genetic advance of the studied traits also revealed potential prospects for genetic improvement of traits of interest. Moreover, the overall mean grain yield under non-stress was 3212.42 kg ha</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em> (1797 to 5936 kg ha</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>) compared to 2347.83 kg ha</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em> (1797 to 5936 kg ha</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>) under acid soil stress indicating a yield reduction of 26.92%. Assessment of acid soil stress indices was also found to be promising in identifying tolerant genotypes with good yield potential. Yield under stress showed a strong positive correlation (r = 0.89</em><em><sup>**</sup></em><em>) with yield under non-stress indicating that some genotypes which performed well under non-stress also showed good performance under acid soil stress. Moreover, STI, GMP, MP, AAI and ATA revealed the existence of a strong positive correlation between themselves and yield performance under both sets. Therefore, high yielding and tolerant barley genotypes were identified for further adaptation studies and simultaneous breeding line identification for subsequent crossing and variety development.&nbsp;</em></p> Wondimu Fekadu, Firew Mekbib, Berhane Lakew, Bettina I.G. Haussmann Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Supply Network on Dairy Technology Adoption: Empirical Evidence from Urban and Peri-urban Dairy Farming Systems of Ethiopia <p><em>This paper aims at investigating how the supply network structure in which dairy farms are embedded influences their technology adoption. In order to consider the effects of network structure embeddedness on technology adoption, farm-level data were collected from 169 randomly selected dairy farms. Social network analysis was used to develop the structural characteristics and Poisson regression model was used to evaluate the influence of the network on technology adoption. The results indicate that the supply network interconnectedness increases farm’s adoption of dairy technology while the supply network density decreases the likelihood of the adoption of dairy technology. Furthermore, the study shows the absorptive capacity positively moderates the effect of supply network accessibility on the likelihood of adoption of dairy technology in dairy farms.</em> <em>This study provides useful insights into the potential role of supply network structural characteristics and the moderating role of absorptive capacity on dairy technology adoption. Thus, in light of these findings, considerations should be given to policies that create an ecosystem of interactions through training, promoting fairs and innovation events to promote rapid dairy technology adoption by dairy farms.</em></p> Tesfaye Solomon, Jema Haji, Dawit Alemu, Adam Bekele Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Susceptibility of African Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: <p><em>The African bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is an indigenous species in Africa and has been reported in the destruction of several crops in general and cotton in particular in Ethiopia. Currently, the management of H. armigera is mainly focused on the use of synthetic pyrethroids, which have already led to resistance selection pressure in several field populations of this insect</em><em>. </em><em>To know the status of different pyrethroid insecticides monitoring was exercised using populations of H. armigera collected from four different areas of the central and southern rift valley. </em><em>This study aimed to screen the susceptibility pattern of four field populations of H. armigera to Aplhacypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin insecticides using </em><em>third-instar </em><em>larva immersion and square dip methods. The selected insecticides had been examined in seven concentration levels. For each concentration, </em><em>thirty-third instar larvae were treated in three replications. An equal number of larvae were treated with tap water </em><em>as control</em><em>. The result indicated that </em><em>Aplhacypermethrin </em><em>displayed high acute toxicity to H. armigera</em> <em>populations</em><em> from </em><em>Werer, Gewane, and Merti Jeju whereas lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin exhibited relatively low toxicity to the populations from Gewane and Werer. </em><em>The LC</em><em><sub>50</sub></em><em> value of the Goffa-Sawla populace became notably exclusive to most of the populations from Werer, Merti Jeju, and Gewane in each bioassay method. The pairwise correlation coefficients of LC</em><em><sub>50</sub></em><em> values indicated that the commercial insecticides were not significantly correlated. </em><em>&nbsp;Therefore, it is concluded that the recorded high levels of deltamethrin resistance in H. armigera from Gewane and Werer</em><em> may lead to the development of resistance to deltamethrin. Further investigation on the tracking of resistance and its management is needed.</em></p> Zemedkun Alemu, Ferdu Azerefegne, Geremew Terefe Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Tigray Highland Lambs Fed Grass Hay and Supplemented with Different Levels of Lablab (Lablab Purpureus) Hay in Northern Ethiopia <p><em>The study was conducted </em><em>for ninety days of feeding trial using </em><em>forty-eight male lambs aged 8-9 months with average body weight of 18.33 ± 0.04 kg </em><em>with the objectives to evaluate the effect of supplementation of different levels of </em><em>Lablab purpureus</em><em> hay on body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Tigray Highland Lambs. The experiment was arranged in four blocks with twelve replicates and four treatments in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were ad libitum feeding of grass hay with no supplement of lablab (T1, control), grass hay supplemented with 1.0 % of BW of lablab (T2), grass hay supplemented with 1.5 % of BW of lablab (T3) and grass hay supplemented with 2.0 % of BW of lablab&nbsp; (T4) </em><em>Lablab purpureus</em><em> hay on dry matter basis. Supplementation increased (P&lt;0.01) total DM intake (</em><em>gday</em><em><sup>-1</sup></em><em>) with values for T1 (781.6), T2 (843.6), T3 (916.9) and T4 (919.7). Daily weight gain, final BW, </em><em>slaughter weight,</em><em> empty BW, hot carcass weight, dressing percent and </em><em>rib-eye muscle area</em><em> were higher (P&lt;0.01) in the supplemented treatments. Sheep on the T3 supplementation had significantly (P&lt;0.05) heavier </em><em>total edible offal</em><em>, whereas those on grass hay alone (T1) exhibited heavier (P&lt;0.05)</em><em> total nonedible offal</em><em>. It was concluded that supplementation of Tigray Highland Lambs with different levels of </em><em>Lablab purpureus</em><em> hay promoted BW gain, favors carcass characteristics, dressing percentage and increased the proportion of edible offal.</em><em> The use of lablab hay in the diets of Tigray Highland Lambs would benefit smallholder farmers to utilize this legume crop and reduce the cost of purchasing expensive commercial and agro-industrial by-products of Crude Protein sources.</em></p> Gebreyohannes Berhane Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Ovum Pick up and In Vitro Embryo Production in Boran and Crossbred Dairy Cattle <p><em>This study was conducted to study the potential of Boran (Bos indicus) and Boran * Holstein Friesian Crossbred cows for non-stimulated transvaginal oocyte collections and in vitro embryo production. Follicular aspirations were done using a vacuum pressure pump and Aloka SSD Prosound-2 ultrasound device. 266 aspirations were made in Boran (n=148) and Crossbred (n=118) cattle. The mean number of punctured follicles for combined collections was 7.68 ± 0.4 for both genotypes. The mean number of recovered oocytes for all collections was 2.98 ± 0.2 for both genotypes. The mean number of punctured follicles was 7.27 ± 0.4 and 8.22 ±. 0.44 for Boran and Crossbred cattle, respectively. The mean number of recovered oocytes was 2.65 ± 0.22 and 3.42 ± 0.26 for Boran and Crossbred cattle, respectively. Differences were observed (p&lt;0.05) in the mean number of punctured follicles and recovered oocytes between the genotypes. The oocyte recovery rate for the total puncture sessions were 45.8%. There was no difference between the breeds regarding the number of quality oocytes collected. Higher numbers (p&lt;0.001) of GIII oocytes were collected in all aspirations compared to GI and GII quality oocytes. The maturation rate of Boran and Crossbred cattle oocytes was 51.65% (47/91) and 56.8% (50/88), respectively. Cleavage rate of Boran and Crossbred cattle oocytes was 40.7% (37/91) and 31.8% (28/88),</em> <em>respectively. There was no difference (p&gt;0.05) in maturation and cleavage rate of oocytes between the genotypes. A total of 21.5% (14/65) of cleaved oocytes developed to morula stage embryos from both genotypes. Relatively similar patterns were observed in maturation process and embryo development between Boran and Crossbred cattle oocytes. OPU/IVF procedures could be used in local and crossbred heifers as an alternative breeders technology options in animal breeding programs to best exploit the genetic potential of local and exotic breeds.&nbsp;&nbsp;</em></p> Jeilu Jemal, Asnaku Funga, Sayid Ali, Mosisa Dire, Tamrat Degefa, Tefera Yilma, Alemayehu Lemma Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Warehousing Strategies Adopted to Contain Maize Post-Harvest Storage Losses in Zimbabwe <p><em>This study examined the warehousing strategies adopted in Zimbabwe to contain maize post-harvest storage losses. The government of Zimbabwe has invested heavily on various schemes aimed at boosting agricultural productivity for maize which is a staple grain for the populace. Despite all these efforts, the challenge of food insecurity has continued to confront Zimbabwe as a nation. On the same note, there have been various reports of maize losses in storage hence the study examined the warehousing strategies adopted to contain maize post-harvest losses in Zimbabwe. Primary data were collected from 225 employees in the Grain Marketing Board of Zimbabwe (GMB), the Ministry of Lands, Agriculture, Fisheries, Water, and Rural Development (MLAFWRD) and agricultural experts through the questionnaire and in depth interviews. The study found out that the Grain Marketing Board has effective warehouse strategies for the containment of maize post-harvest losses. However, while there were effective warehousing strategies, the losses due to the absence of sound post-harvest storage practices remained a concern. The study recommended a change in organisational operational culture to sensitise all human resources involved in maize storage in the Grain Marketing Board of the criticality of reducing maize post-harvest storage losses in Zimbabwe.</em></p> Mudyazhezha Eddine Edson, Robert Musundire, Michael Musanzikwa Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Social Media on Trainers’ Work Performance at the Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, Ilorin, Nigeria <p><em>The study assessed the effects of social media on trainers’ work performance at the Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute,</em><em> Ilorin, Nigeria. Systematic random sampling procedure was employed in the selection of 91 respondents for the study through the use of structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square. Results showed that the frequently used media on a daily basis, were Twitter (83.5%), emails (79.1%), WhatsApp (76%), and Facebook (72%) while Linkedin (29.3%) were used on weekly basis. Trainers used social media to connect with families and friends (64.1%), source for journals (19.2%), collaborative research (18.8%) and as well as for online dating (20.7%). Furthermore, 38.0% of the respondents accessed social media from their personal office (68.4%), individual homes (59.6%) and departmental office (23.2%). Trainers agreed that social media were essential office tools (57.0%), retarded their work (38.2%) as well as wasted their time (11.6%). Chi-square analysis results showed a significant relationship between social media usage and age (R = -0.212, p≤0.05) as well as work experience (R= -0.39, p≤0.005). Social media has both positive and negative effects on trainers’ work performance. Social media usage should be controlled during working hours to improve the work performance of trainers at ARMTI.&nbsp;</em></p> Yahaya A.A, Alalade O.A, Ajiboye G.E, Omonayin M.A., Yusuf A.O. Copyright (c) 0 Tue, 07 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000