Spasmolytic Activity of the Aqueous Root Extract of Solanum incanum, Solanaceae
Solanum incanum L. (Solanaceae) is an annual herb that is used in the traditional medicine of Ethiopia for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. The spasmolytic activity of aqueous root extract of S. incanum was assessed on contractions of isolated guinea pig ileum, induced by acetylcholine, and compared with the effect of atropine. The aqueous root extract of S. incanum inhibited the response to acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner (EC= 0.215 mg/ml) similar to atropine which indicated that the extract is a relaxant of guinea pig isolated ileum. In addition to its antispasmodic activity in vitro, the extract inhibited charcoal travel in mice intestine by 36.28, 51.45, 52.93 and 38.53 percent in doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. As the inhibition of contractile activity of the ileum is the base of the treatment of some gastrointestinal disorders such as colic, S. incanum may have clinical benefits for treatment of these conditions. Phytochemical screening of the root of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. The50 alkaloids in the plant might be responsible for the anti-cholinergic activities observed. Results of acute toxicity study showed that the mice did not show any sign of conventional toxicity when administered doses of up to 15,000 mg/kg body weight orally.
Keywords: Anti-spasmodic; Crude extract; Solanum incanum.
Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: pp. 137-146